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Tsaunukan Air

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Tsaunukan Air
General information
Gu mafi tsayi Mont Idoukal-n-Taghès
Height above mean sea level (en) Fassara 2,022 m
Tsawo 300 km
Fadi 200 km
Yawan fili 84,000 km²
Labarin ƙasa
Map
Tsarin Daidaiton Labarin Kasa 18°16′37″N 7°59′58″E / 18.27692°N 7.99942°E / 18.27692; 7.99942
Kasa Nijar
Territory Arlit (sashe)
Geology
Period (en) Fassara Precambrian (en) Fassara

Dutsen AIR ko AIR Massif [1] ( Tamashek; Hausa : Gabas Azbin, Western Abzin ) wani katon dutse ne mai siffar triangular, dake arewacin Nijar, cikin sahara . Wani yanki na Yammacin Saharan montane xeric woodlands ecoregion, sun haura zuwa fiye da 1,800 metres (5,900 ft) kuma ya kara sama da 84,000 square kilometres (32,000 sq mi) . [2] Kwance a tsakiyar hamada a arewa na daidaici na 17, tudun Aïr, mai matsakaicin tsayi tsakanin 500 and 900 metres (1,600 and 3,000 ft), ya kafa wani tsibiri na yanayi na Sahel wanda ke tallafawa nau'ikan rayuwa iri-iri, yawancin makiyaya da al'ummomin noma, da wuraren tarihi masu ban mamaki da wuraren tarihi. Akwai fitattun ayyukan tona kayan tarihi a yankin da ke nuna tarihin zamanin da na wannan yanki. Karen daji na Afirka da ke cikin haɗari ( Lycaon pictus ) ya taɓa wanzuwa a wannan yanki, amma yanzu ana iya kawar da shi saboda matsin lambar mutane a wannan yanki.

Hamada kusa da Agadez, tare da tsaunin Aïr a nesa. Yi la'akari da ɓangarorin dutsen mai aman wuta, gama gari zuwa Aïr.

Tsaunukan Precambrian zuwa Cenozoic Aïr sun ƙunshi kutsawa na granite na peralkaline waɗanda ke bayyana duhu a launi (wanda ba a saba gani ba tunda yawancin granitic talakawa suna da haske a cikin filin). A cikin hamadar sahara irin wadannan tsaunuka sau da yawa suna tsayawa cikin nutsuwa kamar tsayin daka a tsakanin ciyayi da yashi ya rufe. [3] Ƙasar ta ƙunshi tuddai masu tsayi, tuddai, da faɗin, kwaruruka yashi da wadis na yanayi waɗanda a da ke ɗauke da koguna. Wuraren waɗannan zurfi, sau da yawa suna haɗuwa, kwaruruka kuma suna ɗauke da yumbu mai ruwa da ƙasa. Magudanan ruwa na karkashin kasa a wasu daga cikin wadannan kwaruruka na ci gaba da samar da ciyayi da ciyayi duk shekara.

madauwari granite massifs (yankunan duhu). Ana iya ganin dutsen mai aman wuta a ƙasan hagu. Hoton NASA kusan 130 kilometres (81 mi) gaba.

Duwatsun Aïr da kansu sun ƙunshi taro kusan madauwari tara da ke tasowa daga wani tudu mai dutse, mai iyaka da dunes ɗin yashi da filin hamadar Ténéré zuwa gabas. Massif wani tudu ne wanda ya ƙunshi wani yanki na ƙasƙanci na shekarun Cambrian akan duwatsun Precambrian metamorphic, wanda jerin kololuwar kutsawa masu ɗorewa, waɗanda suka haɗa da Mont Idoukal-n-Taghès (mafi girman matsayi a Nijar a 2022) m), Mont Tamgak (1988 m), Mont Greboun (1944 m), Adrar Bous, Fadei, Chirriet, Taghmert, Agueraguer, Takaloukouzet, da Goundai .

Massif ɗin ya ƙunshi fasalulluka na volcanic ciki har da bacewar caldera na Arakao, Cenozoic lava malalo na hawaiite zuwa abun da ke ciki na trachyte, mazugi mai aman wuta, zoben tuff da kuma ɗayan manyan tsarin dik na zobe a duniya. A Izouzaoenehe, ya kwanta dutsen marmara mai shuɗi, kuma ƙananan kwarin Zagado yana kewaye da fararen tuddai na marmara. Yashi na Carboniferous da raka'a na kwal a cikin Basin Iullemmeden kusa da yammacin babban dutsen ya ƙunshi ma'adinin uranium da aka samo daga granites na ma'auni.

Taswirar saman tsaunukan Aïr
Taswirori na yanki na arewacin tsaunin Aïr

Yanayi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Guelta kusa da garin Timia a tsakiyar Aïr yana ba da ruwa a duk shekara a wani yanki mai bushewa.

Saboda tsayinsa (a matsakaita tsakanin 500 zuwa 900 m) kuma duk da karancin ruwan sama (50 zuwa 160 mm/shekara a kan ƙasan tudu), Aïr ya zama yanki mai kore idan aka kwatanta da hamadar da ke kewaye, musamman bayan ruwan sama na yanayi na Agusta-Satumba. An rarraba yanayin a matsayin Sahel, kamar na yankunan da ke kudu. Yayin da tsaunuka ba su da ciyayi, busasshiyar kogin rafin (wanda aka sani da kalmar Hausa " Kori ") tashar ruwa kuma tana riƙe da ruwan sama a cikin gueltas ( tafkunan dutse, kamar na kusa da garin Timia ), suna haifar da tudun ruwa waɗanda ke ba da abinci ga abinci. dabbobi, da kuma a wasu wuraren, noma. Babban tudun Bagzane na tsakiyar Aïr musamman yana ba da isasshen ruwan sama don aikin noma. Sauran, faffadan yankunan yankin ba su da rayuwar shuka gaba ɗaya kuma tare da hawan dutse da filayen dutse suna ba da bayyanar wata duniyar.

Tsire-tsire[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Fiye da nau'in jijiyoyi 430 an rubuta su zuwa yanzu a cikin tsaunukan Aïr. [4] Wurin da Aïr yake a matsayin tsattsauran kudu na tsaunukan Hoggar ya sa ya zama alaƙa tsakanin Saharan Flora da Sahelian Flora. Duk da haka, kasancewar tsaunuka har zuwa 2000 m asl yana haifar da yanayi mai kyau a cikin gida don nau'o'in nau'in yankin Sudan da yankin Bahar Rum. [5]

A cikin karni na 20 jerin ayyukan kimiyya a cikin Aïr sun ba da izinin gano yawancin nau'in tsire-tsire masu tasowa a cikin Aïr. [6] [7] [8] Vachelia tortilis, subsp. raddiana ( afagag ) and Balanites aegyptiaca ( aborak </link> ) suna daga cikin nau'in bishiyar da aka fi sani da shi a yankin tsaunuka. A cikin kusancin koguna na wucin gadi mai suna koris, nau'ikan kamar Vachellia nilotica, Faidherbia albida da dabino Hyphaene thebaica suna tare da dabino cultivars ( Phoenix dactylifera ). Tsananin fari da ƙazamar fari sun sanya yankin tsaunuka na Aïr ya zama wuri mai tsauri musamman don tsiro. [9] Ƙarin kasancewar tsire-tsire na cikin gida ya haifar da raguwa mai tsanani a cikin farfadowar bishiyoyi, wanda aka ambata a matsayin babban damuwa na muhalli. [10] An lura da farfadowar bishiya da zaran an kare tsire-tsire ta hanyar manyan tussocks na ciyawa mai yawa Panicum turgidum . [11] Wannan kyakkyawar mu'amala tsakanin tsire-tsire tana wakiltar kayan aikin maido da alƙawarin da mazauna gida za su yi amfani da su.

Idan aka kwatanta, wuraren tsaunuka ba su da cikakkun bayanai. An bayyana nau'in itatuwan wurare masu zafi waɗanda ba su da ƙarfin fari a cikin tsaunuka, daga cikinsu akwai Fabaceae Senegalia laeta da Vachellia seyal . [12] Quezel [13] ya lura da raguwar kasancewar harajin da ba a taɓa samun irinsa ba mai alaƙa da zaitun a ɓangaren arewa na kewayon Aïr. Kwanan nan, wannan taxon, Olea europaea subsp. laperrinei, an samo shi a cikin wasu tsaunuka na Aïr: waɗannan keɓaɓɓu, ƙananan mutane suna wakiltar iyakar kudancin rarraba nau'in. [14]

Wani bincike da aka gudanar a kan gangaren babban taron koli a Aïr, Mont Idoukal-n-Taghès (2022 m asl), ya gano nau'in tsiro da ba a taɓa yin ƙirƙira a Nijar ba. [15] Daga cikin su, Pachycymbium decaisneanum, Cleome aculeata, Echinops mildbraedii da Indigofera nummularia sune nau'in yanayi na wurare masu zafi tare da ƙananan juriya ga matsalolin ruwa, yayin da Silene lynesii, Tephrosia elegans, da Echinops mildbraedii suna da rarraba Saharan-Mediterrane. An samo ferns guda uku a karon farko a cikin Aïr kwanan nan, Cheilanthes coriacea, Actiniopteris radiata, da Ophioglossum polyphyllum, yana nuna cewa ferns na iya zama mai saurin haɓakawa a cikin yanayi mara kyau fiye da yadda aka saba. [16] Duk waɗannan bayanan suna tabbatar da ƙayyadaddun yanayin tsaunin tsaunuka a cikin Aïr, tare da tasiri mai kyau akan wadatar jinsuna da bambancin jinsuna. Saboda ƙaƙƙarfan keɓantawar yanki a cikin matrix na Sahara, waɗannan nau'ikan suna da ƙimar kiyayewa sosai. [17]

Yawan jama'a[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Garin Agadez dake tsakiyar kasar Abzinawa shine babban birnin Aïr. Yawancin al'ummar Abzinawa na Aïr har zuwa kwanan nan sun yi rayuwa ta makiyaya, sun dogara da raƙuma da awaki daga inda suke shan madara, nama da fatun da ake amfani da su wajen kera kayan aikin hannu. Yawancin mutanen da ba su da zaman rayuwa ko dai sun dogara da manyan makiyayan Abzinawa makiyaya ko kuma Ikelan ( Bouzou in Hausa / Bella in Songhai ), tsoffin bayi da fursunonin Abzinawa daga Hausawa da sauran mutanen kudu. Waɗannan al'ummai sun zauna ne a yankunan arewaci, don yin kiwon dashen dabino da manyan dangi suke yi.

Kayayyakin noma daga oases irin su Timia, Aouderas da Tabelot an saba musayar su da tufafi, ko gishiri, waɗanda ayarin raƙuma ( Azalai ) ke kawowa daga tudun Tenere mai nisa na Bilma da Fachi zuwa gabas.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Taswirar tsaunin Air na kudanci.

An san Aïr don fasahar dutsen sa, tun daga 6000 KZ zuwa kusan 1000CE. A lokacin sanyin Afirka, yankin yanki ne na makiyaya, kamar yadda hotunan shanu da manyan dabbobi masu shayarwa ke nunawa. A cikin karni na 3 BC, duk da haka, wani tsari na kwararowar hamada ya fara kuma Abzinawa daga arewa maso gabas sun yi hijira zuwa yankin. Daga baya zane-zane ya nuna yaki, yana kwatanta dawakai da karusai . Musamman ma, zane-zane mai tsayin mita biyar na " Dabous Giraffes " da aka gano a 1999 ya shahara a duniya. Kogon kogo a yankin galibi sassaƙa ne na dutse, da farko tare da dutse mai kaifi, kuma daga kusan 1200 BC watakila da ƙarfe. [18]

Lokacin da Turawa mahara suka tura kabilar Abzinawa kudu a karni na takwas da tara, akwai Gobirwa Hausa a kudancin Aïr. Abzinawa Kel s da suka ci nasara sun mallaki yankin tun aƙalla karni na goma sha biyu. Agadez, da kuma In-Gall a gabas, sune mafi nisa daga cikin daular Songhai a farkon karni na 15. A cikin karni na goma sha shida, yankin ya fada karkashin sabuwar gwamnatin Abzinawa da aka kirkiro na Agadez, kuma ya kasance a haka har zuwan Faransanci a karshen 19th.

Bayanin ra'ayi, yana nuna Talak zuwa yamma da hamadar Tenere zuwa gabashin tsaunin Air.

Samuwar Faransawa ya raunana Abzinawa Kels kuma ya haifar da fadace-fadace da tsayin daka ga mulkin mallaka. Tun daga shekarun 1880, hare-haren Toubu ya karu, kuma lokacin da Tuareg Ag Mohammed Wau Teguidda Kaocen ya tashi da Faransa a 1917, an lalata garuruwa da yawa a kan hanyarsa ta zuwa Agadez. Lokacin da Faransawa suka sake kwace Agadez, wani mummunan balaguron azabtarwa ta hanyar Aïr ya bar wurare da yawa a baya sun yi watsi da su, Kaosen da Faransawa suka lalata su a jere.

Yayin da Kel Owey ya ci gaba da mamaye garuruwan da ke zaune a bakin teku da kiwo, manoma masu zaman kansu (Tuareg, Hausa, ko Songhai) sun fadada noma da kiwo marasa zaman lafiya a tsakiyar karni na 20.

Yunwa a shekarun 1970 da 1980 ta kawo karshen wannan fadada, kuma yayin da Agadez da Arlit suka girma, garuruwan Aïr sun ragu. Tawayen Abzinawa na farko na 1990-95 ya ga mummunan ramuwar gayya da gwamnati ta yi wanda ya lalata ƙauyuka da yawa a cikin Aïr. Zaman lafiya daga tsakiyar shekarun 1990, da ma'adinin Uranium na Arlit ya kawo ci gaban da ba a taba ganin irinsa ba a yankin, tare da kananan garuruwa da yawa suna samun kudaden shiga na yawon bude ido. A cikin 2004, mamayewar fari ya lalata gonaki da yawa, wanda ya kawo karanci kuma ya ba da gudummawa ga Tawayen Abzinawa na Biyu na 2007-2009. Ana ci gaba da tashe tashen hankula a yankin, tare da kawo karshen sana'ar yawon bude ido da ta fara yi. [19]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. The diaresis over the i notes that it should be pronounced separately and not together with the a. Occasionally also spelled without it as Air or the Air of Niger.
  2. Empty citation (help)
  3. [rst.gsfc.nasa.gov/Sect17/Sect17_3.html Use of Remote Sensing in Basic Science Studies], Section 17, NASA/Primary Author: Nicholas M. Short, Sr. (Site last updated: June 18, 2007).
  4. Bruneau de Miré, P. & Gillet, H. 1956. Contribution à l'étude de la flore du massif de l'Aïr – Première partie. Journal d'Agronomie Tropicale et de Botanique Appliquée 3,422–438
  5. Poilecot in Giazzi, F., 1996. Étude initiale – la Réserve Naturelle Nationale de l'Aïr et du Ténéré (Niger) – connaissance des éléments du milieu naturel et humain dans le cadre d'orientations pour un aménagement et une conservation durables – analyse descriptive. MH/E, WWF, UICN, Gland, Suisse, 712 pages
  6. Empty citation (help)
  7. Peyre de Fabrègues, B. & Lebrun, J.P., 1976. Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Niger. IEMVT, Maisons Alfort
  8. Bruneau de Miré, P. & Gillet, H. 1956. Contribution à l'étude de la flore du massif de l'Aïr – Première partie. Journal d'Agronomie Tropicale et de Botanique Appliquée 3,422–438
  9. Poilecot in Giazzi, F., 1996. Étude initiale – la Réserve Naturelle Nationale de l'Aïr et du Ténéré (Niger) – connaissance des éléments du milieu naturel et humain dans le cadre d'orientations pour un aménagement et une conservation durables – analyse descriptive. MH/E, WWF, UICN, Gland, Suisse, 712 pages
  10. Fabien Anthelme, Maman Waziri Mato, Dimitri de Boissieu et Franck Giazzi 2006. http://vertigo.revues.org/2224
  11. Empty citation (help)
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  13. Quézel, P., 1965. La végétation du Sahara, du Tchad à la Mauritanie. Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart, Germany
  14. Anthelme, F., Abdoulkader, A. & Besnard, G. 2008. https://doi.org/10.1007%2Fs11258-007-9386-6
  15. Empty citation (help)
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  18. Trust for African Rock Art. ROCK ART OF SAHARA AND NORTH AFRICA:THEMATIC STUDY. David COULSON. Sub-Zone 3: Niger (June 2007).
  19. Geels (2006)