Sinima a Afrika

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Wikidata.svgSinima a Afrika
cinema by country or region (en) Fassara
Wuri
 21°05′38″N 7°11′17″E / 21.09375°N 7.1881°E / 21.09375; 7.1881
Faifan Cinematic a Tunis don fim ɗin Masar Saladin Nasara (1963).

Sinima a Afirka shine shirya fina -finai a nahiyar Afirka. Ya samo asali tun farkon ƙarni na 20, lokacin da reels na fim shine fasahar silima ta farko da ake amfani da ita. A lokacin mulkin mallaka, aikin farar fata, mulkin mallaka, 'yan fim na Yammacin Turai ya nuna rayuwar Afirka, waɗanda ke nuna baƙar fata a cikin mummunan yanayi, a matsayin m "wasu". [1] Babu fim din Afirka guda ɗaya; akwai banbanci tsakanin Fina-finan Arewacin Afirka da na Sahara, da tsakanin gidajen sinima na ƙasashe daban-daban. [1]

Fina-finan Tunisia da na Masar na daga cikin tsofaffin a duniya. Auguste da Louis Lumière sun kalli fina-finansu a Alexandria, Alkahira, Tunis, Soussa da Hammam-Lif a Shekara ta 1896. Albert Samama Chikly galibi ana ambaton shi a matsayin wanda ya fara samar da finafinan 'yan asalin Afirka, yana tantance takaitattun shirye -shiryen su a gidan caca na Tunis tun farkon watan Disamba a shekara ta 1905. Tare da 'yarsu Haydée Tamzali, Chikly zai ci gaba da samar da muhimman abubuwan tarihi na farko kamar a shekara ta 1924's The Girl from Carthage . A cikin shekara ta 91935 ɗakin fim na MISR a Alkahira ya fara samar da mafi yawan shirye -shiryen barkwanci da kide -kide, amma kuma fina -finai kamar Kamal Selim's The Will (1939). Fim din Masar ya bunƙasa a cikin shekarun 1940, 1950 da 1960, an yi la'akari da shekarun zinare. Youssef Chahine seminal Cairo Station (1958) ya kasance hoton Hitchcock's Psycho kuma ya aza harsashin fim ɗin Larabawa.

Masana’antar fim ta Najeriya ita ce mafi girma a Afirka ta fuskar ƙima , adadin fina -finan shekara -shekara, kuɗaɗen shiga da shahara. Hakanan shine furodusan fim na biyu mafi girma a duniya. A shekarar 2016 masana'antar fina -finan Najeriya ta ba da gudummawar kashi 2.3% na yawan abin da take samarwa a cikin gida (GDP). [2]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Zamanin mulkin mallaka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A lokacin mulkin mallaka, mafi yawan ƴan fim na Yammacin Afirka sun wakilci Afirka. A cikin shekarun farko na ƙarni na ashirin, masu shirya fina-finai na Yammacin Turai sun yi fina -finan da ke nuna bakar fata 'yan Afirka a matsayin fitattu, ma'aikata masu biyayya ko kuma dabbanci ko masu cin naman mutane' '. Misali, duba Sarakunan Tsibirin Cannibal ashekara ta 1909, Voodoo Vengeance (1913) da Congorilla (1932). [1] Fina -finan zamanin mulkin mallaka sun nuna Afirka a matsayin baƙo, ba tare da tarihi ko al'ada ba. Misalai sun yi yawa kuma sun haɗa da almara na daji wanda ya danganta da halayen Tarzan da Edgar Rice Burroughs ya kirkira da fim ɗin kasada Sarauniyar Afirka (1951), da kuma sauye -sauye daban -daban na littafin H. Rider Haggard na littafin Sarki Sulemanu (1885). Yawancin al'adu na farko "sun mai da hankali kan nuna banbanci tsakanin 'yan asalin da farar fata mai wayewa, don haka yana ƙarfafa farfagandar mulkin mallaka". Fim ɗin Marc Allégret na farko, Voyage au Congo (1927) ya nuna mutuncin mutanen Masa, musamman wani matashi ɗan Afirka yana nishaɗantar da ƙaramin ɗan'uwansa tare da jariri a kan igiya. Amma duk da haka an nuna 'yan Afirka a matsayin mutane amma ba daidai ba; katin tattaunawa alal misali ya kira motsin rawa na gargajiya a matsayin butulci. Masoyinsa, marubuci André Gide, ya raka Allégret tare da rubuta wani littafin kuma mai taken Voyage au Congo . Daga baya Allégret ya sanya Zouzou, tare da tauraron Josephine Baker, babban fim na farko wanda ya fito da baƙar fata. Baker ya haifar da tashin hankali a fagen zane -zane na Paris ta hanyar rawa a cikin Revue Nègre [fr] sanye da igiyar ayaba kawai.

Umar Sharif ɗan Masar
Soad Hosny, ɗayar shahararrun ƴan wasan kwaikwayo a zamanin zinare na Cinema ta Masar

A cikin turawan mulkin mallaka na Faransa an hana 'yan Afirka yin Dokar Laval na shekara ta1934 daga yin nasu fim. [3] Haramcin ya hana ci gaban fim a matsayin hanyar bayyana Afirka, siyasa, al'adu, da fasaha. [4] Dan Kongo Albert Mongita ya yi Darasin Cinema a shekara ta 1951 kuma a shejara ta 1953 Mamadou Touré ya sanya Mouramani bisa labarin mutane game da mutum da karensa. A cikin shekara ta 1955, Paulin Soumanou Vieyra – asali daga Benin, amma ya yi karatu a Senegal – tare da abokan aikin sa daga Le Group Africain du Cinema, sun ɗauki wani ɗan gajeren fim a Paris, Afrique-sur-Seine (1955). An horar da Vieyra a harkar shirya fina -finai a Institut des hautes études cinématographiques (IDHEC) a birnin Paris, kuma duk da haramcin yin fim a Afirka, an ba shi izinin yin fim a Faransa . [5] An yi la'akari da fim na farko da baƙar fata ɗan Afirka ya jagoranta, Afrique Sur Seine ya bincika matsalolin zama ɗan Afirka a cikin shekarun 1950 Faransa. [6]

Turawan mulkin mallaka na Fotigal sun sami ƴancin kai ba tare da wuraren samar da fim ba kwata-kwata, tunda gwamnatin mulkin mallaka a can ta taƙaita yin fim ga farfagandar' yan mulkin mallaka, yana mai jaddada ƙarancin ƙasashen 'yan asalin. Don haka, ba a ɗan yi tunani ba har zuwa samun ƴancin kai don haɓaka sahihan muryoyin Afirka.

A tsakiyar shekarun 1930, an gudanar da Gwajin Kinema na Ilimi na Bantu a ƙoƙarin “ilmantar da Bantu, galibi game da tsabta. Fim guda uku ne kacal daga wannan aikin suka tsira; ana ajiye su a Cibiyar Fina -finan Biritaniya. [7]

Kafin samun 'yancin mulkin mallaka, an samar da' yan fina-finan ƙin jinin mulkin mallaka. Misalai sun haɗa da mutummutumai kuma sun mutu ( Les statues meurent aussi ) na Chris Marker da Alain Resnais, game da satar fasahar fasahar Afirka. Kashi na biyu na wannan fim din an haramta shi na tsawon shekaru 10 a Faransa. [8] ) Afrique 50 na René Vautier, ya nuna tarzoma ta mulkin mallaka a Cote d'Ivoire da Upper Volta (yanzu Burkina Faso ).

Har ila yau, yin aikin fim a Afirka a wannan lokacin shi ne mai shirya fina -finan ƙabilanci na Faransa Jean Rouch, mai rigima da masu sauraron Faransa da na Afirka. Documentaries kamar Jaguar (1955), Les maitres fous (1955), Moi, un noir (1958) da La pyramide humaine (1961). Takardun bayanai na Rouch ba a bayyane suke adawa da mulkin mallaka ba, amma sun ƙalubalanci hasashe na mulkin mallaka na Afirka kuma sun ba da sabuwar murya ga 'yan Afirka. [9] Kodayake Rouch ya zargi Ousmane Sembene da wasu [10] da ganin ƴan Afirka " kamar kwari ne ," Rouch ya kasance mutum mai mahimmanci a fagen fim ɗin Afirka mai tasowa kuma shine mutum na farko da ya fara aiki tare da ƴan Afirka, wanda da yawa suna da mahimmanci. sana'o'i a finafinan Afirka ( Oumarou Ganda, Safi Faye da Moustapha Alassane, da sauransu). [11]

Saboda yawancin finafinan da aka yi kafin samun ƴancin kai sun kasance masu nuna wariyar launin fata a dabi'a, ƴan fim na Afirka na lokacin 'yancin kai – kamar Ousmane Sembene da Oumarou Ganda, da sauransu – ya ga yin fim a matsayin muhimmin kayan aikin siyasa don gyara kuskuren hoton 'yan Afirka da masu shirya fina -finai na Yammacin Turai suka gabatar da kuma dawo da martabar Afirka ga' yan Afirka. [12]

Bayan samun ƴancin kai da shekarun 1970[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Beattie Casely-Hayford (1968) ce ta shirya wasan kwaikwayon ' yar tsana ta Watsa shirye-shirye na Ghana.

Fim na farko na Afirka da ya sami karɓuwa a duniya shine Sembène Ousmane 's La Noire de... wanda kuma aka sani da Black Girl (baƙar yarinya). Ya nuna rashin bege na wata mace ƴar Afirka wacce ke aiki a matsayin baiwa a Faransa. Ya lashe gasar Prix Jean Vigo a shekara ta 1966. Da farko marubuci, Sembène ya juya zuwa sinima don isa ga masu sauraro da yawa. Har yanzu ana yi masa kallon "uban fina -finan Afirka". [13] Kasar Senegal ta Sembène ta ci gaba da kasancewa wuri mafi mahimmanci na shirya fina -finan Afirka sama da shekaru goma.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Tare da ƙirƙirar bikin fina-finan Afirka FESPACO a Burkina Faso a shejara ta1969, fim ɗin Afirka ya ƙirƙiri dandalinsa. FESPACO yanzu yana faruwa kowane bayan shekaru biyu ana musanyawa da bikin fim na Carthago a Tunisia .

An kafa ƙungiyar masu shirya fina -finai ta Pan Afrika (Fédération Panafricaine des Cinéastes, ko FEPACI) a shekara ta 1969 don haɓaka masana'antar fina -finan Afirka ta fuskar samarwa, rarrabawa da baje kolin. Tun daga farkonta, ana ganin FEPACI a matsayin muhimmiyar ƙungiyar abokin tarayya ga Ƙungiyar Haɗin Kan Afirka (OAU), yanzu ita ce Tarayyar Afirka . FEPACI ta duba rawar da fim ke takawa wajen bunƙasa siyasa da tattalin arziƙi da al'adu na jihohin Afirka da ma nahiyar baki ɗaya.

Soleil O na Med Hondo, wanda aka harba a shekara ta 1969, nan da nan aka gane shi. Ba ƙaramin shiga siyasa ba fiye da Sembène, ya zaɓi yaren fim mai rikitarwa don nuna abin da ake nufi da zama baƙo a Faransa tare da "ba daidai ba" launin fata.[ana buƙatar hujja]

1980 da 1990[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Souleymane Cissé 's Yeelen (Mali, 1987) shine fim na farko da wani Baƙar Fatar Afirka ya yi don yin gasa a Cannes. Cheick Oumar Sissoko 's Guimba (Mali, 1995) shima ya samu ƙarbuwa sosai a yamma.

Yawancin fina-finai na shekarun 1990, gami da Quartier Mozart na Jean-Pierre Bekolo (Kamaru, 1992), suna cikin babban birnin Afirka na duniya.

Fim Ɗin Najeriya ya sami babban ci gaba a cikin shekarun 1990 tare da karuwar samun kyamarorin bidiyo na gida a Najeriya, kuma ba da daɗewa ba ya sanya Nollywood cikin haɗin gwiwa don fina-finan Ingilishi na Yammacin Afirka. Nollywood ta shirya fina -finai acikin shekara ta 1844 a shekara ta 2013 kadai.

An rufe gidan wasan kwaikwayo na ƙarshe a Kinshasa a shekara ta 2004. Yawancin tsoffin gidajen sinima sun koma majami'u. A shekara ta 2009 hukumar kula da ƴan gudun hijira ta Majalisar Ɗinkin Duniya ta binciki "Breaking the Silence" a Kudancin Kivu da Lardin Katanga. Fim ɗin ya yi bayani kan fyaɗe a yakin basasar Congo.

Duk da haka an buɗe gidan sinima mai kujeru 200, Gidan Fim na MTS, a cikin a shekara ta 2016 a Brazzaville. A watan Afrilu a shekara ta 2018, an fara gini akan sabon sinima a Brazzaville.

An fara taron ƙoli na fina-finan Afrika na farko a Afirka ta Kudu a shekara ta 2006. Taron ya biyo bayan majalisar ta 9 FEPACI.

An ƙaddamar da lambar yabo ta African Movie Academy Awards a shekara ta 2004, wanda ke nuna ci gaban masana'antun fina-finai na cikin gida kamar na Najeriya gami da bunƙasa da yaɗuwar al'adun masana'antar fim a yankin kudu da Sahara na Afirka.

Shekarun 2000 da 2010[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Fim ɗin Afirka na zamani yana hulɗa da jigogi iri-iri masu alaƙa da batutuwan zamani da matsalolin duniya.

Shige da fice da alaƙa tsakanin ƙasashen Afirka da na Turai shine jigon gama gari tsakanin fina-finan Afirka da yawa. Fim din Abderrahmane Sissako na Jiran Farin Ciki ya nuna garin Mauritaniya da ke gwagwarmaya da tasirin kasashen waje ta hanyar balaguron bakin haure da ke dawowa gida daga Turai. Shige da fice kuma muhimmin jigo ne a fim ɗin Mahamat Saleh Haroun Une Saison en France , wanda ke nuna tafiyar dangi daga Jamhuriyar Afirka ta Tsakiya don neman mafaka a Faransa. Haroun yana daga cikin jama'ar Chadi da ke zaune a Faransa, kuma yana amfani da fim ɗin don bincika fannonin wannan ƙwarewar 'yan gudun hijira.

Afrofuturism wani nau'in ci gaba ne, wanda ya haɗa da 'yan Afirka duka a cikin nahiyoyin da cikin ƙasashen waje waɗanda ke ba da labarin kimiyya ko labarun almara da suka shafi Afirka da mutanen Afirka. Gundumar 9 ta Neill Blomkamp sanannen misali ne, wanda ke nuna baƙon mamaye Afirka ta Kudu. Gajeriyar fim ɗin Wanuri Kahiu Pumzi ya nuna al'umar Maitu a nan gaba a Afirka shekaru 35 bayan yakin duniya na uku.

Daraktoci da suka haɗa da Haroun da Kahiu sun nuna damuwa game da rashin kayan aikin sinima da godiya a ƙasashe daban -daban na Afirka. Koyaya, ƙungiyoyi kamar asusun fasahar Changamoto suna ba da ƙarin albarkatu da dama ga masu shirya fina -finan Afirka.

Shekarun 2020[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Wasu ƙasashen Afirka na fama da rashin 'yancin faɗin albarkacin baki, wanda ke gurɓata harkar fim. Wannan yana da tsanani musamman a Equatorial Guinea. Fim ɗin Marubuci Daga Marubuci Daga Ƙasar da Ba ta da kantin sayar da littattafai [14] shine farkon wanda aka harba a cikin ƙasa kuma mai suka tare da mulkin kama -karya na Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, ɗayan mafi daɗewa a duniya.

Jigogi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Filin Fim -Cinema a cikin Johannesburg tare da allon fim mai cike da iska (2010).

Fina-finan Afirka, kamar sinima a sauran yankuna na duniya, ya ƙunshi batutuwa iri -iri. A cikin Algiers a 1975, ƙungiyar masu shirya fina -finai ta Pan Afirka (FEPACI) ta karɓi Charte du cinéaste africain (Charter of the African cinéaste), wanda ya fahimci mahimmancin abubuwan da suka faru bayan mulkin mallaka da abubuwan da ke faruwa a cikin fina-finan Afirka. Masu shirya fina -finan sun fara da tunawa da yanayin sabon yanayin al'ummomin Afirka. "Halin da al'ummomin Afirka na zamani suke ciki shine wanda aka mamaye su a matakai da yawa: siyasa, tattalin arziƙi da al'adu."[ana buƙatar hujja] fina -finan Afirka sun jaddada haɗin kan su da masu shirya fina -finai masu ci gaba a wasu sassan duniya. Ana ganin sinima na Afirka wani ɓangare na Cinema na Uku.

Wasu masu shirya fina-finai na Afirka, misali Ousmane Sembène, suna ƙoƙarin mayar da tarihin Afirka ga mutanen Afirka ta hanyar tunawa da tsayayyar mulkin Turawa da na Musulunci.

Sau da yawa ana kwatanta ɗan fim ɗin Afirka da griot na gargajiya. Kamar griots, aikin masu shirya fina -finai shine bayyanawa da nuna abubuwan da suka shafi jama'a. Hanyoyin adabin baka na Afirka galibi suna sake fitowa a fina -finan Afirka. Hakanan al'adun gargajiya daga wasu nahiyoyi sun rinjayi fim ɗin Afirka, kamar ƙirar Italiyanci, Cinema Novo na Brazil da gidan wasan kwaikwayo na Bertolt Brecht .

A cikin Mauritaniya CINEPARC RIBAT AL BAHR shine cinema mai buɗe ido a cikin Nouakchott, ita kadai ce irinta a Afirka. Baya ga jadawalin tsinkaye, tuƙin yana da sabon aikace-aikacen iOS da Android suna ba ku babbar cibiyar fina-finai ta duniya inda zaku iya samun bayanai kamar taƙaitaccen makirci, membobin simintin, ƙungiyoyin samarwa, bita da sukar, ƙima, fan, da ƙari da yawa game da fina-finai, jerin, da duk aikin silima.

Jerin sinima ta yanki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Arewacin Afirka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yammacin Afirka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Afirka ta Tsakiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Gabashin Afirka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kudancin Afirka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Daraktocin mata[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An sansu a matsayin ɗaya daga cikin waɗanda suka fara shirya fina -finan Senegal da kuma sinima da aka bunƙasa a nahiyar Afirka gaba ɗaya, masanin kimiyyar ɗabi'a kuma mai shirya fim Safi Faye ita ce mace 'yar Afirka ta farko darektan fina -finai da ta samu karɓuwa daga ƙasashen duniya. [15] Faye na farko Faye La Passante (The Passerby) an sake shi a cikin 1972 kuma bayan wannan, Kaddu Beykat (Harafi daga Kauye na), an fito da fim ɗin farko na mai yin fim a 1975. Faye ya ci gaba da yin aiki tare da ayyuka da yawa da aka saki a ƙarshen rabin shekarun 1970 duk ta hanyar sabon aikinta, fim ɗin wasan kwaikwayo na 1996 Mossane .

Sarah Maldoror, ƴar fim ɗin Faransa kuma' yar baƙi daga Guadeloupe an karɓe ta a matsayin ɗaya daga cikin masu fara fim ɗin Afirka a cikin ƙasashe. Ita ce ta kafa Les Griots (The Troubadours), kamfanin wasan kwaikwayo na farko a Faransa wanda aka yi wa 'yan wasan Afirka da Afirka. [16] Asali a cikin gidan wasan kwaikwayo, ta ci gaba da karatun shirya fina-finai a Cibiyar Nazarin Cinematography ta Tarayyar Rasha (VGIK), a Moscow. [17] A cikin 1972, Maldoror ya harbi fim ɗin Sambizanga game da yakin 1961 - 74 a Angola. Matan Afirka da suka tsira daga wannan yaƙin sune batun shirin shirin fim na Les Oubliées (Matan da aka manta), wanda Anne-Laure Folly ta yi bayan shekaru 20. Maldoror ya kuma yi aiki a matsayin mataimakin darakta a Yaƙin Algiers (1966) tare da mai shirya fim Gillo Pontecorvo .

A cikin 1995, Wanjiru Kinyanjui Ta yi fim ɗin fim ɗin Yaƙin Tsattsarkan Itace a Kenya.

A shekarar 2008, Manouchka Kelly Labouba ta zama mace ta farko a tarihin sinima ta Gabon da ta shirya fim na almara. Gajeriyar fim ɗin ta Le Divorce ta yi bayani kan tasirin ƙimomin zamani da na gargajiya a kan rabuwa da wasu ma'aurata ƴan ƙasar Gabon.

Kemi Adetiba, har zuwa darektan bidiyon kiɗa, ta fara gabatar da daraktocin ta a 2016 tare da The Wedding Party. Fim ɗin, game da abubuwan da suka faru a cikin shagulgulan daurin aure, zai ci gaba da zama a masana'antar Nollywood mafi nasara da girma a tarihin mahaifarta ta Najeriya .

Wanuri Kahiu darektar fina -finan Kenya ce, wacce aka fi sani da fim dinta mai suna 'Whisper', wanda aka ba ta Kyautar Darakta, Mafi kyawun Fim, da Mafi Kyau a Kyautar Kwalejin Fina -Finan Afirka a 2009 . Kusan shekaru 10 bayan fitowar From a Whisper, fim ɗin Kahiu Rafiki, wani wasan kwaikwayo na soyayya mai zuwa game da 'yan mata biyu matasa a Kenya ta yanzu. Fim ɗin ya yi kanun labarai, wani bangare na zabin sa a bikin Fim na Cannes amma kuma don binciken jima'i wanda bai gamsar da gwamnatin Kenya ba.

Rungano Nyoni, wanda aka fi sani da fim ɗin da ya shahara a duniya Ba Ni mayya ba darektan Zambiya-Welsh ne kuma marubucin allo. An haife shi a Zambia kuma ya girma a Wales, Nyoni ya ci gaba da karatun digiri daga Jami'ar Fasaha a London tare da Jagora a cikin wasan kwaikwayo a 2009. Finafinan ta a matsayin mai shirya fina -finai (ko a matsayin darekta ko/kuma marubucin allo) suma sun haɗa da gajerun fina -finai: Jerin (2009, gajere), Mwansa The Great (2011, short), Listen (2014, short) kuma ita ma tana ɗaya daga cikin daraktocin shirin fina -finai na duniya Nordic Factory (2014). An ba ta kyaututtuka iri -iri ciki har da BAFTA don fitaccen fitaccen ɗan fim ɗin Biritaniya don Ni Ba mayya bane .

A cikin 2019, Azza Cheikh Malainine ta zama mace ta farko a tarihin sinima ta Mauritaniya da ta shirya fim na almara. Fim dinta na SOS yana bayani kan tasirin zamani da Tsaro a Mauritania.

Daraktoci ta ƙasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Fina -finai game da sinima na Afirka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Caméra d'Afrique, Darakta: Férid Boughedir, Tunisia/Faransa, 1983
  • Les Fespakistes, Daraktoci: François Kotlarski, Eric Münch, Burkina Faso/Faransa, 2001
  • Wannan Shine Nollywood, Darakta: Franco Sacchi, 2007
  • Sembene!, Darakta: Samba Gadjigo da Jason Silverman, 2015
  • Kongo, na gode! - Darakta: Guy Bomanyama-Zandu, Jamhuriyar Demokradiyyar Kongo
  • La Belle a Fina -finan - Darakta: Cecilia Zoppelletto, Kinshasa
  • Tafiyar Harshe - Filipa César, Guinea -Bissau

Bikin fina -finai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Africa in Motion, wanda aka gudanar a Edinburgh, Scotland a karshen Oktoba
  • Sahara International Film Festival (FiSahara), wanda aka gudanar a sansanin 'yan gudun hijira na Sahrawi a Aljeriya
  • Bikin Fim na Afirka, wanda aka yi a New York
  • Bikin Fina -Finan Afirka (TAFF) wanda aka yi a Dallas a ƙarshen Yuni
  • Bikin Fim na Duniya na Alkahira
  • Luxor African Film Festival
  • Silicon Valley African Film Festival, wanda aka gudanar a San Jose, California
  • Bikin Fina -Finan Pan African, wanda aka yi a Los Angeles
  • Taron Fina -Finan Duniya na Afirka, wanda aka gudanar a St Louis
  • Rwanda Film Festival (Hillywood), wanda aka gudanar a Rwanda
  • Bushman Film Festival, wanda aka yi a Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire [29]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Hayward, Susan. "Third World Cinemas: African Continent" in Cinema Studies: The Key Concepts (Third Edition). Routledge, 2006. p. 426-442
  2. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named gov
  3. Diawara, Manthia (1992). African Cinema: Politics and Culture. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, pp. 22–23.
  4. Halhoul, Khalid (2012). "Using African Cinema to Shift Cultural Perceptions." Utne Reader (June/July 2012 edition). Mixed Media Section, pp. 78–79.
  5. Diawara (1992), African Cinema, p. 23.
  6. Gugler, Josef (2003). African Film: Re-Imagining a Continent. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, p. 3.
  7. Notcutt, L. A., and G. C. Latham, The African and the Cinema: An Account of the Work of the Bantu Educational Cinema Experiment during the Period March 1935 to May 1937, London: Edinburgh House Press, 1937.
  8. Ukadike, Nwachukwu Frank (1994), Black African Cinema. Berkeley: University of California Press, p. 49.
  9. For more on Rouch's work, see Steven Feld (ed.), Cine-Ethnography (1994), and Paul Henley, The Adventure of the Real: Jean Rouch and the Craft of Ethnographic Cinema (2010).
  10. See, for example, Nwachukwu Frank Ukadike, Black African Cinema (1994), pp. 48–58.
  11. Diawara (1992). African Cinema, pp. 23–24. See also Henley, Paul (2010), The Adventure of the Real: Jean Rouch and the Craft of Ethnographic Cinema, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 310–337.
  12. Thackway (2003). Africa Shoots Back, pp. 1–6.
  13. Dennis McLellan, "Ousmane Sembene, 84; Senegalese hailed as 'the father of African film'" (obituary), Los Angeles Times, June 14, 2007.
  14. http://www.elescritordeunpais.com/en
  15. Beti Ellerson, "African through a Woman's Eyes: Safi Faye's Cinema" in Focus on African Cinema(ed) Francoise Pfaff, (Bloomington: Indiana University, 2004), 185
  16. https://www.documentamadrid.com/en/news/pioneer-african-cinema-sarah-maldoror-special-guest-documentamadrid-and-reina-sofia-museum
  17. Ibid.
  18. Biography, African Film Festival, New York.
  19. Thackway (2003). Africa Shoots Back. ISBN 9780852555774. Retrieved 13 October 2010.
  20. "Ali Abdel-Khalek". IMDb.
  21. "Radwan El-Kashef". IMDb.
  22. "Ehab Mamdouh". IMDb.
  23. "Salem Mekuria", Women Make movies.
  24. Maureen Abotsi, "Nii Kwate Owoo", GhanaNation, 13 September 2013.
  25. Fernando Arenas - Portuguese Literary and Cultural Studies, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth (May 29, 2018). Christopher Larkosh; Mario Perreira; Memory Holloway (eds.). "The Filmography of Guinea-Bissau's Sana Na N'Hada: From the Return of Amílcar Cabral to the Threat of Global Drug Trafficking". Transnational Africa. Missing or empty |url= (help)
  26. Lynsey Chutel (March 30, 2018). "One of Africa's oldest animated films has a timeless message about African life". Quartz Africa.
  27. "Nelson "Nana" Mahomo". South African History Online.
  28. Yael Even Or (August 14, 2017). "The Man Running a Queer Film Festival in a Nation Where Homosexuality Is Illegal". Broadly.
  29. https://bushmanfilmfestival.net/

Hanyoyin waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]


Sinima a Afrika
Sinima a Afrika | Afrika ta Kudu | Afrika ta Tsakiya | Aljeriya | Angola | Benin | Botswana | Burkina Faso | Burundi | Cabo Verde | Cadi | Côte d'Ivoire | Eritrea | eSwatini | Ethiopia | Gabon | Gambiya | Ghana | Gine | Gine Bisau | Ginen Ekweita | Jibuti | Kameru | Kenya | Komoros | Kwango (JK)|Kwango (JK) | Kwango (JDK) | Laberiya | Lesotho | Libya | Madagaskar | Mali | Mauritius | Muritaniya | Misra | Moroko | Mozambik | Namibiya | Nijar | Nijeriya | Ruwanda | Saliyo | Sao Tome da Prinsipe | Senegal | Seychelles | Somaliya | Sudan | Sudan ta Kudu | Tanzaniya | Togo | Tunisiya | Uganda | Zambiya | Zimbabwe