Zubayr ibn al-Awam

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'The disciple'
Zubayr ibn al-Awam
تخطيط اسم الزبير بن العوام.png
Arabic calligraphy of Zubayr ibn al-Awwam's name
Haihuwa 594
Mecca, Hejaz, (present-day Saudi Arabia)
Mutuwa Template:Death year and age
Basra, Iraq, Rashidun Caliphate
Wasu sunaye

Abu Abdullah Zubayr ibn al-Awwam ibn Khuwaylid ibn Asad ibn Abdul Uzza ibn Qusay

Template:Infobox military person
Iyayes Awwam ibn Khuwaylid (father)
Safiyya bint Abd al-Muttalib (mother)
Dangi Ja'far (cousin)
Ali (cousin)

Az-Zubair dan Al-Awam ( Larabci: الزبير بن العوام بن خويلد‎  ; 594–656) dan'uwa ne kuma aboki ga Annabin Musulunci Muhammadu (S A W) kuma yana Daya daga cikin farkon wayanda suka musulunta . Shima yana daga cikin sahabbai goma da Annabin tsira yayi musu bushara da aljanna . Ya zama Daya daga cikin jagororin siyasa da soja na al'umma bayan mutuwar Muhammad. Az-Zubayr ya mutu a Yakin Rakumi .

Iyali da yarinta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An haifi Al-Zubayr a garin Makka a shekarar 594. [1] :75

Mahaifinsa shi ne Al-Awam bn Khuwaylid na dangin Asad na kabilar Kuraishawa, yana mai da Al-Zubayr dan'uwan Khadijah . Mahaifiyarsa ita ce kanwar Annabi Muhammad (S A W), Safiyyah bint 'Abd al-Muttalib, saboda haka Al-Zubayr shine dan uwan Muhammad na farko. [1] :75 Yana da yaya biyu, Sa'ib da Abdul Kaaba; wani dan uwa, Safi ibn Al-Harith, wanda ya fito daga dangin Umayya; [2] :29 da wasu kannen uba, ciki har da Hind bint Al-Awwam, matar Zayd ibn Haritha . :32

Tun yana saurayi, Al-Zubayr ya yi yaƙi da wani babban mutum kuma ya buge shi da ƙarfi sosai har sai da hannun mutumin ya karye. Safiyyah, wacce ke da ciki a lokacin, dole ta dauki mutumin zuwa gida. Lokacin da masu wucewa suka tambayi abin da ya faru, sai ta ce musu, “Ya yi yaƙi da Al-Zubayr. Shin kun sami Al-Zubayr mai taushi kamar cuku ko dabino ko cike da tagulla? " Hakan ne lokacin da suka san cewa zai girma ya zama mai ƙarfi yayin yaƙi. [1] :765

Al-Awam ya mutu tun Al-Zubayr yana saurayi. Mahaifiyarsa ta sha duka sosai. A lokacin da aka ce mata, “Kun kashe shi! Kun buge zuciyarsa. Shin za ku halakar da yaron? "Ta amsa," Na buge shi don ya zama mai hankali kuma ya kasance mai ƙarfin gwiwa a cikin yaƙin " [1] :76

An bayyana Al-Zubayr da matsakaiciyar tsayi, siriri, mai launi-launi, da gashi, duk da siririn gemu. Gashin kansa ya rataya zuwa kafaɗunsa, kuma bai shafa shi ba bayan ya zama fari. [1] :80

Musulunta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Al-Zubayr ya kasance ɗayan mutane biyar na farko da suka karɓi Musulunci daga Abubakar, [3] :115 kuma an ce shi ne na huɗu ko na biyar manya da suka musulunta. [1] :76

Yana daga cikin farkon mutum goma sha biyar da suka yi hijira zuwa Abisiniya a shekara ta 615, [3] :146 kuma ya koma can a cikin 616. :147 Yayin da yake cikin Abisiniya, tawaye ga Negus (Sarki) ya ɓarke. Negus ya sadu da 'yan tawaye a gabar Kogin Nilu. Musulmai, cikin tsananin damuwa game da rasa mai kare su, sun wakilta Al-Zubayr ya zama mai kawo musu labarai. Taimakon wani farin ruwa mai iska, ya yi iyo a Kogin Nilu har sai da ya kai ga inda ake yaƙi. Ya kalli har sai da Negus ya ci nasara akan 'yan tawaye, sannan ya sake iyo ya koma kan musulmai. Ya tashi sama yana daga tufafinsa ya sanar, "Hurray, Negus ya ci nasara kuma Allah ya ruguza maƙiyansa kuma ya tabbatar da shi a ƙasarsa!" Musulmi suka yi murna. :153

Al-Zubayr yana cikin wadanda suka koma Makka a shekara ta 619 saboda sun ji cewa mutanen Makka sun musulunta. "Amma da suka kusanci Makka, sai suka gano cewa rahoton karya ne don haka suka shiga garin karkashin kariyar wani dan kasa ko ta hanyar sata." [3] :167–168 Duk da haka, Al-Zubayr bai ambaci sunan mai tsaron nasa ba.

Al-Zubayr ya shiga cikin ƙaura baki ɗaya zuwa Madina a cikin 622. Da farko ya sauka tare da Al-Mundhir bn Muhammad. Ana takaddama game da wanda ya zama “dan’uwan” Al-Zubayr a Musulunci: hadisai daban-daban masu suna Abdullah ibn Masood, Talha bin Ubaydullah, Kaab bin Malik da Salama ibn Salama. [1] :76–77 [3] :234 Muhammad ya ba shi babban fili don ya gina gidansa da kuma tallafin wasu itacen dabino. :77 A 625 an sake ba Al-Zubayr ƙarin dabinai daga ƙasar ƙabilar Nadir da aka kora. :78

Ayyukan soja karkashin Muhammad (S A W)[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An ce Al-Zubayr ya haɗu da dukkan balaguron soja na Muhammad, galibi sanye da rawani mai launin rawaya.

An ruwaito shi ya ce:

"Wallahi, Manzon Allah ﷺ bai yi wata tafiya ba ko wani balaguro face na kasance daga gare ta." [4]

Badar[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A Yaƙin Badar an aike shi a matsayin ɗan leƙen asiri kuma ya kama ɗan leƙen asirin Makka. Sannan ya shiga yakin ya kashe Ubayda bn Sa'id na Umayya. Yana sanye da rawani mai launin rawaya a wannan yaƙin. [5]

Uhudu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A yakin Uhud ya ba da kansa ya dauki takobin Muhammad "da damarta," wanda shi ne "ya buge abokan gaba da shi har sai ya lankwasa," kuma ya kasance "mai matukar rauni" lokacin da Muhammad ya ki amincewa da tayin nasa. [3] :373 Yana tsaye kusa da matan Makka mai guduwa har ya ga duwawun Hind bint Utbah . :379 Amma a wannan lokacin ne yaƙin ya juya; Al-Zubayr yana daya daga cikin dinbin mutanen da suka tsaya a gefen Muhammad lokacin da musulmai daga nasu biyun suka tsere kuma suka bi shi zuwa gawar. "Ya kasance tare da shi a yakin Uhudu kuma ya yi masa bai'a har zuwa mutuwa." [1] :78 :381

Mahararen[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A yayin yakin yakin mahara, Al-Zubayr ya hau dokin . Ya ba da kansa don ya kawo labarin ƙabilar Qurayza ga Muhammad, wanda ya amsa, "Kowane Annabi yana da almajiri, kuma almajiri na shi ne Al-Zubayr." [1] :79

Khaybara[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin 628 Al-Zubayr ya shiga cikin balaguron zuwa Khaybar kuma ya amsa wa Yasir kalubalen Bayahude game da faɗa ɗaya. Mahaifiyarsa Safiya ta tambayi Muhammad, "Shin zai kashe ɗana?" kuma Muhammad ya tabbatar mata, "A'a, dan ku zai kashe shi, insha Allah." Al-Zubayr ya inganta yana karantawa:

"Khaybar, know that I am Zabbar,
chief of a people no cowardly runaways,
the son of those who defends their glory,
the son of princes.
O Yasir let not all the unbelievers deceive you,
for all of them are like a slowly moving mirage."

Sun gwabza, kuma Al-Zubayr ya kashe Yasir. Bayan haka, musulmai sun yi bayani a kan yadda takobi ya kasance mai kaifi; Al-Zubayr ya amsa da cewa ba ta yi kaifi ba amma ya yi amfani da ita da karfi. [3] :513–514

Bayan da musulmai suka ci Al-Qamus, sai aka kawo baitul malin nan, Kinana, ga Muhammad, amma ya ki bayyana inda aka boye kudadensu. Koda yake, daga baya Muhammad bn Maslama ya yanke kan Kinana, don ramuwar gayya ga dan uwansa Mahmud, [3] :515 [6] :330–331 wanda aka kashe a yaƙin kwanakin baya. :511 :322–324

Daga baya an sanya Al-Zubayr daga cikin mashahurai goma sha takwas waɗanda kowannensu ke kula da rabon wani rukunin ganima. [3] :522

Makka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A watan Disamba na 629, a jajibirin cin nasarar Makka, Muhammad ya aika Al-Zubayr da Ali don su tare wani dan leken asiri wanda ke dauke da wasika zuwa ga Kuraishawa. Lokacin da suka kasa samun wasikar a cikin kayanta, sai suka fahimci cewa tabbas ta ɓoye ta ne a kan nata, sai suka yi mata magana a kai. Daga nan dan leken asirin ya fito da wasikar, wacce ta boye a cikin gashinta, sai Al-Zubayr da Ali suka dawo da ita ga Muhammad, suna da yakinin cewa yanzu Musulmai za su kwace Makka da mamaki. [3] :545

Lokacin da Muhammad ya shiga Makka, Al-Zubayr ya riƙe ɗayan tutocin ƙaura uku na Muhajirai [1] :78 kuma ya umurci reshen hagu na sojojin da suka ci yaƙi. [3] :549 Ya kuma yi yaƙin Hunayn . :670

Aiki bayan Muhammad[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin sati na uku na watan yuli na shekara ta 632, halifa Abubakar ya tara runduna galibi daga Banu Hashim (dangin Muhammad) don kare Madina daga mamayar da ridda ta yi daga sojojin ridda na Tulayha, wanda ya ce shi annabi ne. Rundunar ta hada da manyan mutane kamar Zubayr da Talha bn Ubaidullah. An nada kowannensu a matsayin kwamandan kashi daya bisa uku na sabuwar rundunar da aka tsara. Suna da rawar da suka taka yayin Yaƙe-yaƙe na Ridda ; duk da haka, ba su fuskanci wani yanayin faɗa ba.

Al-Zubayr shi ne kwamandan filin da ya fi samun nasara a lokacin da Musulmai suka ci Masar da yaki a karkashin Khalifa Umar . [7] Ya yi umurni da runduna a yakin Yarmouk a shekara ta 636, [8] sannan a 640 ya ba da umarnin karfafa wadanda aka aika zuwa Amr bn al-As a Misira . [9]

Lokacin da Umar yake mutuwa a shekara ta 644, ya zabi Al-Zubayr da wasu mutane biyar don su zabi Khalifa na gaba. :71 Sun zabi Uthman yadda ya kamata, :72 a lokacin halifancin wane. Al-Zubayr ya kasance mai taka tsantsan dangane da kawo hadisai game da Muhammad duk da cewa ya kasance yana cikin kamfaninsa koyaushe. Kamar yadda ya bayyana wa dansa Abdullahi, "Na ji Manzon Allah (S A W) yana cewa: Duk wanda ya yi karya a kaina to ya tanadi ymazauni a cikin Wuta" [1] :80

Matan sa da yara[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Al-Zubayr ya yi aure har sau takwas kuma ya sami yara ashirin. [1] :75

  1. Asma bint Abi Bakr . Sun yi aure kafin Hijira ta 622 kuma sun sake aure lokacin da Urwa ke ƙarami, watau a kusan 645. [2] :179
    1. Abdullah
    2. Al-Mundhir
    3. Asim
    4. Al-Muhajir
    5. Khadija Babba
    6. Umm Al-Hasan
    7. Aisha
    8. Urwa
  2. Ummu Kulthum bint Uqba ta dangin Umayya. Sun yi aure a 629, amma "ta ƙi shi," kuma an sake su cikin 'yan watanni. Bayan haihuwar 'yarsu, Ummu Kulthum ta auri Abdur Rahman bin Awf . :163
    1. Zainab
  3. Al-Halal bint Qays na kabilar Asad.
    1. Khadija Karami
  4. Umm Khalid Ama bint Khalid daga dangin Umayya. Tana ɗaya daga cikin ƙaura waɗanda suka dawo daga Abaisiniya a shekara ta 628. :164
    1. Khalid
    2. Amr
    3. Habiba
    4. Sawda
    5. Hind
  5. Ar-Rabbab bint Unayf na kabilar Kalb.
    1. Mus'ab
    2. Hamza
    3. Ramla
  6. Tumadir bint Al-Asbagh na kabilar Kalb, bazawara ce ga Abdur Rahman bn Awf. Al-Zubayr ya sake ta ne kwana bakwai kacal da yin auren. Ta kasance tana gaya wa wasu matan cewa, "Idan dayanku ya yi aure, kada ya yaudare ta da kwana bakwai bayan abin da Zubairu ya yi mini." Ba ta, fadada kan yanayin "yaudarar" ba.
  7. Ummu Ja'far Zainab bint Marthad ta ƙabilar Thaalaba.
    1. Ubayda
    2. Ja'far
  8. Atiqa bint Zayd daga dangin Adi, bazawara ga Omar .

Mutanen Madina sun kasance suna cewa:

"Duk wanda yake son shahada to ya auri Atiqa bint Zayd . An fara auren ta ga Abdullahi bn Abi Bakr kuma ya yi shahada. Bayan haka, ta auri Umar bn Khattab kuma ya yi shahada. Bayan haka, ta auri Zubair kuma ya yi shahada ”. [10]

Matan Al-Zubayr sun yi korafin cewa yana da "wani tsauri game da mata". Ummu Kulthum ta tambaye shi kai tsaye don saki, lokacin da ya ƙi, sai ta yaudare shi a ciki ta hanyar yin lalata da shi yayin da yake cikin hidimar wankan janaba ga sallah. Al-Zubayr ya koka da cewa, "Ta yaudare ni, Allah Ya yi mata wayo!" Muhammad ya shawarce shi da ya sake neman aurenta, amma Al-Zubayr ya fahimci cewa, "Ba za ta sake dawowa wurina ba." Atiqa kawai ta yarda ta aure shi ne da sharadin bazai taɓa doke ta ba. [11]

Yaƙin Rakumi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kabarin Zubairu bn al-Awam a Basra, Iraki

An kashe Uthman a cikin 656. Al-Zubayr yana da dalilin fatan cewa za a zaɓe shi a matsayin Kalifa na gaba, duk da cewa ya san cewa tsohon abokinsa Talha shi ma mai ƙarfi ne. [12] Amma an zabi Ali, [13] :166,176 zuwa muhawarar matar Muhammadu mai takaba Aisha . [14] :52 Daga nan Al-Zubayr ya hadu da Aisha da Talha a Makka, suna masu cewa ya yi wa Ali mubaya'a ne kawai da takobi.

Al-Zubayr, Talha da Aisha sun yi kira da a rama mutuwar Uthman, yayin da Ali ya yarda, ya ce shi bai iya yin haka ba a lokacin. [14] :18 Daga nan kawayen suka tattara sojoji suka yi tattaki zuwa Basra . A cikin Basrah kuwa, sun kayar da Gwamna kuma sun mamaye garin, :69–70,76 [15] suna kashe duk wanda aka samu da hannu a kisan Uthman. :73 Lokacin da aka kalubalance su kan dalilin da yasa yanzu suka damu da Uthman alhalin sun nuna masa kiyayya sosai a lokacin rayuwarsa, sai suka ce: "Mun so Uthman ya biya mana bukatunmu. Ba mu so a kashe shi. ” :69

Haƙiƙa Ali yayi kama da mutumin da yake zargin ƙiyayya ga kansa, don ba da daɗewa ba ya shiga Basra tare da ƙwararrun sojoji dubu ashirin. [14] :121 Tsawon kwanaki, ana tattaunawa, saboda bangarorin biyu sun tabbatar da cewa suna so ne kawai su ga an yi adalci. :122,129,130,132,152 Amma a ranar 7 ga Disamba 656 tashin hankali ya barke. Mayakan A’isha sun kashe dan sakon Ali, kuma Ali ya ba shi amsa, "Yaƙi yanzu ya dace, don haka ku yaƙi su!" :126–127 Don haka

Al-Zubayr kuwa, ya rasa sha'awar yin yaƙin. Ya ce Ali ya yi magana da shi a waje yayin tattaunawar kan cewa su 'yan uwan juna ne, amma dan nasa ya zarge shi da tsoron sojojin Ali. Al-Zubayr ya bar fagen daga yayin da A’isha ta ci gaba da jagorantar dakarunta. Wani mutum mai suna Amr bn Jurmuz ya yanke shawarar bin diddigin motsin sa kuma ya bi shi zuwa wani filin da ke kusa. Lokacin sallah yayi don haka, bayan kowannensu ya tambayi dan uwansa abin da yake yi a can, sai suka amince da yin addu'ar. Yayin da Al-Zubayr yake sujada, Amr bn Jurmuz ya soke shi a wuya ya kashe shi. [14] :111–112,116,126,158–159

Wasiyya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin wasiyyarsa Al-Zubayr ya bar gida ga duk 'yan matansa da aka sake. [1] :80 Ya bar kashi ɗaya cikin uku na dukiyarsa a wasiyya kuma ya umurci ɗansa Abdullah da ya sayar da sauran dukiyarsa don biyan bashinsa, yana mai roƙon Allah idan ba za a iya biyan ɗaya ba. Abdullah ya gano cewa bashin sun kai 1,200,000, :81 mai yiwuwa a cikin dirhami . Kodayake Abdullah ya shiga wata matsala don warware dukkan basussukan, amma zawarawan Al-Zubayr su huɗu suka gaji 1,100,000 kowannensu, ya bar sama da 30,000,000 da za a raba tsakanin 'ya'yansa. :81–82

Al-Zubayr bn Al-Awam yana daya daga cikin musulmai goma da Annabi Muhammad (S A W) ya lamunce musu da Aljanna tun suna raye. [16] [17]

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Jerin balaguron Muhammadu

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 Muhammad ibn Saad. Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir vol. 3. Translated by Bewley, A. (2013). The Companions of Badr. London: Ta-Ha Publishers.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Muhammad ibn Saad. Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir vol. 8. Translated by Bewley, A. (1995). The Women of Madina. London: Ta-Ha Publishers.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 Muhammad ibn Ishaq. Sirat Rasul Allah. Translated by Guillaume, A. (1955). The Life of Muhammad. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  4. Mustadrak Ala Sahihayn
  5. Mustadarak Ala Sahihayn
  6. Muhammad ibn Umar al-Waqidi. Kitab al-Maghazi. Translated by Faizer, R., Ismail, A., and Tayob, A. K. (2011). The Life of Muhammad. Oxford & New York: Routledge.
  7. Futun Misr wa al Maghrib, p. 61; Qa’dat Fath al Sham wa Misr, p. 208-226
  8. Futun Misr wa al Maghrib, p. 61; Qa’dat Fath al Sham wa Misr, p. 208-226
  9. Futun Misr wa al Maghrib, p. 61; Qa’dat Fath al Sham wa Misr, p. 208-226
  10. Tabaqat Al-Kubra, Ibn Sa'd
  11. Ibn Hajar, Al-Isaba vol. 4 p. 687, cited in Abbott, N. (1942, 1985). Aishah - the Beloved of Mohammed, p. 88. London: Al-Saqi Books.
  12. Al-Tabari, Tarikh al-Rusul wa’l-Muluk. Translated by Humphreys, R. S. (1990). Vol. 15, The Crisis of the Early Caliphate, pp. 238-239. Albany: State University of New York Press.
  13. Jalal ad-Din Abdulrahman Al-Suyuti, Tarikh al-Khulafa. Translated by Jarrett, H. S. (1881). History of the Caliphs. Calcutta: The Asiatic Society.
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 Al-Tabari, Tarikh al-Rusul wa’l-Muluk. Translated by Brockett, A. (1997). Vol. 16, The Community Divided. Albany: State University of New York Press.
  15. Muir, W. (1924). The Caliphate: its Rise, Decline, and Fall from Original Sources, 2nd Ed., pp. 243-244. Edinburgh: John Grant.
  16. Abu Dawud 40:4632.
  17. Tirmidhi #3747.
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