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Daular Songhai

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Daular Songhai

Wuri
Map
 16°N 0°E / 16°N 0°E / 16; 0

Babban birni Gao (gari)
Yawan mutane
Harshen gwamnati Harsunan Songhay
Addini Musulunci
Bayanan tarihi
Mabiyi Gao Empire (en) Fassara
Ƙirƙira 1464
Rushewa 12 ga Maris, 1591
Tsarin Siyasa
Tsarin gwamnati Sarauta
Ikonomi
Kuɗi cowrie currency (en) Fassara
Daular Songhai

Wuri
Map
 16°N 0°E / 16°N 0°E / 16; 0

Babban birni Gao (gari)
Yawan mutane
Harshen gwamnati Harsunan Songhay
Addini Musulunci
Bayanan tarihi
Mabiyi Gao Empire (en) Fassara
Ƙirƙira 1464
Rushewa 12 ga Maris, 1591
Tsarin Siyasa
Tsarin gwamnati Sarauta
Ikonomi
Kuɗi cowrie currency (en) Fassara


Daular Songhai (Kuma an fassarata da Songhay ) jiha ce da ta mamaye yammacin Sahel /Sudan a karni na 15 da 16. A kololuwarta, ta kasance ɗaya daga cikin manyan jihohi a tarihin Afirka. An Kuma san jihar da sunanta na tarihi, wanda aka samo daga manyan ƙabilanta da masu mulki, Songhai. Sonni Ali ya kafa Gao a matsayin babban birnin daular duk da cewa jihar Songhai ta wanzu a ciki da wajen Gao tun karni na 11. Sauran muhimman biranen daular sune Timbuktu da Djenné, da aka ci a shekarun 1468 da 1475 bi da bi, inda kuma kasuwancin da ya shafi birane ya bunƙasa kuma a kudu akwai jihar Akan ta arewa ta Bonoman. Da farko, daular Sonni ( c. 1464 ), amma daga baya aka maye gurbinsa da daular Askia (1493-1901).[1]

A cikin rabin na biyu na karni na 13, Gao da yankin da ke kewaye sun zama muhimmiyar cibiyar kasuwanci kuma sun jawo sha'awar faɗaɗa daular Mali. Mali ta ci Gao a karshen karni na 13. Gao zai ci gaba da kasancewa karkashin mulkin Mali har zuwa karshen karni na 14. Yayin da daular Mali ta fara wargajewa, Songhai ya sake tabbatar da ikon Gao. Daga baya sarakunan Songhai sun yi amfani da damar daular Mali mai rauni wajen faɗaɗa mulkin Songhai.[2]

Ƙarƙashin mulkin Sonni Ali, Songhai ya zarce daular Mali a waje, dukiya, da mulki, inda ta mamaye yankuna da dama na daular Mali, kuma ta kai ga mafi girma. Ɗansa kuma magajinsa, Sonni Bāru (1492-1493), ya kasance mai mulkin da bai samu nasara ba, don haka Muhammad Ture (1493-1528; wanda ake kira Askia), ɗaya daga cikin janar na mahaifinsa, wanda ya kafa siyasa da tattalin arziki ya hambarar da shi gyare-gyare a cikin daular.

Makirci da juyin mulki da magadan Askia suka yi sun tilasta wa daular cikin wani lokaci na raguwa da rashin zaman lafiya. 'Yan uwan Askia sun yi ƙoƙari su mallaki daular, amma rikice-rikicen siyasa da yakin basasa da yawa a cikin daular sun tabbatar da ci gaba da raguwa, musamman a lokacin mulkin Askia Ishaq I (1539-1549). Masarautar ta sami kwanciyar hankali da tarin nasarorin soja a zamanin mulkin Askia Daoud (1549-1582/1583). Ahmad al-Mansur, Sarkin Moroko a lokacin, ya bukaci kuɗaɗen haraji daga ma'adinan string na daular.

Askia Ishaq II (1588-1591) ta hau kan karagar mulki a cikin doguwar gwagwarmayar daular bayan rasuwar Askia Daoud. Shi ne zai zama sarki na ƙarshe na daular Songhai, domin a cikin shekarar 1590, al-Mansur ya yi amfani da damar da aka yi a cikin daular kwanan nan a cikin daular kuma ya aika da sojoji karkashin jagorancin Judar Pasha don cin nasara da Songhai kuma don samun iko da Trans-Hanyoyin kasuwancin Sahara. Bayan mummunan shan kashi a yakin Tondibi (1591), daular Songhai ta rushe.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Pre-imperial Songhai[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Daular Songhai ta maye gurbin Mali a matsayin daula mafi mahimmanci a yammacin Afirka (wanda ta shafi jihohin Niger, Mali, Mauritania, Senegal, Nigeria, Guinea, Gambia, Algeria (kudu), Burkina Faso, da Ivory Coast). Da farko a matsayin ƙaramin masarauta kusa da gabashin kogin Niger, Songhai zai faɗaɗa ƙasarsu sosai tun daga zamanin Sarki Sunni Ali (1464-1492). A zamanin da, akwai ƙungiyoyin mutane da yawa waɗanda suka kafa asalin Songhai tare. Daga cikin mutanen farko da suka fara zama a yankin Gao akwai 'yan kabilar Sorko, wadanda suka kafa kananan matsuguni a gabar kogin Neja. Sorko sun kera kwale-kwale da kwale-kwale daga itacen bishiyar cailcedrat kuma suna kamun kifi da farauta daga cikin kwale-kwalen da suke ciki tare da ba da jigilar ruwa ta kaya da mutane. Wani rukuni na mutanen da suka shiga yankin don rayuwa ba tare da albarkatun Nijar ba su ne mutanen Gao. Gao sun kasance mafarauta kuma sun kware wajen farautar dabbobin kogi kamar kada da hippopotamus.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Sauran rukunin mutanen da aka sani da zama a yankin su ne mutanen Do. Manoma ne da suka yi noman noma a kasashe masu albarka da ke iyaka da kogin. Wani lokaci kuma kafin karni na 10, waɗannan matsugunan farko sun sami galaba a kansu da mafi ƙarfi, masu magana da doki na Songhai, waɗanda suka kafa iko a yankin. Duk kuma waɗannan rukunin mutane sun fara magana da yare ɗaya a hankali kuma a ƙarshe aka san su da ƙasarsu da sunan Songhai.[3] :49

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Bethwell A. Ogot, Africa from the Sixteenth to the Eighteenth Century, (UNESCO Publishing, 2000), 303.
  2. Hunwick, John O. (2003-01-01). Timbuktu and the Songhay Empire: Al-Saʿdi's Taʾrīkh Al-Sūdān Down to 1613, and Other Contemporary Documents. BRILL. ISBN 978-90-04-12822-4.
  3. David C. Conrad (2009). Empires of Medieval West Africa.