Yancin Bayanai

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Ƴancin bayanai shine ƴancin mutum ko mutane su buga da cinye bayanai. Samun bayanai shine ikon mutum don nema, karɓa da kuma ba da bayanai yadda ya kamata. Wannan wani lokaci ya haɗa da "ilimin kimiyya, ƴan asali, da na gargajiya; 'yancin yin bayanai, gina albarkatun ilimi, ciki har da bude Intanet da ka'idoji na budewa, da budewa da samun damar bayanai; adana kayan tarihi na dijital ; girmama bambancin al'adu da harshe, irin su. a matsayin haɓaka damar yin amfani da abun ciki na gida a cikin harsuna masu isa; ingantaccen ilimi ga kowa da kowa, gami da tsawon rai da koyan e-e-ilimi ; watsa sabbin kafofin watsa labarai da ilimin ilimi da ƙwarewa, da haɗaɗɗiyar zamantakewa akan layi, gami da magance rashin daidaito dangane da ƙwarewa, ilimi, jinsi, shekaru, ƙabilanci, da samun dama ga nakasassu; da haɓaka haɗin kai da ICTs masu araha, gami da wayar hannu, Yanar gizo, da abubuwan more rayuwa na broadband”.

Samun damar jama'a ga bayanan gwamnati, gami da ta hanyar buɗaɗɗen bayanai, da dokokin ƴancin bayanai, ana ɗaukarsu a matsayin muhimmin tushe na dimokuraɗiyya da mutunci a cikin gwamnati.[1]

Michael Buckland ya bayyana nau'o'in shinge guda shida waɗanda dole ne a shawo kan su don samun damar samun damar bayanai: gano tushen, samuwan tushen, farashin mai amfani, farashi ga mai bayarwa, damar fahimta, yarda. Yayin da ake amfani da "samun damar bayanai", "ƴancin samun bayanai", " yancin sanin " da "'yancin bayanai" a wasu lokuta a matsayin ma'anar ma'ana, mabanbantan kalmomi suna nuna ma'auni na musamman (ko da yake suna da alaƙa) na batun.[2] [3]

Ƴancin bayanai yana da alaƙa da ƴancin faɗar albarkacin baki, wanda zai iya amfani da kowane matsakaici, zama na baka, rubutu, bugu, lantarki, ko ta hanyar fasahar fasaha. Wannan yana nufin cewa kare 'yancin faɗar albarkacin baki a matsayin haƙƙin ya haɗa da ba kawai abubuwan da ke ciki ba, har ma da hanyoyin faɗar albarkacin baki.[4] Ƴancin bayanai wani ra'ayi ne daban wanda wani lokaci yakan zo cikin cin karo da 'yancin keɓewa a cikin abubuwan Intanet da fasahar bayanai.[5] Kamar yadda yake da ƴancin faɗar albarkacin baki, ' yancin yin sirri wani haƙƙin ɗan adam ne da aka sani kuma 'yancin yin bayanai yana aiki azaman kari ga wannan haƙƙin. Gwamnatin Burtaniya ta yi la'akari da shi a matsayin karin ƴancin faɗin albarkacin baki, da kuma ƴancin ɗan adam . An san shi a cikin dokokin duniya.[6] Jam'iyyar Pirate Party ta ƙasa da ƙasa da Amurka sun kafa tsarin siyasa da ya danganci ƴancin bayanai.[7]

Bayani[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An sami gagarumin haɓakar shiga Yanar gizo, wanda ya kai sama da biliyan uku masu amfani da shi a cikin 2014, wanda ya kai kusan kashi 42 cikin ɗari na al'ummar duniya.[8] Amma rarrabuwar kawuna na ci gaba da keɓance fiye da rabin al'ummar duniya, musamman mata da ƴan mata, musamman a Afirka da ƙasashe mafi ƙanƙanta da ƙasashe masu tasowa da yawa.[9] Bugu da ari, mutanen da ke da naƙasa na iya samun fa'ida ko ƙara rashin ƙarfi ta hanyar ƙirar fasaha ko ta gaban ko rashin horo da ilimi.[10]

Magana[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Rarraba Dijital[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Samun bayanai yana fuskantar manyan matsaloli saboda rarrabuwar dijital ta duniya. Rarraba dijital shine rashin daidaiton tattalin arziki da zamantakewa dangane da samun dama, amfani, ko tasirin fasahar sadarwa da sadarwa (ICT). Rarraba tsakanin ƙasashe (kamar rarrabuwar dijital a Amurka ) na iya nufin rashin daidaito tsakanin mutane, gidaje, kasuwanci, ko yankunan yanki, yawanci a matakan zamantakewa daban-daban ko wasu nau'ikan alƙaluma. [11] Rarraba tsakanin ƙasashe ko yankuna daban-daban na duniya ana kiranta da rarraba dijital ta duniya, yin nazarin wannan gibin fasaha tsakanin ƙasashe masu tasowa da masu tasowa akan sikelin duniya.

rarrabuwar ƙabilanci[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ko da yake ƙungiyoyi da yawa a cikin al'umma suna fama da rashin samun damar kwamfuta ko intanet, ana lura da al'ummomin masu launi na musamman don yin mummunar tasiri ta hanyar rarraba dijital. Wannan yana bayyana idan aka zo ga lura da shiga gida-yanar gizo tsakanin jinsi da ƙabilu daban-daban. 81% na Farar fata da 83% na Asiyawa suna da damar intanet na gida, idan aka kwatanta da 70% na Hispanics, 68% na Baƙar fata, 72% na Indiyawan Indiyawa / Alaska, da 68% na ƴan asalin Hawaii/Pacific Islanders. Ko da yake samun kuɗin shiga shi ne ke haifar da rarrabuwar kawuna tsakanin gida-internet, har yanzu akwai rashin daidaiton kabilanci da na kabilanci da ke tsakanin waɗanda ke cikin ƙananan ƙungiyoyin samun kuɗi. Kashi 58% na masu karancin kuɗin shiga an bayar da rahoton cewa Farar fata na da damar shiga gida-internet kwatankwacin kashi 51% na Hispanic da 50% na Baƙar fata. An ruwaito wannan bayanin a cikin rahoton mai taken "dijital na dijital: Tushen nuna wariyar launin fata" wanda aka buga ta hanyar rukunin yanar gizo na DC-tushen fress na Yanar gizo. Rahoton ya kammala da cewa shingen tsari da nuna wariya da ke ci gaba da nuna kyama ga mutanen jinsi da kabilu daban-daban na taimakawa wajen yin tasiri kan rarrabuwar kawuna. Rahoton ya kuma kara da cewa har yanzu wadanda ba su da hanyar intanet na da matukar bukatar hakan, kuma rage farashin shiga intanet zai ba da damar a kara shiga tsakani cikin adalci da kuma inganta karɓuwar yanar gizo daga ƙungiyoyin da ba su sani ba.[12]

Ana lura da tashe-tashen hankula na dijital da son zuciya na algorithmic suna kasancewa a cikin rarrabuwar kabilanci. Dokokin kalaman ƙiyayya da kuma kalaman ƙiyayya da dandamali na kan layi irin su Facebook sun fifita maza farare da waɗanda ke cikin manyan ƙungiyoyi a cikin al'umma fiye da ƙungiyoyin da ba a sani ba a cikin al'umma, kamar mata da masu launi.[13] A cikin tarin takardu na cikin gida da aka tattara a cikin wani aiki da ProPublica ya gudanar, ƙa'idodin Facebook game da bambance maganganun ƙiyayya da kuma gane ƙungiyoyin da aka karewa sun bayyana nunin faifai waɗanda suka gano ƙungiyoyi uku, kowannen su yana ɗauke da ko dai direbobin mata, yara baƙar fata, ko kuma maza farare. Lokacin da aka gabatar da tambayar wane rukunin rukunin ke da kariya, amsar da ta dace ta kasance fararen fata. Harshen rukunin marasa rinjaye yana da mummunar tasiri ta kayan aikin gano ƙiyayya ta atomatik saboda son zuciya wanda a ƙarshe ke yanke shawarar abin da ake ɗaukar maganganun ƙiyayya da abin da ba haka ba.[14]

Hakanan an lura da dandamali na kan layi don jure abubuwan ƙiyayya ga mutane masu launi amma suna hana abun ciki daga masu launi. An buga memes na Aborigin a shafin Facebook tare da abubuwan batanci na wariyar launin fata da kuma sharhi da ke nuna mutanen Aborigin a matsayin na kasa. Yayin da mafarin suka cire abubuwan da ke cikin shafin bayan wani bincike da Hukumar Sadarwa da Yada Labarai ta Australia ta gudanar, Facebook bai goge shafin ba kuma ya bar shi ya ci gaba da zama a karkashin rarrabuwar kawuna na ban dariya.[15] Sai dai kuma, wani sakon da wata Ba’amurkiya ta yi na nuna rashin jin dadinta da kasancewarta mutum daya tilo a wani gidan cin abinci na karamin gari ya gamu da sakonnin wariyar launin fata da kyama. A lokacin da take kai rahoton cin zarafin ta ta yanar gizo ga Facebook, Facebook ya dakatar da asusunta na tsawon kwanaki uku saboda ta buga hotunan yayin da ba a dakatar da wadanda ke da alhakin maganganun wariyar launin fata ba.[16] Abubuwan da aka raba tsakanin mutane masu launi na iya zama cikin haɗarin yin shiru a ƙarƙashin manufofin cirewa don dandamali na kan layi.[17]

Rarraba nakasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Rashin daidaito wajen samun damar amfani da fasahar bayanai yana kasancewa tsakanin mutanen da ke da nakasa idan aka kwatanta da waɗanda ba sa rayuwa tare da nakasa. A cewar The Pew Internet kashi 54% na gidajen da ke da nakasa suna samun intanet a gida idan aka kwatanta da kashi 81% na gidajen da ke da intanet a gida kuma ba su da mutumin da ke da nakasa.[18]

Nau'in nakasa da mutum ke da shi na iya hana mutum yin mu'amala da allon kwamfuta da na'urorin wayar salula, kamar samun naƙasa quadriplegia ko samun nakasu a hannu. Duk da haka, har yanzu akwai rashin samun damar yin amfani da fasaha da hanyar intanet a gida a tsakanin waɗanda ke da nakasar fahimta da na ji kuma. Akwai fargabar ko karuwar amfani da fasahohin bayanai zai kara daidaito ta hanyar bayar da damammaki ga mutanen da ke da nakasa ko kuma hakan zai kara haifar da rashin daidaito a halin yanzu da kuma haifar da nakasassu a bar su a baya a cikin al'umma.[19] Batutuwa kamar ra'ayi na nakasa a cikin al'umma, manufofin gwamnatin tarayya da na jihohi, manufofin kamfanoni, fasahohin kwamfuta na yau da kullum, da sadarwar kan layi na ainihi an samo su don taimakawa wajen tasiri na rarrabuwar dijital a kan mutane masu nakasa.[20][21]

Mutanen da ke da nakasa kuma su ne abin da ake zaginsu ta yanar gizo. Laifukan ƙiyayya na naƙasa akan layi sun karu da kashi 33 cikin ɗari a cikin shekarar da ta gabata a duk faɗin Burtaniya a cewar wani rahoto da Leonard Cheshire.org ya buga.[22] An raba asusun cin zarafi ta yanar gizo ga mutanen da ke da nakasa yayin wani lamari a cikin 2019 lokacin da ɗan Katie Price ya ci zarafinsa ta hanyar yanar gizo wanda aka danganta shi da nakasa. Dangane da wannan cin zarafi, Katie Price ta kaddamar da wani kamfen don tabbatar da cewa 'yan majalisar dokokin Biritaniya sun rike waɗanda suke da laifin ci gaba da cin zarafin nakasassu ta yanar gizo. Cin zarafi akan nakasassu akan layi abu ne da zai iya hana mutane shiga yanar gizo wanda zai iya hana mutane koyon bayanan da zasu inganta rayuwarsu. Yawancin mutanen da ke da naƙasa suna fuskantar cin zarafi ta yanar gizo ta hanyar zarge-zarge na zamba da kuma "karya" nakasa su don samun kuɗi, wanda a wasu lokuta yakan haifar da binciken da ba dole ba.[23]

Rarraba jinsi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

'Yancin mata na samun bayanai da samun bayanai a duniya bai kai na maza ba. Abubuwan da ke tattare da zamantakewa kamar jahilci da rashin ƙarfin dijital sun haifar da rashin daidaituwa a cikin kewaya kayan aikin da ake amfani da su don samun bayanai, yawanci rashin fahimtar al'amurran da suka shafi mata da jinsi kai tsaye, kamar lafiyar jima'i . Hakanan an sami misalan ƙarin tsauraran matakai, kamar hukumomin yankin na hana ko hana amfani da wayar hannu ga 'yan mata da matan da ba su yi aure ba a cikin al'ummominsu.[24] A cewar Wharton School of Public Policy, fadada fasahar Watsa Labarai da Sadarwa (ICT) ya haifar da rarrabuwar kawuna da yawa wadanda suka yi tasiri ga mata wajen samun damar yin amfani da fasahar sadarwa ta ICT inda tazarar jinsi ya kai kashi 31% a wasu kasashe masu tasowa da kuma 12. % a duniya a cikin 2016. Matsalolin zamantakewar zamantakewa waɗanda ke haifar da waɗannan bambance-bambance ana kiran su da abin da muke kira rarrabuwar dijital. A cikin kasashe masu karamin karfi da kuma yankuna masu karamin karfi, tsadar intanet na kawo cikas ga mata tunda gaba daya mata ba a biya su albashi mai tsoka kuma suna fuskantar rashin daidaito tsakanin ayyukan da ake biya da kuma na rashin biya. Ka’idojin al’adu a wasu kasashe na iya hana mata shiga yanar gizo da fasahar kere-kere tare da hana mata samun wani matakin ilimi ko kuma zama masu cin abinci a gidajensu, wanda hakan ke haifar da rashin kula da kudaden gida. Koyaya, ko da lokacin da mata suka sami damar yin amfani da ICT, rarrabuwar dijital har yanzu tana yaɗuwa.[25]

Rarrabuwar LGBTQIA, da danniya daga jihohi da kamfanonin fasaha[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yawancin jihohi, ciki har da wasu waɗanda suka gabatar da sababbin dokoki tun daga 2010, musamman tace muryoyin daga da abubuwan da suka shafi al'ummar LGBTQI, suna haifar da mummunan sakamako ga samun damar yin amfani da bayanai game da yanayin jima'i da asalin jinsi.[26]

Kafofin watsa labaru na dijital suna taka rawa mai ƙarfi wajen iyakance isa ga wasu abun ciki, kamar shawarar YouTube na 2017 don rarraba bidiyon da ba na fayyace ba tare da jigogin LGBTQIA a matsayin 'ƙantatacce', rarrabuwa da aka tsara don tace "abun ciki mai yuwuwar rashin dacewa".[27] Yanar gizo tana ba da bayanan da za su iya samar da wuri mai aminci ga ƙungiyoyi masu zaman kansu kamar al'ummar LGBTQIA don haɗawa da wasu da shiga cikin tattaunawa da tattaunawa na gaskiya da ke shafar al'ummominsu. Hakanan ana iya kallonsa azaman wakili na canji ga al'ummar LGBTQIA da samar da hanyar shiga cikin adalcin zamantakewa. Yana iya ba wa mutanen LGBTQIA da za su iya zama a yankunan karkara ko a wuraren da suke keɓe don samun damar samun bayanan da ba a cikin tsarin karkararsu da kuma samun bayanai daga wasu mutanen LGBT. Wannan ya haɗa da bayanai kamar kiwon lafiya, abokan hulɗa, da labarai. GayHealth yana ba da bayanan likitanci da lafiya ta kan layi da Ƙungiyoyin Ƙwararru da Ƙungiyoyin Maɗigo ya ƙunshi wallafe-wallafen kan layi da labaran da ke mayar da hankali kan yakin 'yancin ɗan adam da al'amurran da suka shafi LGBTQIA. Yanar gizo kuma yana ba wa mutane LGBTQIA damar ɓoye suna. Rashin shiga intanet na iya kawo cikas ga wadannan abubuwa, saboda rashin hanyoyin sadarwa a yankunan karkara.[28] LGBT Tech ya jaddada ƙaddamar da sabbin fasahohi tare da fasahar 5G don taimakawa rufe rarrabuwar dijital wanda zai iya sa membobin al'ummar LGBTQIA su rasa damar yin amfani da ingantaccen fasaha da sauri wanda zai iya ba da bayanai kan kiwon lafiya, damar tattalin arziki, da amintattun al'ummomi.[29]

Hakanan akwai wasu abubuwan da za su iya hana membobin LGBTQIA samun damar bayanai akan layi ko sanya su a ci zarafin bayanansu. Hakanan ana amfani da matatun Yanar gizo don tantancewa da taƙaita abubuwan LGBTQIA waɗanda ke da alaƙa da al'ummar LGBTQIA a makarantun gwamnati da ɗakunan karatu.[30] Akwai kuma kasancewar cin zarafi ta kan layi ta hanyar mafarauta ta kan layi waɗanda ke kai hari ga membobin LGBTQIA ta hanyar neman bayanansu na sirri da ba su bayanan da ba daidai ba. Yin amfani da intanet zai iya ba da wata hanya ga mutanen LGBTQIA don samun damar samun bayanai don magance matsalolin al'umma ta hanyar shawarwarin warkewa, tsarin tallafi na zamantakewa, da kuma yanayin layi wanda ke haɓaka haɗin gwiwar ra'ayoyi, damuwa, da kuma taimakawa mutanen LGBTQIA su ci gaba. Ana iya haɓaka wannan ta hanyar ƙwararrun sabis na ɗan adam waɗanda za su iya amfani da intanet tare da shaida da kimantawa don ba da bayanai ga daidaikun LGBTQIA waɗanda ke fuskantar yanayin fitowar da yiwuwar sakamakon da ka iya biyo baya a sakamakon.[31]

Hujjar tsaro[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tare da juyin halitta na zamani na dijital, aikace-aikacen 'yancin faɗar albarkacin baki da haɗin kai ('yancin yin amfani da bayanai, samun damar yin amfani da bayanai) ya zama mafi rikici yayin da sababbin hanyoyin sadarwa da ƙuntatawa suka taso ciki har da sarrafa gwamnati ko hanyoyin kasuwanci da ke sanya bayanan sirri ga haɗari.[32]

Samun damar dijital[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

'Yancin bayanai (ko 'yancin bayanai) kuma yana nufin kariyar ƴancin faɗin albarkacin baki dangane da Intanet da fasahar sadarwa . Ƴacin bayanai na iya damuwa da yin katsalandan a cikin mahallin fasahar bayanai, watau ikon shiga abun ciki na Yanar Gizo, ba tare da tantancewa ko hani ba .

Bayani da ilimin watsa labarai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cewar Kuzmin da Parshakova, samun damar bayanai ya ƙunshi koyo a cikin tsarin ilimi na yau da kullun da na yau da kullun. Hakanan ya haɗa da haɓaka ƙwarewar bayanai da ilimin kafofin watsa labaru waɗanda ke ba masu amfani damar ƙarfafawa da yin cikakken amfani da damar shiga Yanar gizo.[33][34]

Taimakon UNESCO ga ilimin aikin jarida misali ne na yadda UNESCO ke neman ba da gudummawa ga samar da ingantattun bayanai masu zaman kansu da za su iya shiga sararin samaniya . Haɓaka samun dama ga nakasassu taron da UNESCO ta kira a cikin 2014 ya ƙarfafa shi, wanda ya amince da "Sanarwar New Delhi akan Haɗa ICTs ga Masu Nakasa: Samar da Ƙarfafa zama Gaskiya"

Buɗe ma'auni[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cewar Ƙungiyar Sadarwa ta Duniya (ITU), ""Open Standards" ƙa'idodi ne da aka samar wa jama'a gabaɗaya kuma an haɓaka (ko an amince da su) kuma ana kiyaye su ta hanyar haɗin gwiwa da yarjejeniya. "Open Standards" yana sauƙaƙe hulɗar aiki da musayar bayanai tsakanin samfura ko ayyuka daban-daban kuma an yi niyya don ɗauka da yawa." Binciken UNESCO ya yi la'akari da cewa ɗaukar buɗaɗɗen ƙa'idodi yana da yuwuwar bayar da gudummawa ga hangen nesa na 'haɗin kai na dijital' wanda 'yan ƙasa za su iya samowa, raba, da sake amfani da bayanai cikin ƴanci. Haɓaka software na buɗaɗɗen tushe, wanda ba shi da tsada kuma ana iya daidaita shi da yardar rai zai iya taimakawa wajen biyan buƙatun shawarwarin masu amfani da keɓaɓɓu a madadin ƙungiyoyin tsiraru, kamar isar da niyya, ingantaccen samar da hanyar Intanet, abubuwan ƙarfafa haraji ga kamfanoni masu zaman kansu da ƙungiyoyi masu aiki inganta samun dama, da magance matsalolin rashin daidaiton zamantakewa da tattalin arziki [35]

Ƙungiyar Labarai da ƴancin faɗar albarkacin baki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Babban Taron Duniya akan Ƙungiyar Watsa Labarai (WSIS) Bayanin Ƙa'idodin da aka karɓa a cikin 2003 ya sake tabbatar da dimokuraɗiyya da duniyoyin duniya, rashin rarrabawa da haɗin kai na duk haƙƙin ɗan adam da ƴanci na asali. Sanarwar ta kuma yi nuni na musamman game da mahimmancin ƴyancin fɗdin albarkacin baki ga " Ƙungiyar Watsa Labarai " a cikin cewa:[36]

[37]

Mun sake tabbatarwa, a matsayin muhimmin tushe na Kamfanin Watsa Labarai, kuma kamar yadda aka bayyana a cikin Mataki na ashirin da 19 na Yarjejeniyar Ƴancin Ɗan Adam ta Duniya, cewa kowa yana da ƴancin yin ra'ayi da ra'ayi ; cewa wannan haƙƙin ya haɗa da 'yancin yin ra'ayi ba tare da tsangwama ba da neman, karɓa da ba da bayanai da ra'ayoyi ta kowace kafofin watsa labaru ba tare da la'akari da iyaka ba. Sadarwa wani muhimmin tsari ne na zamantakewa, buƙatun ɗan adam na asali da ginshiƙi na duk ƙungiyoyin zamantakewa. Yana da tsakiya ga Information Society. Kowa, a ko'ina ya kamata ya sami damar shiga kuma kada a ware kowa daga fa'idodin da Kamfanin Watsa Labarai ke bayarwa.

Sanarwar ƙa'idojin WSIS ta 2004 ta kuma yarda cewa "ya zama dole a hana amfani da albarkatun bayanai da fasahohi don dalilai na laifi da ta'addanci, tare da mutunta 'yancin ɗan adam". Wolfgang Benedek yayi tsokaci cewa sanarwar ta WSIS ta ƙunshi nassoshi da dama ne kawai game da haƙƙin ɗan adam kuma baya fayyace wata hanya ko hanya don tabbatar da cewa ana la'akari da haƙƙin ɗan adam a aikace.[38]

Hacktivismo[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ƙungiyar haƙƙin dijital Hacktivismo, wanda aka kafa a cikin 1999, yana jayayya cewa samun damar bayanai shine ainihin haƙƙin ɗan adam. An kwatanta imanin ƙungiyar gaba ɗaya a cikin "Sanarwar Hacktivismo" wanda ke kira ga Yarjejeniya ta Duniya ta 'Yancin Dan Adam da Alkawari na Duniya akan Ƴancin Bil'adama da Siyasa (ICCPR) don amfani da Intanet.[39] Sanarwar ta tuno da aikin da ƙasashe membobin ke da su ga ICCPR don kare yancin faɗar albarkacin baki game da yanar gizo da kuma a cikin wannan yanayin ƴancin yin bayani. Sanarwar Hacktivismo ta amince da "muhimmancin yaƙi da cin zarafin bil'adama game da samun damar samun bayanai a kan Intanet" tare da yin kira ga jama'ar masu fashin baki da su "nazarci hanyoyi da hanyoyin da za a bi wajen dakile ayyukan tace bayanan intanet" da "aiwatar da fasahohin don kalubalantar take hakkin bayanai." Sanarwar Hacktivismo ta yi, duk da haka, ta gane cewa 'yancin faɗar albarkacin baki yana ƙarƙashin iyakancewa, yana mai cewa "mun amince da haƙƙin gwamnatoci don hana buga bayanan sirrin ƙasa yadda ya kamata, batsa na yara, da batutuwan da suka shafi sirrin sirri da gata, a tsakanin sauran hani da aka yarda da su”. Duk da haka, sanarwar Hacktivist ta ce "amma muna adawa da amfani da ikon gwamnati don sarrafa damar yin amfani da ayyukan masu sukar, ƙwararrun ƙwararru, masu fasaha, ko masu addini." [39]

Ƙaddamarwar hanyar sadarwa ta Duniya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A ranar 29 ga Oktoba, 2008 an kafa Ƙungiyar Sadarwar Sadarwar Duniya (GNI) akan "Ka'idodin Ƴancin Magana da Keɓantawa". An ƙaddamar da ƙaddamar da shirin ne a cikin shekaru 60 na Cikar Ƙirar Ƴancin Ɗan Adam ta Duniya (UDHR) kuma ta dogara ne akan dokoki da ƙa'idodi na duniya da aka amince da su akan ' yancin faɗar albarkacin baki da keɓantawa da aka tsara a cikin UDHR, Yarjejeniyar Kasa da Kasa kan Jama'a da Siyasa Hakkoki (ICCPR) da Yarjejeniya ta Duniya kan Haƙƙin Tattalin Arziki, Jama'a da Al'adu (ICESCR). Mahalarta cikin Ƙaddamarwa sun haɗa da Gidauniyar Wutar Lantarki, Human Rights Watch, Google, Microsoft, Yahoo, wasu manyan kamfanoni, kungiyoyi masu zaman kansu na kare hakkin bil'adama, masu zuba jari, da malaman ilimi. [40] [41]

A cewar rahotanni an gayyaci Cisco Systems zuwa tattaunawar farko amma ba ta shiga cikin shirin ba. Harrington Investments, wanda ya ba da shawarar cewa Cisco ya kafa hukumar kare haƙƙin ɗan adam, ta yi watsi da GNI a matsayin ƙa'idar aikin son rai ba ta da wani tasiri. Babban jami'in gudanarwa John Harrington ya kira GNI "hayaniyar da ba ta da ma'ana" a maimakon haka ya yi kira da a bullo da dokokin da ke tilasta wa shuwagabannin zartarwa su amince da haƙƙin ɗan Adam.

Binciken Yanar gizo[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Jo Glanville, editan Index on Censorship, ya baiyana cewa "yanar gizo

A cewar the Reporters without Borders (RSF) "jerin maƙiyan intanet" jihohi masu zuwa suna shiga aikin tantancewar intanet: Cuba, Iran, Maldives, Myanmar / Burma, Koriya ta Arewa, Siriya, Tunisia, Uzbekistan da Vietnam . Misalin da aka fi sani da jama'a shine abin da ake kira " Babban Firewall na kasar Sin " (dangane da rawar da take takawa a matsayin bangon hanyar sadarwa da tsohuwar babbar ganuwa ta kasar Sin ). Tsarin yana toshe abun ciki ta hanyar hana adiresoshin IP surkushe su kuma ya ƙunshi daidaitattun bangon wuta da sabar wakili a ƙofofin Intanet . Hakanan tsarin yana zaɓin shiga cikin guba na DNS lokacin da ake buƙatar takamaiman rukunin yanar gizo. Gwamnati ba ta ga alama tana bincikar abubuwan da ke cikin Intanet cikin tsari, saboda wannan yana da alama ba shi da amfani. Ana gudanar da aikin tantance Intanet a Jamhuriyar Jama'ar Sin a karkashin dokoki da ka'idojin gudanarwa iri-iri. Bisa ga waɗannan dokoki, fiye da dokokin Intanet sama da sittin ne gwamnatin Jamhuriyar Jama'ar Sin (PRC) ta tsara, kuma ana aiwatar da tsarin tantancewa da ƙarfi daga rassan larduna na ISPs mallakar gwamnati, kamfanonin kasuwanci, da ƙungiyoyi.

A cikin 2010, Sakatariyar Harkokin Wajen Amurka Hillary Clinton, da ke magana a madadin Amurka, ta bayyana "muna tsayawa kan intanet guda daya inda dukkanin bil'adama ke da damar samun ilimi da ra'ayoyi daidai." A cikin ''Remarks on Internet Freedom' ta kuma ja hankali kan yadda ''ko a ƙasashe masu mulki, hanyoyin sadarwa na taimaka wa mutane gano sabbin abubuwa da kuma sa gwamnatoci su zama masu kishin kasa', yayin da ta ba da rahoton furucin Shugaba Barack Obama na ƙarin yadda bayanai ke gudana cikin ƴanci. al'ummomin da suka fi ƙarfi sun zama'.

Kariyar sirri[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Keɓantawa, sa ido da ɓoyewa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ƙara samun dama da dogaro ga kafofin watsa labaru na dijital don karɓa da samar da bayanai sun ƙara dama ga Jihohi da kamfanoni masu zaman kansu don bin ɗabi'un mutane, ra'ayoyinsu da hanyoyin sadarwa. Jihohi sun ƙara ɗaukar dokoki da manufofi don halatta sa ido kan sadarwa, tare da tabbatar da waɗannan ayyuka tare da buƙatar kare kansu da muradun ƙasa. A wasu sassan Turai, sabbin dokokin yaki da ta'addanci sun ba da damar sanya ido sosai ga gwamnati da kuma ƙaruwar ƙarfin hukumomin leken asiri na samun bayanan ƴan ƙasar. Yayin da doka ta kasance wani sharadi na halalcin iyakance haƙƙin ɗan adam, batun kuma shine ko wata doka da aka bayar ta dace da wasu sharuɗɗa don tabbatarwa kamar larura, daidaito da manufa ta halal.

Tsarin ƙasa da ƙasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hukumar Kare Haƙƙoƙin Ɗan Adam ta Majalisar Ɗinkin Duniya ta ɗauki matakai da dama don nuna mahimmancin haƙƙin sirri na duniya ta yanar gizo. A cikin 2015, a cikin ƙuduri kan haƙƙin keɓantawa a cikin shekarun dijital, ta kafa Wakilin Majalisar Dinkin Duniya na Musamman kan Haƙƙin Keɓantawa. [42] A cikin 2017, Majalisar Kare Hakkokin Dan Adam ta jaddada cewa 'sa ido ba bisa ka'ida ba ko kuma ba da izini ba da kuma / ko kutsawa cikin hanyoyin sadarwa, da kuma tattara bayanan sirri ba bisa ƙa'ida ko ba bisa ƙa'ida ba, a matsayin manyan kutse, keta haƙƙin sirri, na iya tsoma baki tare da sauran ɗan adam. hakkoki, gami da ƴancin faɗin albarkacin baki da kuma riƙe ra'ayi ba tare da tsangwama ba'. [43]

Tsarin yanki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yawan ƙoƙarce-ƙoƙarce na yanki, musamman ta hanyar kotuna, don kafa ƙa'idoji waɗanda suka shafi kariyar bayanai, keɓantawa da sa ido, waɗanda ke shafar dangantakarsu da amfani da aikin jarida. Majalisar Turai ta Yarjejeniya ta 108, Yarjejeniyar Kare Mutane game da sarrafa bayanan sirri ta atomatik, ta yi wani tsari na zamani don magance sabbin ƙalubalen sirri. Tun daga shekara ta 2012, sabbin kasashe hudu na majalisar Turai sun rattaba hannu ko kuma amince da yarjejeniyar, da kuma kasashe uku da ba na cikin majalisar, daga Afirka da Latin Amurka. [44]

Kotunan yanki kuma suna taka rawar gani wajen haɓaka ƙa'idojin sirrin kan layi. A cikin 2015 Kotun Shari'a ta Turai ta gano cewa abin da ake kira 'Yarjejeniyar Tsaro ta Harbor', wanda ya ba kamfanoni masu zaman kansu damar '' isar da bayanan sirri daga masu biyan kuɗin Turai zuwa Amurka bisa doka, ba ta da inganci a ƙarƙashin dokar Turai a cikin hakan. bai ba da isassun kariya ga bayanan ƴan ƙasa na Turai ba ko kuma ya kare su daga sa ido na sabani. A cikin 2016, Hukumar Tarayyar Turai da Gwamnatin Amurka sun cimma yarjejeniya don maye gurbin Safe Harbour, Garkuwar Sirri na EU-US, wanda ya haɗa da wajibcin kariyar bayanai akan kamfanonin da ke karɓar bayanan sirri daga Tarayyar Turai, kariya ga gwamnatin Amurka samun damar shiga bayanai, kariya. da gyara ga daidaikun mutane, da kuma nazarin haɗin gwiwa na shekara-shekara don sa ido kan aiwatarwa. [45]

Hukuncin Kotun Turai ta 2014 a cikin shari'ar Google Spain ya ba wa mutane damar da'awar " haƙƙin mantawa " ko "haƙƙin da za a cire su" a cikin mahawara mai yawa don daidaitawa tsakanin sirri, ƴancin faɗar gaskiya da gaskiya. . [46] Bayan shawarar Google Spain an amince da "haƙƙin mantawa" ko "haƙƙin cire sunayen" a cikin ƙasashe da yawa a duniya, musamman a Latin Amurka da Caribbean. [47]

Recital 153 na EU General Data Protection Regulation ya ce "Dokar ƙasashe membobi yakamata su daidaita ka'idojin ƴancin faɗar albarkacin baki da bayanai, gami da aikin jarida ... tare da haƙƙin kare bayanan sirri bisa ga wannan Dokar. Gudanar da bayanan sirri kawai don dalilai na aikin jarida…ya kamata ya kasance cikin ɓata lokaci ko keɓancewa daga wasu tanade-tanaden wannan Dokar idan ya cancanta don daidaita haƙƙin kare bayanan sirri tare da ƴancin faɗar albarkacin baki da bayanai, kamar yadda yake a cikin Mataki na 11 na Yarjejeniya." [48]

Tsarin ƙasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yawan ƙasashen duniya da ke da dokokin kariyar bayanai kuma ya ci gaba da karuwa. Bisa ga rahoton Trends na Duniya na 2017/2018, tsakanin 2012 da 2016, kasashe mambobin UNESCO 20 sun amince da dokokin kare bayanai a karon farko, wanda ya kawo jimlar duniya zuwa 101. [49] A cikin wadannan sabbin riko, tara sun kasance a Afirka, hudu a Asiya da Pacific, uku a Latin Amurka da Caribbean, biyu a yankin Larabawa daya kuma a Yammacin Turai da Arewacin Amurka. A cikin wannan lokaci, ƙasashe 23 sun yi wa dokokin kare bayanansu kwaskwarima, wanda ke nuna sabbin ƙalubalen da ake fuskanta wajen kare bayanan a zamanin dijital.

A cewar Global Partners Digital, Jihohi huɗu ne kawai suka sami cikakken haƙƙin ɓoyewa a cikin dokokin ƙasa, kuma 31 sun ƙaddamar da dokar ƙasa wacce ta bai wa hukumomin tilasta doka ikon kutse ko ɓoye bayanan sirri .

Tasirin kamfanoni masu zaman kansu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tun daga 2010, don haɓaka kariyar bayanai da sadarwar masu amfani da su da haɓaka amana ga ayyukansu'. [50] Manyan misalan wannan shine yadda WhatsApp ya aiwatar da cikakken ɓoye bayanan ƙarshe zuwa ƙarshe a cikin sabis ɗin saƙon sa, [51] da fafatawar Apple na sammacin tilasta doka don buɗe iPhone ɗin da masu kai harin ta'addanci suka yi amfani da su. . [52]

Kare tushen sirri da busa busa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Canje-canje cikin sauri a cikin yanayin dijital, haɗe tare da aikin ɗan jarida na zamani wanda ke ƙara dogaro da fasahar sadarwar dijital, yana haifar da sabbin haɗari don kare tushen aikin jarida. Manyan barazana na wannan zamani sun haɗa da fasahohin sa ido na jama'a, manufofin riƙe bayanan dole, da bayyana ayyukan dijital na sirri ta masu shiga tsakani na ɓangare na uku. Ba tare da cikakkiyar fahimtar yadda za a kare hanyoyin sadarwar su na dijital ba, ƴan jarida da majiyoyi na iya bayyana bayanan da ba da gangan ba. [53] Yin aiki da dokokin tsaron ƙasa, kamar dokokin yaƙi da ta'addanci, don ƙetare kariyar doka da ake da su don kariyar tushe shima ya zama al'ada ta gama gari. [53] A yankuna da yawa, dokokin sirri na dindindin ko sabbin dokokin tsaro ta yanar gizo suna yin barazana ga kariya daga tushe, kamar lokacin da suke bai wa gwamnatoci haƙƙin kutse hanyoyin sadarwar yanar gizo don amfanin fa'idodin ma'anar tsaron ƙasa. [54]

An sami ci gaba a game da dokokin kariya daga tushe tsakanin 2007 zuwa tsakiyar 2015 a cikin 84 (kashi 69 cikin 100) na kasashe 121 da aka bincika. [55] Yankin Larabawa ya sami cigaba mafi shahara, inda kashi 86 cikin 100 na Jihohi suka nuna sauyi, sai Latin Amurka da Caribbean (kashi 85), Asiya da Pacific (kashi 75), Yammacin Turai da Arewacin Amurka (66 bisa dari). cent) kuma a ƙarshe Afirka, inda kashi 56 cikin 100 na Jihohin da aka bincika sun sake duba dokokin kare tushen su. [55]

Ya zuwa shekarar 2015, aƙalla ƙasashe 60 sun karɓi wani nau'i na kariyar bayanan sirri. A matakin ƙasa da ƙasa, Yarjejeniyar Yaƙi da Cin Hanci da Rashawa ta Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ta fara aiki a shekara ta 2005. [56] A watan Yulin 2017, yawancin ƙasashe na duniya, 179 gaba ɗaya, sun amince da Yarjejeniyar, wanda ya haɗa da tanade-tanade don kare bayanan sirri .

Since 2012, the addition of 23 UNESCO Member States that have ratified, accepted or acceded to the convention.

An kuma amince da yarjejeniyoyin yanki na yaƙi da cin hanci da rashawa wanda ke kunshe da kariya ga masu busa bayanan sirri. Waɗannan sun haɗa da Yarjejeniyar Yaki da Cin Hanci da Rashawa tsakanin Amurka da Amurka, wadda kasashe membobi 33 suka amince da ita, [57] da kuma Yarjejeniyar Hana da Yaƙi da Cin Hanci da Rashawa, wadda ƙasashe mambobin UNESCO 36 suka amince da ita.

A cikin 2009, Majalisar Ƙungiyar Haɗin Kan Tattalin Arziƙi da Ci Gaba (OECD) ta amince da Shawarar don Ci gaba da Yaƙi da Cin Hanci da Rashawa na Jami'an Jama'a na Ƙasashen waje a cikin Ma'amaloli na Kasuwanci na Duniya. [58]

Jam'in watsa labarai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cewar rahoton Trends na Duniya, samun damar yin amfani da kafofin watsa labaru iri-iri ya ƙaru tsakanin 2012 da 2016. Intanit ya yi rajista mafi girma a cikin masu amfani da ke tallafawa ta hanyar zuba jari mai yawa a cikin abubuwan more rayuwa da kuma gagarumin ci gaba a amfani da wayar hannu.

Yanar gizo da wayar hannu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ajenda na 2030 na Majalisar Ɗinkin Duniya don Ci gaba mai dorewa, aikin Hukumar Broadband don Ci gaba mai dorewa, wanda UNESCO ke jagoranta, da ayyukan tsaka-tsaki na Majalisar Gudanar da Intanet kan 'Haɗa Biliyan Na gaba' tabbaci ne na alƙawuran duniya na samar da Intanet. samun dama ga kowa. A cewar ƙungiyar sadarwa ta ƙasa da ƙasa (ITU), a karshen shekarar 2017, an kiyasta kashi 48 cikin 100 na mutane a kai a kai suna yin amfani da intanet, daga kashi 34 cikin 100 a shekarar 2012. Duk da gagarumin ci gaban da aka samu a cikakken lambobi, duk da haka, a cikin wannan lokacin haɓakar haɓakar haɓakar masu amfani da intanet ya ragu, tare da haɓakar kashi biyar cikin 100 na shekara a cikin 2017, ya ragu daga haɓakar haɓakar kashi 10 cikin 100 a cikin 2012.

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