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Sinima a Sudan

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Sinima a Sudan

Sinima a Sudan tana nufin masana'antar finafinai ta ƙasar Sudan. duka biyu da tarihi, kazalika da wasu mutane a cikin wannan nau'i na ɗauɗauka al'adu na Sudan da kuma ta tarihi daga marigayi karni na sha tara, dole. An fara shi da sinimomi yayin kasancewar Turawan mulkin mallaka na Burtaniya a cikin 1897 kuma ya haɓaka tare da ci gaba a fasahar fim a ƙarni na ashirin.

Bayan samun ƴancin kai a shekarar 1956, an kuma kafa zamanin farko na shirin fim na' yan asalin Sudan da kuma shirya fina -finai, amma matsalolin kudi da raunin da gwamnatin Islama ta haifar ya ragu da sinima daga shekarun 1990 zuwa gaba. Tun lokacin da 2010s, da dama manufofin da kasar Sudan yan fim biyu a Khartoum, kazalika da a Sudan sassan duniya sun nuna an ƙarfafa Tarurrukan na harkar fim da kuma jama'a sha'awa cikin fim nuna a Sudan.

Cinema a Sudan ta mulkin mallaka

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Hoto da taken taken game da Coliseum cinema a sararin samaniya a Khartoum, Sudan, 1935
Logo na Sudan Cinema Co Ltd., c. 1940

Sudan ta nuna wasu fina-finai na farko a Afirka da za a yi a Masarautar Burtaniya: John Benett-Stanford, soja ya juya wakilin yaki, ya harbi hotunan sojojin Burtaniya a cikin 1897, kafin Yaƙin Omdurman . An kuma tsara wannan ɗan gajeren fim ɗin da shiru kuma an sayar da shi a Burtaniya a ƙarƙashin taken Alarming Kamfanin Sarauniya na Masu Grenadiers Guards a Omdurman . A cikin shekarar 1912, hukumomin mulkin mallaka na Burtaniya sun yi shirin fim na ziyarar Sarki George V a ƙasar, kuma sun nuna shi a cikin gidan wasan kwaikwayo na sararin samaniya a Khartoum . A farkon shekarun karni na 20, masu shirya fina -finai na farko sun bi Kogin Nilu daga Alkahira zuwa Khartoum da bayanta, suna harbin fina -finai don masu sauraro masu son sani a gida, kamar yadda a cikin shirin gaskiya da ke nuna Ubangiji Kitchener yana duba sojojinsa a Khartoum. [1]

Farawa a ƙarshen shekarun 1920, ƴan kasuwa na Girka, waɗanda su ma suna cikin masu ɗaukar hoto na farko a Sudan, sun kafa gidajen sinima don fina -finan shiru a Khartoum . Daga baya sauran ‘yan kasuwa na cikin gida sun kafa Kamfanin Cinema na Sudan, wanda ya bude gidajen sinima a wasu garuruwa kuma ya rarraba fina -finan da aka shigo da su. [2] Mujallar El Fajr tana da shafuka na mako -mako kan kimiyya, adabi da fina -finai.

A cikin littafinta "Rayuwa da Mulkin Mallaka: Ƙasa da Al'adu a Anglo-Egypt Sudan" masanin tarihin Heather J. Sharkey ya bayyana tasirin hotuna da fina-finai ta hanyar tsarin ilimi na Biritaniya:

Yana da aka daidai a cikin kunno kai na gani art na fina-finan da cewa Gadalla Gubara, ya ce sun kasance na farko Sudan hotuna, aka kuma horar domin Mulkin mallaka Film Unit a Sudan.

Cinema daga ƴancin kai har zuwa shekarun 2010

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Lokacin da Sudan tsiwirwirinsu 'yancin kai a shekarar 1956, sabon hukumomin kafa Sudan Film Unit yi gajeren ilimi Documentaries da newsreels, wanda aka nuna duka a cikin cinemas na manyan birane kazalika a kan mobile cinema manyan motoci. [2] A cikin shekarun 1960, fiye da gidajen sinima 70 a Khartoum da sauran manyan biranen sun nuna fina -finan Indiya, Masar, Amurka ko Italiya, amma kuma labarai da tallace -tallace. Duk da karuwar adadin mutanen da za su iya samun shirye-shiryen talabijin, shaharar “zuwa fina-finai” ta yi yawa, kamar yadda Cinema Cinema ta nuna, shirin fim na mako-mako akan gidan talabijin na Sudan National Broadcasting Corporation wanda ke gwamnati wanda ya fara a shekarar 1962 . [2]

A cikin wata kasida game da hauhawa da raguwar sinima a garin Wad Madani, an yi bayanin shaharar "zuwa fina -finai" dangane da mahimmancin rayuwar al'adun jama'a, yana ba da "sabon numfashin 'yanci bisa la'akari da ƙasar. 'yancin kai. " Ga yawancin mazauna birni, nunin fina -finai shine kawai nishaɗin jama'a a lokacin. Wannan ya shafi duka masu ilimi da marasa ilimi, da mata da 'yan mata, waɗanda aka shigar da su a matsayin iyalai tare da danginsu maza.

Fim na farko mai tsawo da aka yi a Sudan shi ne Fata da Mafarki, wanda Ibrahim Mallassy ya ba da umarni a cikin 1970 a baki da fari . Bayan haka, an yi fina -finan fina -finai kaɗan, galibi saboda rashin kuɗi. Hussein Shariffe, mai zanen Sudan, mawaƙi kuma malami a Kwalejin Fasaha ta Jami'ar Khartoum, ya zama sananne a matsayin ɗan fim tun daga shekarun 70. A cikin 1973, ya kasance shugaban sashin fim a Ma'aikatar Al'adu da Bayanai kuma ya shirya fim ɗin sa na farko, The Throwing of Fire, shirin gaskiya game da al'adar da ta shafi ikon wuta, wanda ƙabilar Ingessana ta yi a kudancin Blue Nile. Jiha. Wannan sabuwar gogewar fasaha ya sa ya koma Ingila don yin karatun fim a Makarantar Finafinai da Talabijin ta Kasa. Har zuwa 1997, Shariffe ya yi shirye -shiryen bidiyo da yawa, misali The Dislocation of Amber, shirin waka na waka game da tashar Suakin mai tarihi a kan Bahar Maliya, ko Diary in Exile, labarin rayuwar gudun hijira na Sudan a Masar. Domin nuna godiya ga abubuwan da Shariffe ya nuna , ana gudanar da bikin Fim ɗin Sudan mai zaman kansa, wanda aka kafa a 2014, a kowace shekara a ranar tunawa da mutuwar Shariffe.

Gadalla Gubara da 'yarsa Sara Gubara a cikin fim "Viva Sara" (1984)

Mai shirya fina -finai na Sudan wanda ya fi kowanne aiki na shirye -shiryen fina -finai da labarai sama da 100, Gadalla Gubara, shi ma ya samar da fina -finan fasali, musamman labarin soyayya ta kabilanci Tajouj a 1979. Yarinyarsa, Sara Gadalla Gubara, wacce ta karanci yin fina -finai a Alkahira tare kuma da horon da mahaifinta ya ba ta, ta taimaka masa a kamfanin shirya fina -finai mai zaman kansa Studio Gad kuma ta zama mace ta farko da ta fara yin fim a Sudan. Fim ɗin Sarauniya Mai Ƙaunar Haske (2004) duka misalai ne na Gadalla Gubara da kuma sha’awarsa ta kawo batutuwan zamantakewa ta hanyar yin fim.

An kafa shi a cikin 1989, Ƙungiyar Fina-Finan Sudan (SFG) a cikin Omdurman, ƙungiya mai zaman kanta wacce ke aiki don haɓaka ci gaba a masana'antar fina-finai ta gida ta ƙunshi ƙwararru da ke da hannu a harkar shirya fina-finai, samar da fasaha da sadarwa na ci gaba. SFG ta samar da fina-finai, shirya shirye-shirye, horarwa da bita sannan kuma tana nuna fina -finai a gidajen sinima da suka wuce.

Bayan juyin mulkin soja na 1989, gwamnatin Islama ta Sudan, ta hana sinima, da kuma yawancin al'adun jama'a. A sakamakon haka, Kamfanin Cinema na Sudan ya rushe kuma allon fina -finai 60 na ƙasar da ke nuna Hollywood, Bollywood da Larabci duk an rufe su, daga baya aka sayar da su. [3] Misali, tsohon Coliseum Cinema, ya zama ɓangaren hedikwatar 'yan sandan kwantar da tarzoma na Khartoum. [2] Motsa hotuna daga shekarun 1960, '70s, da 80s sun zama da wuya a gani, kuma waɗanda ke cikin Taskar Tarihi an kulle su kuma an yi sakaci da su. Har zuwa 2020s, babu wani tarihin fim da zai iya isa ga jama'a, kuma har yanzu hotuna daga waɗannan lokutan suna warwatse ko'ina cikin ƙasar. Waɗannan ƙuntatawa na siyasa, tare da haɓaka talabijin na tauraron ɗan adam da Yanar gizo, sun sa mutane su kalli fina -finai a cikin gidajensu kuma sun hana masu fasahar Sudan samun karbuwa a bainar jama'a, kuɗaɗe don samarwa ko rarraba fina -finai, kuma, mafi yawa, 'yancin fasaha magana.

Suna jin daɗin faɗin, wasu masu yin fim daga asalin Sudan da zama a ƙasashen waje na iya yin fina-finai masu zaman kansu game da ƙasarsu, kamar ɗan fim ɗin Burtaniya-Sudan Taghreed Elsanhouri . Takardun shirye -shiryen Mu Masoyan Sudan, Duk game da Darfur, gidan marayu na Mygoma ko Uwar da ba a sani ba sun bincika duka rikitattun al'umma a Sudan har ma da ra'ayoyin darektan fim a matsayin memba na mahimmancin al'umman 'yan asalin Sudan.

Alsafia Cinema a Khartoum North, 2013

Tarurrukan finafinai da shirya fina-finai tun daga shekarun 2010

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Taimakon gabatar da kayan aikin fina-finai na dijital, bita don sabon ƙarni na masu shirya fina-finai, kuɗi mai zaman kansa da karramawa a bukukuwan ƙasa da ƙasa, shekarun 2010 sun ga shirye-shiryen nasara da yawa don sake kafa ayyukan fim a ƙasar Sudan. A cikin 2010, a matsayin wata ƙungiya mai zaman kanta don sadarwa da haɓaka silima a ciki da wajen ƙasar, kuma a cikin 2014, Bikin Fim mai zaman kansa na Sudan fara bugu na shekara -shekara na ƙara shahara. [2]

Kasancewar babu wata ƙwararriyar koyarwa don bayar da horo ko tallafin jama'a don samarwa ko gabatar da fina -finai a Sudan, masu shirya fina -finai suna mai da hankali kan kasuwanci, kamfanoni, kiɗa ko bidiyon bikin aure, ko ta hanyar rarraba fina -finan su akan layi. Wasu ana aiki da su azaman masu aikin sa -kai don masu kera kafofin watsa labarai na duniya. Ga gajerun shirye -shirye ko dogayen fina -finai ko fina -finai masu fasali, sun dogara ne kaɗai kan tallafin kuɗi da haɗin gwiwa na masu zaman kansu. Masana'antar Fim ta Sudan tana taimakawa masu shirya fina -finai samun damar tallafi da lamuni. Sauran kamfanoni masu zaman kansu da ke ba da tallafi da horo ga masu shirya fina -finai a Sudan sun haɗa da cibiyoyi kamar reshen gida na Cibiyar Goethe da Majalisar Burtaniya, Cibiyar Fina -Finan Doha, Masu shirya fina -finai ba tare da iyaka ba (FWB), Asusun Raya Fim na Deutsche Welle Akademie, da AFAC - Asusun Larabawa na Fasaha da Al'adu . Hakanan, 'Swiss Initiative' tana gudanar da bita da horo ga masu shirya fina -finai. Hukumar UNESCO ce ke ɗaukar nauyin aikin, da kuma masu shirya fina -finai na Switzerland da na ƙasashen duniya. [3]

A cikin 2014, mai shirya fina -finan Sudan Hajooj Kuka, wanda ke zaune a Sudan da waje, ya yi fim ɗin fim na duniya wanda ya shahara game da hare -haren da sojojin Sudan ke ci gaba da kaiwa mutanen a tsaunukan Nuba . Fim din Kuka Beats na Antonov yana ba da tarin zane -zane game da yaƙi, kiɗa, da asalin gida a kan iyakokin kudancin Sudan kuma ba za a iya nuna su a Sudan a ƙarƙashin gwamnatin lokacin ba. A cikin 2015, an ba darakta Mohamed Kordofani kyautar mafi kyawun darakta a Taharqa International Award for Arts don ɗan gajeren fim ɗinsa Gone for Gold . Fim ɗinsa na ɗan gajere na biyu, Nyerkuk (2016), ya sami banbance -banbance da yawa, gami da Network of Alternative Arab Screens (NAAS) Award a Carthage Film Festival, Jury Award a Oran International Arabic Film Festival, da Black Elephant Award a Sudan Independent Film Bikin. [3]

A shekarar 2015, sassa na fim archive na Gadalla Gubara aka digitized da wani Jamus-Sudan film maido aikin, kuma ta haka ne ya Documentaries game da rayuwar yau da kullum a birnin Khartoum na 1960s, kazalika da alama fim Tajouj za a iya nuna wa sabon al'ummomi, a Khartoum kazalika da kasashen waje.

Fim ɗin mai fasali na minti 40 Iman: Faith at the crossoads wanda mai shirya finafinai Mai Bittar shirya kuma ya rubuta, an shirya shi a cikin 2016 tare da tallafin UNDP Sudan kuma an gabatar da shi a wannan shekarar a hedkwatar Majalisar Dinkin Duniya a New York. Yana ba da labarai huɗu na matasa 'yan Sudan, waɗanda ta'addanci ya ja hankalin su, kuma ya dogara da abubuwan da suka faru na gaskiya.

A cikin 2019, shirin <i id="mw_w">Magana game da Bishiyoyi</i> ta Suhaib Gasmelbari, labari game da masu shirya fina -finan Sudan uku na shekarun 1960 da raguwar sinima a Sudan, sun sami lambobin yabo a bikin Fina-Finan Duniya na Berlin da sauran bukukuwa na duniya.

Fim ɗin shiga don bikin fina-finan Sudan-Turai na 2021

A wannan shekarar, fasalin fim ɗin Za ku Mutu a Shekaru Ashirin na Amjad Abu Alala, wani ɗan fim ɗin Sudan da ke zaune a Dubai, lashe lambar yabo ta 'Lion of the Future Award' a cikin kwanakin Venice, sashin bikin fim mai zaman kansa wanda aka gudanar tare da babban bikin Fim na Venice .

Wata matashiyar ƴar fim ƴar Sudan, wacce ta karanci alkiblar fim a Masar da Jamus, ita ce Marwa Zein . Littafin shirinta na Khartoum Offside ba da labarin ƙungiyar ƙwallon ƙafa ta mata ta farko a Khartoum. Wannan fim ɗin ya kasance farkon sa a duniya a bikin Fina -Finan Duniya na Berlin a shekarar 2019 kuma ya sami lambobin yabo a sauran bukukuwan fina -finai na duniya.

A watan Fabrairu da Maris 2021, kuma a cikin matakan matakan nisantar da jama'a yayin barkewar cutar ta Covid-19, Majalisar Burtaniya a Khartoum da masu ba da tallafi na gida sun shirya bikin fim don duka fina-finan Turai da Sudan a waje, filin shiga gidan sinima, ta haka ne ake gabatar da fina -finai a cikin wata sabuwar hanya.

Samfuri:Free-content attribution

  1. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named :0
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Ismail Kushkush, Reviving Sudan's love of cinema, Al Jazeera, 1 March 2014
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Lora-Mungai and Pimenta 2021.

Kara karantawa

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Hanyoyin waje

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