Asma'u bint Abi Bakr

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Asma'u bint Abi Bakr
أسماء بنت أبي بكر.png
Sunan Asma'u a Salam Rubutun Islamic
Sunan yanka أسماء بنت أبي بکر
Haihuwa 595 AD
Mecca, Ƙasar larabawa
Mutuwa 692 (AH 73) (shekara 97)
Makka, Umayyad Caliphate
Shahara akan Being a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, daughter of Abu Bakr and sister of Aisha
Title Dhat an-Nitaqayn
Uwar gida(s) Zubayr ibn al-Awam
Yara Abd Allah, Urwah,Al-Munzir,Asim,Al-Muhajir,Khadija,Umm al-Hasan,A’isha
Iyayes Abubakar (father)
Qutaylah bint Abd-al-Uzza (mother)
Dangi
Iyali Banu Taym (Family tree of Abu Bakr)

Asma 'Bint Abi Bakr ( Larabci: أسماء بنت أبي بكر‎; c.595-692CE), tana ɗaya daga cikin sahabban Annabi Muhammad (S A W) kuma 'yar uwar matarsa ta uku Aisha. Ana kallonta a matsayin ɗaya daga cikin fitattun masu kishin Islama, kamar yadda ta taimaki Annabi a lokacin da yake wahala daga hijra daga Makka zuwa Madina.

Iyali[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ita 'yar Abubakar ce. Mahaifiyarta ita ce Qutaylah bint Abd-al-Uzza, kuma ita ce cikakkiyar ‘yar uwar Abdullah bn Abi Bakr . ‘Yan uwanta mata su ne A’isha da Ummu Kulthum bint Abi Bakr, 'yan uwanta kuma su ne Abdul-Rahman bn Abi Bakr da Muhammad bn Abi Bakr . Tana kuma da uwa daya daga kabilar Kinana, Umm Ruman bint Amir, kuma dan uwanta, al-Tufayl ibn al-Harith al-Azdi. [1] Malaman tarihi Ibn Kathir da Ibn Asakir sun kawo wata al'ada cewa Asma'u ta girmi Aisha da shekaru 10; [2] amma a cewar Al-Dhahabi, bambancin shekarun ya kasance shekaru goma sha uku zuwa goma sha tara. [3]

Tarihin rayuwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An saki iyayen Asma kafin Annabi Muhammad (S A W) ya fara wa'azin addinin Islama . [4] Saboda wannan ta kasance a gidan mahaifinta. [5]

Addinin Musulunci a Makka: 610–622[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Asma tana ɗaya daga cikin sahabbai na farkon waɗanda suka karɓi Musulunci ana jera goma sha biyar a kan Ibn Ishaq ya jerin wadanda suka karbi Musulunci a bisa gayyatar da Abu Bakr. [6]

Lokacin da Annabi Muhammad (S A W) da Abubakar suka nemi mafaka a cikin kogon Thawr da ke wajen Makka a kan hijirarsu zuwa Madina a shekara ta 622, Asma ta kasance tana kai musu abinci a cikin duhun Dare. Lokacin da mutanen biyu suka bar kogon, Asma ta ɗaura kayan da bel ɗinta na mayafinta, kuma saboda wannan ƙwarewar da ta samu daga Annabi Muhammad (S A W) ya mata taken Dhat an-Nitaqayn, ma'anar "Ita ce ta mai maɗauri biyu".

An aurar da ita ga Al- Zubayr bn al-Awwam jim kadan kafin Hijira .   ] Ta kasance tare da shi a Madina bayan 'yan watanni. [7]

Madina: 623 zuwa gaba[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Asma ta sami sabbin makwabtanta da "mata masu gaskiya". Ta kasance mara ƙarfi wato talaka mai yin burodi, kuma sun kasance suna yi mata abinci. [7] Ita da Al-Zubayr sun isa Madina tare da "ba dukiya ko bawa ko wata mallaka a cikin ƙasa banda dokinsa." Asma ta kasance tana ciyar da dokin, tana fitar da shi waje kiwo tana nika masa dabino. Annabi Muhammad (S A W) ya bai wa Al-Zubayr wasu dabinai a Madina, kuma Asma ta kasance tana daukar ƙwandon Dabino a kanta daga gonar zuwa gidansu, tafiyar da ke da nisan mil biyu. Wata rana ta wuce da Annabi Muhammad, wanda ya so ya rage mata hanya zuwa gida a kan raƙumi, amma saboda tsoron kishin mijinta, sai ta ƙi hawa da kuma tawali'u ta ƙi. Al-Zubayr ya gaya mata, duk da haka, cewa ya kamata ta karɓa maimakon ɗaukar irin wannan nauyi a ƙafa. Lokacin da Abubakar ya kawo musu baiwa daga karshe, Asma ta ce "kamar dai ya sake ni ne."

Mahaifiyarta Qutayla bint Abduluzza ta kawo mata ziyara a Madina, tana kawo kyaututtukan dabino, ghee da ganyen mimosa. Asma ba za ta yarda da ita ta kaita gidan ba ko karbar kyaututtukan har sai ta tura ‘yar uwarta Aisha don ta yi shawara da Annabi Muhammad (S A W). Sai Annabi Muhammad (S A W) ya ba da shawarar cewa daidai ne ga Asma ta nuna wa mahaifiyarta karimci ” [4]

Asma da Al-Zubayr suna da yara takwas.

  1. Abdullah
  2. Al-Munzir.
  3. Asim.
  4. Al-Muhajir.
  5. Khadija.
  6. Umm al-Hasan.
  7. A'isha.
  8. Urwa, babban jigon watsa labarai na ahadith . [8]

Asma ba ta ji dadi ba a rayuwar aurenta, domin Al-Zubayr ya kasance "mafi kishin mutane" kuma yana da "wuya a kanta." [7] Ya auri karin mata uku a Madina, kuma "duk lokacin da Zubayr ya yi fushi da dayanmu, yakan buge ta har sanda ta karye." Ta kai karar mahaifinta, wanda ya shawarce ta: “Yata, ki yi haƙuri. Idan mace ta kasance da miji na gari kuma ya mutu kuma ba ta sake yin aure ba bayansa, za a sake haɗuwa da su a gidan Aljanna. ” Wata kuma daga cikin matan Al-Zubayr, Ummu Kulthum bint Uqba, ita ma ta koka da "taurin zuciya" kuma "ta zalunce shi" da ya sake ta bayan 'yan watanni kawai. [9]

Daga karshe Al-Zubayr ya sake Asma "kuma ya dauki Urwa, wanda yake saurayi a lokacin." [10]

Yakin Yarmouk[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yaƙin Yarmouk a shekara ta 636 ana ɗaukarsa ɗayan fitattun yaƙoƙa a tarihin soja. Rumawa sun fi Musulmai yawa amma, tare da taimakon mata da samari daga cikinsu,suka kori Daular Byzantine daga Siriya.

Mata kamar Hind bint Utbah da Asma bint Abi Bakr sun taimaka a Yaƙin Yarmouk . Tarihin farko ya yaba wa bajintar Asma a can.[ana buƙatar hujja] Al-Waqidi ya rubuta cewa matan Kuraishawa sun fi maza fada sosai.Duk lokacin da maza suka gudu,matan suna fada,suna tsoron cewa idan suka sha kashi,Romawa za su bautar da su.

Adawar Asma ga Yazid[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Dan Asma, Abdullah, da dan uwansa, Qasim bn Muhammad bn Abu Bakr, duk jikokin Abubakar ne kuma dan uwan Aisha.Lokacin da aka kashe Hussein ibn Ali a Karbala,Abdullah, wanda abokin Hussein ne,ya tattara mutanen Makka ya yi gaba da Yazid . Lokacin da ya ji wannan,sai Yazid ya sa aka yi masa sarka ta azurfa aka aika zuwa Makka da nufin a sa Walid bin Utbah ya kamo Abdullahi bn al-Zubayr da shi.A cikin Makka da dangin Madina Hussein suna da tushe na tallafi mai ƙarfi,kuma mutane suna shirye su tashi tsaye don su. Sauran dangin Hussein sun koma Madina. A ƙarshe Abdullah ya ƙarfafa ikonsa ta hanyar tura gwamna zuwa Kufa. Ba da daɗewa ba Abdullah ya kafa ikonsa a Iraki,kudancin Arabiya, mafi yawan ɓangarorin Siriya da wasu sassan Misira.

Yazid ya yi kokarin kawo karshen tawayen Abdullah ta hanyar mamaye Hejaz, kuma ya kwace Madina bayan yakin al-Harrah wanda ya biyo bayan kewaye Makka. Mutuwar bazatarsa ta ƙare kamfen ɗin kuma ta jefa Umayyawa cikin rudu, tare da yaƙin basasa daga ƙarshe ya ɓarke. Bayan yakin basasar Umayyawa ya ƙare, Abdullah ya rasa Masar da duk abin da yake da shi na Siriya ga Marwan I. Wannan, haɗe tare da tawayen Khawarijawa a Iraki, ya rage yankinsa zuwa Hejaz kawai.

Daga karshe Abdullahi bn al-Zubayr ya sha kashi a hannun Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan, wanda ya tura Al-Hajjaj bin Yusuf . Hajjaj daga Ta'if yake, kamar yadda waɗanda suka kashe Hussein suka kasance[ana buƙatar hujja] . Abdullah ya tambayi mahaifiyarsa Asma abin da ya kamata yayi, sannan ya tafi ya dauki Hajjaj. Sojojin Hajjaj sun ci nasara kuma Abdullah ya mutu a fagen fama a cikin 692. Rashin nasarar Abdullahi ibn al-Zubayr ya sake dawo da ikon Umayyawa akan Daular.

Bayan wasu 'yan shekaru a shekara ta 740 sai mutanen Kufa suka kira Zayd bn Ali, jikan Hussein, zuwa Kufa. Zaydis yi imani da cewa a cikin Sa'a ta ƙarshe zaid ya kuma tabbatar da cewa mutanen kufa sun ci amanar shi,. " [11] [12] [13] [14]

Asma ta rasu kwanaki kadan bayan danta wanda aka kashe a ranar Talata 17 Jumada al-Ula a shekara ta 73 bayan hijira ". [15] Asma ta rasu tana da shekaru 100 a duniya. [16] [17] [18]

Asma tana cikin mutane goma sha bakwai na farko da suka fara karɓa musulunci. Kuma ta girma ƴar'uwa Aisha da shekaru goma, ta kuma rasu bayan kwanaki goma da rasuwar ɗanta bayan tana da shekaru 100 kuma dukkan haƙoranta lafiya su ƙalau acikin shekara ta 73 AH.[19]

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Muhammad ibn Saad, Tabaqat, vol. 8. Translated by Bewley, A. (1995). The Women of Madina, p. 193. London: Ta-Ha Publishers.
  2. Ibn Hajar Asqalani, Tahdhib al-Tahdhib, p. 654, Arabic, Bab fi’l-nisa’, al-harfu’l-alif
  3. Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Dhahabi. Siyar a'lam al-nubalaa (The Lives of Noble Figures) vol. 2 #143.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Bewley/Saad p. 178.
  5. Al-Tabari vol. 39 p. 172.
  6. Guillaume, A. (1955). A Translation of Ishaq’s Sirat Rasul Allah, p. 116. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 Bewley/Saad p. 177.
  8. Bewley/Saad p. 176.
  9. Bewley/Saad p. 163.
  10. Bewley/Saad p. 179.
  11. Islam re-defined: an intelligent man’s guide towards understanding Islam, p. 54
  12. Rebellion and Violence in Islamic Law By Khaled Abou El Fadl page 72
  13. Al-Tabari, The waning of the Umayyad Caliphate, Carole Hillenbrand, 1989, pp. 37, 38.
  14. The Encyclopedia of Religion Vol.16, Mircea Eliade, Charles J. Adams, Macmillan, 1987, p243. "They were called "Rafida by the followers of Zayd”
  15. Bewley/Saad 8, p. 180.
  16. Ibn Kathir, Al-Bidayah wa’l-nihayah, Vol. 8, p. 372, Dar al-fikr al-`arabi, Al-jizah, 1933
  17. Ibn Hajar Asqalani, Tahdhib al-Tahdhib, p. 654, Arabic, Bab fi’l-nisa’, al-harfu’l-alif, Lucknow
  18. Siyar A’lama-nubala, Al-Zahabi, Vol. 2, pg 289, Arabic, Muassasatu-risalah, 1992
  19. Al_Qari, Ali. Merghah Almafatih : Sharh Meshkat Almasabih. p. 331.