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Sinima a Nijar

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Sinima a Nijar
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Cinema ta Nijar ta fara ne a cikin shekarun 1940 tare da shirin fim na ƙabilanci na Daraktan Faransa Jean Rouch, kafin ya girma ya zama ɗayan al'adun fina-finai na ƙasa mafi ƙarfi a cikin Faransanci na Afirka a shekarun 1960 zuwa 70 tare da aikin masu yin fim kamar Oumarou Ganda, Moustapha Alassane. da Gatta Abdourahamne . [1] Masana'antar ta ɗan ragu kaɗan tun daga shekarun 1980, kodayake ana cigaba da yin fina-finai a cikin ƙasar, tare da kuma fitattun daraktoci na shekarun da suka gabata da suka haɗa da Mahamane Bakabe da Inoussa Ousseini da Mariama Hima da Moustapha Diop da Rahmatou Keïta.[2] Ba kamar makwabciyarta Najeriya ba, wadda ta bunƙasa masana’antar fina -finan Hausa da Ingilishi, yawancin fina-finan Nijar ana yin su da Faransanci ne tare da ƙasashen Faransanci a matsayin babbar kasuwarsu, A yayinda ayyuka da fina-finan nishaɗi masu sauƙi daga Najeriya ko aka yi wa lakabi da fina -finan yamma sun cika yawancin gidajen wasan kwaikwayo na Nijar.[3]

Shekarun 1940-1950: Fara mulkin mallaka

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Fina-finan Nijar na farko an yi su ne a cikin shekarun 1940, lokacin Nijar tana ƙarƙashin ikon Faransa a matsayin wani ɓangare na Faransa ta Yammacin Afirka. Jean Rouch, ɗan fim ɗin asalin ƙasar Faransa, galibi ana ɗaukar shi 'uban fim ɗin Nijar'. Zuwan Rouch a farko a matsayin injiniya a 1941, ya cigaba da zama a Nijar bayan samun 'ƴancin kai, kuma ya shawarci ƙarni na masu shirya fina -finai da' yan wasan Nijar, da suka haɗa da Damouré Zika, Moustapha Alassane da Oumarou Ganda . [1] Rouch ya yi fim ɗinsa na farko a Nijar a cikin 1947, tare da ɗan gajeren shirin Au Pays des Mages Noirs (A cikin Ƙasar Baƙaƙen Mages), yana cigaba da yin irin waɗannan gajerun shirye-shiryen tarihin ɗan adam, kamar su Les Magiciens de Wanzarbé (1948), Ƙaddamarwa à la danse des possédés (Ƙaddamarwa ga Rawar Mallaka ; 1949) da Chasse à l'hippopotame ( Hippopotamus Chase ; 1950). [1] [4][3]

A cikin shekarun 1950, Rouch ya fara samar da tsawon lokaci, fina-finan labari. A cikin 1954 ya yi fim din Damouré Zika a Jaguar a matsayin matashin Songhai yana tafiya aiki zuwa Tsohuwar Ghana ( Ghana ta zamani). [5] An yi fim ɗin azaman yanki na ƙabilanci, Zika ya taimaka sake shirya fim ɗin a cikin fim mai tsayi wanda ya tsaya a wani wuri tsakanin shirin gaskiya da almara, kuma ya bayar da maganganu da sharhi don sakin 1967. A cikin 1957 Rouch ya ba da umarni a Côte d'Ivoire Moi un noir tare da matashin ɗan fim ɗin Najeriya Oumarou Ganda. [1]

1960-1970: Zamanin zinariya na fim ɗin Nijar

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Nijar ta sami 'yancin kai daga Faransa a watan Agustan 1960; shekarun 60 sun ga ci gaban sana’o’in biyu daga cikin fitattun masu shirya fina -finan Nijar - Moustapha Alassane da Oumarou Ganda. [1] Fim ɗin Alassane na farko shine gajeriyar Aouré ( Auren Bikin aure ; 1962), game da auren Zarma. [1] Ya cigaba da yin gajerun fina -finai da yawa, da kuma raye-raye da yawa, bayan an horar da shi a cikin fim mai rai a Kanada . Fim ɗinsa na 1966 La Mort de Gandji ya lashe "Prix de Dessin" a bikin farko Mondial des Arts Nègres a Dakar . Alassane ya kuma yi adadin fina-finai da suka fi tsayi, kamar Le Retour d'un aventurier 1966, satire na zamantakewa FVVA: Femme, villa, voiture, argent ( WVCM: Mace, Villa, Car, Money ; 1972) ) da Toula ou Le génie des eaux (Toula ko Genie na Ruwa ; 1974). [1] [6]

Fim ɗin Oumarou Ganda na farko shi ne yaren Zarma Cabascabo, bisa ƙwarewarsa ta yin hidima a Indochina ta Faransa ; ya zama zabin Afirka na farko a bikin Fim na Cannes, kuma ya ci gaba da lashe lambar yabo ta Grand Jury a 1969 6th Moscow International Film Festival Ganda na ɗaya daga cikin manyan jaruman fina-finan Afirka na farko, wanda ya nuna kyaututtuka a bikin Finafinai da Talabijin na Ouagadougou (FESPACO), wani biki da shi da sauran 'yan Nijar suka taimaka aka samu.[ana buƙatar hujja] Ganda's Le Wazzou polygame (1971) ya lashe lambar yabo ta farko (Étalon de Yennenga) a 1972 FESPACO, yayin da shi ma ya ci nasarar "Taya murna ga Juri" a na 4 (1973).[ana buƙatar hujja] . Fim dinsa na 1973 Saïtane ya sami nasarar “ambaton Musamman” a FESPACO na biyar; wannan bikin yanzu yana gabatar da "Kyautar Oumarou Ganda", wanda aka bayar don mafi kyawun fim na farko.

Wani ɗan fim ɗin Nijar na wannan lokacin shi ne Gatta Abdourahamne ; a 1979 ya ci Caméra d'or a FESPACO don fim ɗin Gossi . A cikin wannan shekarar ya lashe lambar yabo ta Marubuta labari ta La Case a bikin UNESCO a Nairobi, Kenya .[ana buƙatar hujja] Wani daraktan Nijar wanda aikinsa ya fara a wannan lokacin shi ne Djingarey Maïga ( L'étoile noire, 1976; Nuages noirs, 1979).[7]

Jean Rouch, wanda ya zauna a Nijar bayan samun 'yancin kai, shi ma ya cigaba da shirya fina-finan wasan kwaikwayo a wannan lokacin, gami da Petit à petit ( Ƙaramin Ƙarami ; 1971), Cocorico! Monsieur Poulet ( Cocka-doodle-doo Mr. Chicken ; 1974) da Babatu (1976), tare da cigaba da yin gajeren wando na kabilanci.

1980-zuwa yanzu: Raguwa da haɓaka

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Tun daga shekarun 1980 na shirya fina-finan Nijar ya dan samu raguwa, a wani bangare saboda raunin kudaden sashen jihohi, haka kuma saboda karuwar ayyukan sauki da fina-finan soyayya, musamman masana'antar fina-finan Hausa na makwabciyar Najeriya. Moustapha Alassane, wanda ya mutu a 2015, ya cigaba da shirya fina-finai (kamar Kokoa, 1985; Les Magiciens de l'Ader, 2000) har zuwa farkon 2000s. Oumarou Ganda ya yi fim ɗinsa na ƙarshe L'éxilé a 1980, kafin mutuwarsa a 1981. [6] Sauran fitattun masu shirya fim daga lokacin sun haɗa da Inoussa Ousseini (Wasan Kara, 1980), Moustapha Diop ( Le médecin de Gafire, 1986; Mamy Wata, 1990) da Mahamane Bakabe ( Si les cavaliers, 1982). [6] A shekarun 1980 zuwa 90 Mariama Hima, daraktar mace ta farko daga Nijar, ta samu yabo ga masu shirya fina-finai, kamar Baabu Banza (1985), Katako (1987) da Hadiza et Kalia (1994); bayan wasu manyan ayyuka na al'adu daga baya ta zama jakadiya a Faransa.

A cikin 1994, furodusa/darakta a Nijar Ousmane Ilbo Mahamane ya kafa Taron Fina-Finan Afirka ( Rencontres du cinéma africain de Niamey, RECAN) a matsayin biki na shekara-shekara ba tare da kyaututtuka ba sannan kuma cibiyar yin fim da nazarin fim.

A shekara ta 2004 Jean Rouch ya mutu a wani hatsarin mota a Yamai yayin da yake kan hanyarsa ta zuwa wani bikin fim na Nijar. [1] Ya yi fim dinsa na ƙarshe, Moi fatigué debout, moi couché ( Na gaji da tsayuwa, gajiya a kwance ), a cikin 1997.

Fim din Abzinawan Nijar na farko , Akounak Teggdalit Taha Tazoughai ( Rain the Color of Blue with a Little Red in It ), an sake shi a shekarar 2015 kuma tauraron mawaƙin Mdou Moctar ; Masanin kida na Amurka Christopher Kirkley ne ya ba da umarnin . Yana ba da labarin wani mawaƙi mai gwagwarmaya daga Agadez kuma yana kan sassaucin ra'ayi akan ruwan sama . Wasu fitattun mutane da ke aiki a masana'antar fina -finan Nijar na zamani sun haɗa da 'yar wasan kwaikwayo Zalika Souley, wacce ta lashe al'adar Insignes du méritel a Fim ɗin Carthage na 1990 da daraktocin Rahmatou Keïta ( Al'lèèssi. . . Ba mai yin afrika ba , 2005; Zoben Aure (Fim na 2016), aka Zin'naariya, 2016), Malam Saguirou ( La Robe du temps, 2008) da Sani Elhadj Magori ( Pour le meilleur et pour l'oignon !, 2008; Koukan Kourcia (Le cri de la tourterelle), 2011).

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 Geels, Jolijn, (2006) Bradt Travel Guide - Niger, pgs. 36-7
  2. "Table 6: Share of Top 3 distributors (Excel)". UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Retrieved 5 November 2013.
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Table 11: Exhibition – Admissions & Gross Box Office (GBO)". UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Archived from the original on 3 November 2013. Retrieved 5 November 2013.
  4. Barnouw,Erik. 1993.
  5. Three men dramatised their real life roles in the film, and went on to become three of Nigerien cinema's first actors.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named histdict
  7. "Table 8: Cinema Infrastructure – Capacity". UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Archived from the original on 5 November 2013. Retrieved 5 November 2013.

Hanyoyin waje

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