Wuce gona da Iri

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Wikidata.svgWuce gona da Iri
Surexploitation morue surpêcheEn.jpg
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na exploitation of natural resources (en) Fassara
Yana haddasa biodiversity loss (en) Fassara da resource depletion (en) Fassara
Has quality (en) Fassara excess (en) Fassara
An yi amfani da hannun jarin kwafin Atlantika sosai a cikin shekarun 1970 da 1980, wanda ya kai ga rugujewarsu a cikin 1992.[1]

Wuce gona da iri, wanda kuma ake kira overharvesting , yana nufin girbi albarkatun da za'a iya sabuntawa. Cigaba da yin amfani da shi zai iya haifar da lalata albarkatun. Kalmar ta shafi albarkatun kasa kamar: tsire-tsire na magani na daji, wuraren kiwo, dabbobin nama, kifin kifi, dazuzzuka, da magudanan ruwa.[2]

A cikin ilimin halittu, wuce gona da iri yana kwatanta ɗayan manyan ayyuka biyar da ke barazana ga bambancin halittun duniya. Masanan ilimin halittu suna amfani da kalmar don bayyana yawan al'ummar da aka girbe bisa ƙima, idan aka yi la'akari da adadin mace-macen su na halitta da kuma damar haifuwa. Wannan na iya haifar da ɓacewa a matakin yawan jama'a har ma da bacewar dukkanin nau'ikan. A cikin ilimin halitta na kiyayewa, yawanci ana amfani da kalmar a cikin mahallin ayyukan tattalin arzikin ɗan adam wanda ya haɗa da ɗaukar albarkatun halittu, ko kwayoyin halitta, cikin adadi mai yawa fiye da yadda al'ummarsu za su iya jurewa.[3] Hakanan ana amfani da kalmar da ma'anar ta ɗan bambanta a cikin kamun kifi, ilimin ruwa da sarrafa albarkatun ƙasa .

Yin amfani da wuce gona da iri na iya haifar da lalata albarkatun ƙasa, gami da ɓarna . Duk da haka, yana yiwuwa kuma yin amfani da wuce gona da iri ya kasance mai dorewa, kamar yadda aka tattauna a kasa a sashin kifaye. A cikin mahallin kamun kifi, ana iya amfani da kalmar kifin fiye da kifaye maimakon amfani da yawa, kamar yadda za a iya wuce gona da iri a cikin sarrafa hannun jari, wuce gona da iri a kula da gandun daji, wuce gona da iri a kula da ruwa, da kuma haɗarin nau'ikan sa ido kan nau'ikan. Yin amfani da wuce gona da iri ba aiki ne da aka keɓe ga ɗan adam ba. Gabatar da mafarauta da namun daji, alal misali, na iya wuce gona da iri ga flora da fauna na asali.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Lokacin da manyan tsuntsayen da ba su tashi ba da ake kira moa suka yi amfani da su da yawa har zuwa halaka, babbar gaggafa ta Haast da ta fara kama su ita ma ta bace.[4]

Damuwa game da wuce gona da iri na baya-bayan nan, kodayake yawan amfani da kansa ba sabon abu bane. An lura da shi tsawon shekaru dubu. Misali, rigar biki da sarakunan Hawai suka sanya daga tsuntsun mamo;[5] alkyabba daya ya yi amfani da gashin fuka-fukan tsuntsaye 70,000 na wannan nau'in da ya mutu a yanzu. Dodo, tsuntsu mai tashi daga Mauritius, wani sanannen misali ne na wuce gona da iri. Kamar yadda yake da nau'ikan tsibirai da yawa, ya kasance butulci ne game da wasu mafarauta, suna barin mutane su kusanci su kashe shi cikin sauƙi.

Tun daga farko-farko, farauta ya kasance muhimmin aikin ɗan adam a matsayin hanyar tsira. Akwai cikakken tarihin wuce gona da iri ta hanyar wuce gona da iri. Hasashen da ya wuce kima (abubuwan da suka faru na Quaternary extinction) sun bayyana dalilin da yasa bacewar megafaunal ya faru a cikin ɗan gajeren lokaci. Ana iya samun wannan zuwa ƙauran ɗan adam.[6] Shaidar da ta fi dacewa da wannan ƙa'idar ita ce, kashi 80 cikin 100 na manyan nau'in dabbobi masu shayarwa a Arewacin Amurka sun bace a cikin shekaru 1000 na zuwan mutane a nahiyoyin yammacin duniya. [7] Bacewa mafi sauri da aka taɓa yi na megafauna ya faru ne a New Zealand, inda a shekara ta 1500 AD, shekaru 200 kacal bayan daidaita tsibiran, Māori suka fara farautar nau'ikan manyan tsuntsayen moa guda goma don ɓacewa.[8] Guguwar rugujewa ta biyu ta faru daga baya tare da zama na Turai.

A cikin ƴan lokutan baya-bayan nan, wuce gona da iri ya haifar da fitowar hankali na ra'ayoyin dorewa da ci gaba mai dorewa, wanda ya gina kan wasu ra'ayoyi, irin su ci gaba mai ɗorewa,[9] haɓakar yanayi,[10] da kuma zurfin ilimin halittu.[11][12]

Bayanin[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yin amfani da yawa ba dole ba ne ya kai ga lalata albarkatun, kuma ba lallai ba ne ya zama rashin dorewa. Koyaya, rage lambobi ko adadin albarkatun na iya canza ingancin sa. Misali, dabino na ƙafar ƙafa itace dabinon daji da ake samu a kudu maso gabashin Asiya. Ana amfani da ganyen sa don tsutsawa da nade abinci, kuma girbi fiye da kima ya sa girman ganyen ya zama ƙarami.

Bala'in gama gari[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

 

Shanu akan Selsley Common.[13] Bala'i na gama gari misali ne mai amfani don fahimtar yadda wuce gona da iri na iya faruwa.

A cikin 1968, Mujallar Kimiyya ta buga labarin Garrett Hardin mai suna "Masifu na Jama'a".[14] Ya dogara ne akan misalin da William Forster Lloyd ya buga a shekara ta 1833 don bayyana yadda mutane da ba su da laifi suna yin abin da suke so ba tare da wani laifi ba za su iya wuce gona da iri da lalata, albarkatun da duk suke rabawa.[15] Lloyd ya bayyana sauƙaƙan yanayin hasashe dangane da zaman ƙasa na tsakiyar zamanai a Turai. Makiyaya suna raba kasa daya wanda kowannensu ke da haƙƙin yin kiwo a kai. A kasidar Hardin dai, yana daga cikin maslahar kowane makiyayi ya yi kiwo kowace sabuwar saniya da makiyayan ya samu a kasa ta gari, ko da kuwa an wuce gona da iri, wanda hakan ke lalata na kowa da kowa. Makiyayi mai son kansa yana samun duk fa'idodin samun ƙarin saniya, yayin da duk makiyayan ke raba lahani ga kowa. Duk da haka, duk makiyayan sun yanke shawara iri ɗaya na sayen ƙarin shanu da kuma kiwon su a kan na kowa, wanda a ƙarshe ya lalata na kowa. Hardin ya kammala:

A cikinta akwai musiba. Kowane mutum yana kulle a cikin tsarin da zai tilasta masa ya kara yawan garke ba tare da iyaka ba - a cikin duniyar da ke da iyaka. Lalacewa ita ce alkiblar da dukkan mazaje ke garzayawa zuwa gare su, kowa ya bi son ransa ga al'ummar da ta yi imani da ƴancin al'umma. Ƴanci a cikin gama gari yana kawo lalacewa ga kowa. :1244

A cikin muqalarsa, Hardin ya haɓaka jigon, yana zana misalai da yawa na gama gari na ƙarshe, kamar wuraren shakatawa na ƙasa, yanayi, tekuna, koguna da kifin kifi . Misalin kifin ya sa wasu suka kira wannan "mummunan masunta". Babban jigon da ke gudana a cikin maƙala shi ne haɓakar al'ummar ɗan adam, tare da ƙarancin albarkatu na duniya gabaɗaya.

Bala'i na gama-gari yana da tushen hankali tun daga Aristotle, wanda ya lura cewa "abin da ya fi dacewa da mafi girma yana da ƙarancin kulawa da aka ba shi", da kuma Hobbes da Leviathan . Sabanin yanayi zuwa bala'i na gama gari wani lokaci ana kiransa bala'i na anticommons : yanayin da mutane masu hankali, suna aiki daban, tare tare da bata albarkatu da aka bayar ta hanyar rashin amfani da shi.

Kiwon Kifi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ana iya guje wa bala'in gama gari idan an daidaita shi yadda ya kamata. An yi kuskuren fahimtar amfani da Hardin na "commons" akai-akai, wanda hakan ya sa Hardin ya yi magana daga baya cewa ya kamata ya ba da taken aikinsa "Masifu na gama-gari marasa tsari".

A halin yanzu ana amfani da ruwan tuna bluefin Atlantika fiye da kima. Masana kimiyya sun ce ton 7,500 a kowace shekara shine iyaka mai ɗorewa, duk da haka masana'antar kamun kifi na ci gaba da girbin ton 60,000.

A cikin kifin daji, yin amfani da kifin da yawa ko kifin na faruwa ne lokacin da aka kifaye kifin "a ƙasa da girman da, a matsakaita, zai goyi bayan dogon lokaci mai ɗorewa da yawan amfanin kifin". Koyaya, wuce gona da iri na iya zama mai ɗorewa. [16]

Lokacin da kamun kifi ya fara girbin kifi daga wani abin da ba a yi amfani da shi a baya ba, yanayin kifin zai ragu, tunda girbi yana nufin ana cire kifi. Domin dorewar, adadin da kifin ya cika biomass ta hanyar haifuwa dole ne ya daidaita adadin da ake girbe kifin. Idan yawan girbi ya karu, to, hajojin da aka samu zai kara raguwa. A wani lokaci, za a kai ga yawan amfanin gonar da za a iya dawwama, kuma yunƙurin ƙara yawan girbin zai haifar da rushewar kamun kifi. Ana kiran wannan batu matsakaicin yawan amfanin ƙasa mai ɗorewa, kuma a aikace, yawanci yana faruwa ne lokacin da aka kamun kifi zuwa kusan kashi 30 cikin ɗari na halittun da ake samu kafin girbi.

Zai yiwu a kifaye haja zuwa gaba, a ce, kashi 15% na abubuwan da aka girbe kafin girbi, sannan a daidaita yawan girbi don haka ƙwayoyin halitta ya kasance a wannan matakin. A wannan yanayin, kamun kifi yana dawwama, amma yanzu an yi amfani da shi sosai, saboda an yi amfani da haja zuwa matakin da yawan amfanin gona mai ɗorewa ya yi ƙasa da yadda zai iya zama.[17][18] [19][20]

An ce hannun jarin kifin yana “rushewa” idan kwayoyin halittarsu ya ragu da fiye da kashi 95 cikin 100 na mafi girman tarihin halittarsu. An yi amfani da hannun jarin kwafin Atlantika sosai a cikin shekarun 1970 da 1980, wanda ya kai ga rugujewarsu ba zato ba tsammani a 1992.[21] Duk da cewa an daina kamun kifi, kwad din ya kasa farfadowa. [1] Rashin kodin a matsayin babban mafarauci a yankuna da yawa ya haifar da rugujewar yanayi . [1]

Kimanin kashi 25 cikin 100 na kamun kifi a duniya yanzu ana amfani da su fiye da kima har ta kai matsayin da suke da shi a halin yanzu bai kai matakin da ke haɓaka yawan amfanin da suke samu ba.[22][23] Waɗannan ƙarancin kamun kifi na iya murmurewa sau da yawa idan an rage matsin kamun kifi har sai hajojin hajoji ya dawo ga mafi kyawun halitta. A wannan gaba, ana iya ci gaba da girbi kusa da matsakaicin yawan amfanin gona mai dorewa.[24]

Za a iya guje wa bala'in gama-gari a cikin mahallin kamun kifi idan an daidaita yunƙurin kamun kifi da ayyuka yadda ya kamata ta hanyar sarrafa kamun kifi . Hanya ɗaya mai tasiri mai yiwuwa ita ce sanya wasu ma'auni na mallaka a cikin nau'in ƙididdiga na mutum ɗaya (ITQs) ga masunta. A cikin 2008, babban binciken kifin da ke amfani da ITQ, da waɗanda ba su yi amfani da su ba, sun ba da ƙwaƙƙwaran shaida cewa ITQs na taimakawa hana rushewa da dawo da kamun kifin da ya bayyana yana raguwa.[25][26]A Rising Tide: Scientists find proof that privatising fishing stocks can avert a disaster The Economist, 18th Sept, 2008.</ref>

Albarkatun ruwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

 

Yin amfani da ruwan ƙasa da yawa daga magudanar ruwa na iya haifar da kololuwar karkatar ruwa .

Albarkatun ruwa, kamar tafkuna da magudanan ruwa, galibi albarkatu ne da za a iya sabunta su waɗanda a zahiri suke yin caji (kalmar burbushin ruwa wani lokaci ana amfani da shi don kwatanta magudanan ruwa waɗanda ba sa caji). Yin amfani da yawa yana faruwa idan an hako albarkatun ruwa, irin su Ogallala Aquifer, ko kuma an fitar da su a wani adadin da ya wuce adadin caji, wato, a wani adadin da ya zarce yawan amfanin da ake da shi. Yin caji yawanci yana zuwa daga rafukan yanki, koguna da tafkuna. Ruwan ruwa wanda aka yi amfani da shi da yawa ana cewa an yi shi fiye da kima ko kuma ya ƙare. Dazuzzukan suna haɓaka aikin ruwa na ruwa a wasu yankuna, kodayake gabaɗaya dazuzzuka sune tushen raguwar raƙuman ruwa. Ragewar magudanan ruwa na iya zama gurɓata da gurɓatattun abubuwa kamar su nitrates, ko kuma lalacewa ta dindindin ta hanyar tsira ko ta kutsawar saline daga teku.

Wannan yana juya yawancin ruwan karkashin kasa da tafkuna na duniya zuwa ga iyakataccen albarkatu tare da muhawarar amfani da kololuwa irin na mai.[27]

Waɗannan muhawara galibi suna ta'allaka ne kan noma da amfani da ruwa na kewayen birni amma samar da wutar lantarki daga makamashin nukiliya ko ma'adinin kwal da kwalta shima yana da matukar tasiri akan albarkatun ruwa.[28] Gyaran lanƙwan Hubbert ya shafi kowane albarkatun da za a iya girbe da sauri fiye da yadda za a iya maye gurbinsa.[29] Ko da yake ainihin binciken Hubbert bai shafi albarkatun da ake sabunta su ba, yawan amfani da su na iya haifar da kololuwar Hubbert.[30] Wannan ya haifar da tunanin kololuwar ruwa.[31][32]

Albarkatun gandun daji[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

 

Bayyanar yanke tsoffin dazuzzukan a Kanada.

An yi amfani da gandun daji fiye da kima idan aka yi amfani da su cikin sauri fiye da yadda ake sake dazuzzuka . Gyaran gandun daji yana gogayya da sauran amfanin ƙasa kamar samar da abinci, kiwo, da wuraren zama don ƙarin haɓakar tattalin arziki. Yin amfani da dazuzzuka a tarihi, da suka hada da katako da itacen mai, sun taka muhimmiyar rawa a cikin al'ummomin bil'adama, kwatankwacin matsayin ruwa da filayen noma. A yau, ƙasashen da suka ci gaba suna ci gaba da yin amfani da katako don gina gidaje, da kuma katako na takarda. A ƙasashe masu tasowa kusan mutane biliyan uku sun dogara da itace don dumama da dafa abinci.[33] Ribar tattalin arziki na ɗan gajeren lokaci da aka samu ta hanyar sauya gandun daji zuwa aikin noma, ko yawan amfani da kayan itace, yawanci yana haifar da asarar kuɗin shiga na dogon lokaci da haɓakar ilimin halitta na dogon lokaci. Yammacin Afirka, Madagascar, Kudu maso Gabashin Asiya da sauran yankuna da dama sun sami raguwar kudaden shiga saboda yawan amfani da kuma raguwar girbin katako.[34]

Halittu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bambance-bambancen arziƙin rayuwar ruwa da ke zaune a cikin murjani reefs yana jan hankalin masu binciken halittu . Yawancin murjani reefs an yi amfani da su sosai; barazanar sun haɗa da haƙar murjani, cyanide da kamun kifi, da kuma kifin gaba ɗaya.

wuce gona da iri na ɗaya daga cikin manyan barazana ga bambancin halittu a duniya. Sauran barazanar sun hada da gurbatar yanayi, gabatarwa da nau'in cin zarafi, rarrabuwar kawuna, lalata muhalli, [2] haɓakar yanayi ba tare da kulawa ba,[35][36] canjin yanayi,[37] acidification na teku da direban bayan yawancin waɗannan, yawan mutane.[38]

Ɗaya daga cikin mahimman batutuwan kiwon lafiya da ke da alaƙa da bambancin halittu shine gano magunguna da wadatar albarkatun magani.[39] Matsakaicin adadin magunguna samfuran halitta ne waɗanda aka samo, kai tsaye ko a kaikaice, daga tushen ilimin halitta. Tsarin muhalli na ruwa yana da sha'awa ta musamman akan wannan.[40] Koyaya, rashin tsari da rashin dacewa bioprospecting na iya haifar da wuce gona da iri, lalata yanayin muhalli da asarar bambancin halittu.[41][42][43]

Dabbobin da ke cikin haɗari da batattu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ba mutane kaɗai ke yin amfani da albarkatu ba. Fauna na iya haifar da wuce gona da iri, kamar yadda aka nuna a hannun dama na sama. Koyaya, wuce gona da iri na ɗan adam (wanda ke haifar da kawar da wasu mafarauta) na iya kasancewa a bayan lamarin.

Nau'in nau'ikan nau'ikan nau'ikan nau'ikan fauna da flora suna fama da wuce gona da iri.[44] [45]

Duk rayayyun halittu suna buƙatar albarkatu don tsira. Yin amfani da waɗannan albarkatu fiye da kima na dogon lokaci na iya lalata haja na halitta har ta kai ga ba za su iya murmurewa cikin ɗan gajeren lokaci ba.[46] Ƴan Adam koyaushe suna girbe abinci da sauran albarkatun da suke buƙata don tsira. Yawan jama'a, a tarihi, ƙanana ne, kuma hanyoyin tattarawa sun iyakance ga ƙananan adadi. Tare da karuwa mai ma'ana a cikin yawan ɗan adam, faɗaɗa kasuwanni da haɓaka buƙatu, haɗe tare da ingantattun hanyoyin shiga da dabaru don kamawa, suna haifar da cin gajiyar nau'ikan nau'ikan da yawa fiye da matakan dorewa. [47] A cikin sharuɗɗan aiki, idan aka ci gaba, yana rage albarkatu masu mahimmanci zuwa irin waɗannan ƙananan matakan cewa amfani da su ba ya dawwama kuma zai iya haifar da lalacewa na nau'in nau'in, ban da samun sakamako mai ban mamaki, wanda ba a yi tsammani ba, a kan yanayin muhalli.[48] Yawan amfani da yawa yana faruwa da sauri yayin da kasuwanni ke buɗewa, suna amfani da albarkatun da ba a taɓa amfani da su a baya ba, ko nau'in da ake amfani da su a cikin gida.

An farautar parakeet na Carolina don bacewa.

A yau, wuce gona da iri da yin amfani da albarkatun ƙasa wata barazana ce da ta zama barazana ga wadatar nau'ikan.[49] Wannan ya fi yaduwa idan aka kalli ilimin halittu na tsibirin da nau'in da ke zaune a cikin su, kamar yadda tsibiran za a iya kallon su a matsayin duniya a cikin ƙanƙanta. Yawan jama'ar tsibiri sun fi fuskantar halaka daga wuce gona da iri, saboda galibi suna wanzuwa a ƙananan yawa tare da rage yawan haihuwa. Kyakkyawan misali na wannan shine katantanwa na tsibirin, irin su Hawaiian Achatinella da Faransanci Polynesia Partula. Katantanwa na Achatineline suna da nau'ikan nau'ikan nau'ikan 15 da aka jera a matsayin batattu da 24 da ke cikin haɗari yayin da nau'ikan partulidae 60 ana ɗaukar su bace tare da 14 da aka jera a matsayin masu haɗari. WCMC sun dangana tara sama da fadi da ƙarancin rayuwa don tsananin rauni da aka nuna a tsakanin waɗannan nau'ikan.[50]

A matsayin wani misali, lokacin da aka gabatar da bushiya mai ƙasƙantar da kai zuwa tsibirin Uist na Scotland, yawan jama'a ya faɗaɗa sosai kuma suka ɗauki cinyewa da yin amfani da ƙwai na bakin teku, tare da sakamako mai tsanani ga nasarar kiwo. An shafe nau'ikan avifauna goma sha biyu, yayin da wasu nau'ikan nau'ikan an rage su da kashi 39%.[51]

Inda akwai ƙaura na ɗan adam, tashin hankalin jama'a, ko yaƙi, ƙila ba za a iya samun iko ba. Tare da tashe-tashen hankula, alal misali a Kongo da Ruwanda, bindigogi sun zama ruwan dare gama gari kuma rugujewar hanyoyin rarraba abinci a irin waɗannan ƙasashe suna barin albarkatun muhalli cikin haɗari.[52] Har ma ana kashe dabbobi a matsayin abin da aka yi niyya, ko kuma kawai don nuna adawa da gwamnati. Yawan jama'a na manyan primates, irin su gorillas da chimpanzees, ungulates da sauran dabbobi masu shayarwa, ana iya rage su da kashi 80 ko fiye ta hanyar farauta, kuma ana iya kawar da wasu nau'ikan gaba ɗaya.[53] Ana kiran wannan raguwar rikicin nama.[54]

Masu Ƙashin baya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yin amfani da wuce gona da iri yana barazana da kashi ɗaya bisa uku na kashin baya da ke cikin haɗari, da kuma sauran ƙungiyoyi. Ban da kifin da ake ci, cinikin namun daji ba bisa ƙa'ida ba yana da darajar dala biliyan 10 a kowace shekara. Masana'antun da ke da alhakin hakan sun haɗa da cinikin naman daji, da cinikin magunguna na kasar Sin, da kuma cinikin gashin gashi.[55] [2] An kafa Yarjejeniyar Ciniki ta ƙasa da ƙasa a cikin nau'ikan dabbobin daji da ke cikin haɗari, ko CITES don sarrafawa da daidaita cinikin dabbobin da ke cikin haɗari. A halin yanzu tana ba da kariya, zuwa mataki daban-daban, wasu nau'ikan dabbobi da tsirrai 33,000. An yi kiyasin cewa ƙashi ɗaya bisa huɗu na kashin baya a cikin Amurka da rabin dabbobi masu shayarwa ana danganta su da wuce gona da iri.[56]

Tsuntsaye[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Gabaɗaya, nau'ikan tsuntsaye 50 waɗanda suka bace tun daga 1500 (kimanin 40% na jimillar) an yi amfani da su fiye da ƙima, [57] gami da:

  • Great Auk - tsuntsu mai kama da penguin na arewa, ana farautar gashinsa, nama, mai da mai.
  • Carolina parakeet - nau'in aku daya tilo daga gabashin Amurka, an farauto don kare amfanin gona da gashinsa.

Dabbobi masu shayarwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Ciniki na ƙasa da ƙasa a cikin Jawo: chinchilla, vicuña, giant otter da nau'in maguna masu yawa

Kifi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Masu sha'awar aquarium : kifin wurare masu zafi

Daban-daban[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Dabbobin gida na zamani: maciji, aku, primates da manyan kuliyoyi
  • Magungunan kasar Sin:[58] bears, damisa, karkanda, dawakan teku, baƙar fata na Asiya da tururuwa saiga[59]

Dabbobi marasa ƙashin baya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tsire-tsire[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Masu horticulturists : New Zealand mistletoe ( Trilepidea adamsii ), orchids, cacti da sauran nau'ikan tsirirrika masu yawa.


Tasirin Cascade[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yawan amfani da otters na teku ya haifar da illar da ke lalata dajin kelp.

Yin amfani da nau'in fiye da kima na iya haifar da ƙwanƙwasa ko ɓarna. Wannan na iya aiki musamman idan, ta hanyar amfani da wuce gona da iri, wurin zama ya yi hasarar mafarauci koli . Saboda hasarar babban mafarauci, karuwa mai ban mamaki a cikin nau'in ganima na iya faruwa. Hakazalika, abin da ba a kula da shi ba zai iya yin amfani da albarkatun abincin nasu fiye da kima har sai yawan jama'a ya ragu, mai yiyuwa zuwa ga halaka.

Misali na yau da kullun na tasirin cascade ya faru tare da otters na teku . An fara kafin ƙarni na 17 kuma ba a daina ba har sai 1911, an fara farautar ƴan fashin teku don tsananin zafi da kima mai mahimmanci, wanda zai iya kaiwa $2500 US. Wannan ya haifar da tasiri ta hanyar yanayin yanayin dajin kelp tare da Tekun Pacific na Arewacin Amurka.[60]

Ɗaya daga cikin tushen kalar abinci na otters na teku shine urchins na teku . Lokacin da mafarauta suka haifar da raguwar yawan otter na teku, an sami sakin al'amuran muhalli na yawan urchins na teku. Sa'an nan kuma urchins na teku sun yi amfani da babban tushen abincin su, kelp, suna haifar da bakararre, wuraren da ke bakin teku da kelp, amma an yi su da urchin. Bayan samun abincin da za a ci, uban tekun ya zama bace a cikin gida ma. Hakanan, tun da yake Kelp na Kelp na Kelp sune gidaje zuwa wasu nau'in da yawa, asarar Kelp ta haifar da wasu tasirin cascade na lalata.[61]

A shekara ta 1911, sa’ad da ƙaramin rukuni guda 32 ne kawai suka tsira a wani wuri mai nisa, an rattaba hannu kan wata yarjejeniya ta ƙasa da ƙasa don hana ci gaba da yin amfani da tsaunukan teku. Ƙarƙashin kariya mai nauyi, otters sun ninka kuma sun sake mamaye wuraren da suka lalace, waɗanda sannu a hankali suka dawo. Kwanan nan, tare da raguwar kifin kifaye, kuma saboda yawan amfani da kifaye, kifayen kifaye sun fuskanci ƙarancin abinci kuma an lura da su suna ciyar da dodanni na teku, suna sake rage yawansu.[62]

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Ci gaba da karatu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]