Amadou Toumani Touré

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Simpleicons Interface user-outline.svg Amadou Toumani Touré
Amadou Toure.jpg
President of Mali (en) Fassara

8 ga Yuni, 2002 - 22 ga Maris, 2012
Alpha Oumar Konaré - Amadou Sanogo
3. President of Mali (en) Fassara

26 ga Maris, 1991 - 8 ga Yuni, 1992
Moussa Traoré - Alpha Oumar Konaré
Rayuwa
Haihuwa Mopti (birni), 4 Nuwamba, 1948
ƙasa Mali
Mutuwa Istanbul, 9 Nuwamba, 2020
Karatu
Makaranta Ryazan Airborne Command High School (en) Fassara
Harsuna Faransanci
Fillanci
Sana'a
Sana'a ɗan siyasa da hafsa
Kyaututtuka
Aikin soja
Digiri army general (en) Fassara
Ya faɗaci Tuareg rebellion (1990-1995) (en) Fassara
Imani
Jam'iyar siyasa independent politician (en) Fassara

Amadou Toumani Touré (4 Nuwamba 1948 – 9 Nuwamba 2020) ɗan siyasan ƙasar Mali ne. Ya jagoranci zaben farko na jam'iyyu da yawa a Mali a matsayin shugaban gwamnatin rikon kwarya (1991-1992), sannan ya zama zababben shugaban kasar Mali na biyu bisa tafarkin dimokiradiyya (2002-2012).

Shugabanci[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Touré ya kasance shugaban masu gadin Shugaba Moussa Traoré na sirri (da parachute Rejiment) lokacin da wani mashahurin juyin juya hali ya hambarar da gwamnatin a watan Maris 1991; Kanar Touré ya kama shugaban kuma ya jagoranci juyin juya hali. Ya jagoranci tsarin mika mulki na soja da farar hula na tsawon shekara guda wanda ya samar da sabon kundin tsarin mulki da zabukan jam'iyyu da yawa, sannan ya mika mulki ga shugaban kasar Mali na farko da aka zaba ta hanyar dimokradiyya, Alpha Oumar Konaré, a ranar 6 ga watan Yunin 1992. Konaré ya haɓaka Touré zuwa matsayi na Janar.

Bayan shekaru goma, bayan ya yi ritaya daga aikin soja, Touré ya shiga siyasa a matsayin farar hula kuma ya lashe zaben shugaban kasa na 2002 tare da babban kawancen goyon baya. An sake zabe shi cikin sauki a 2007 zuwa wa'adi na biyu kuma na karshe. A ranar 22 ga Maris, 2012, jim kadan kafin tashinsa daga ofis, sojoji da ba su cika ba sun yi juyin mulkin da ya tilasta masa ya buya. A wani bangare na yarjejeniyar maido da tsarin mulkin kasar Mali, Touré ya yi murabus daga shugabancin kasar a ranar 8 ga watan Afrilu, kuma bayan kwanaki goma sha daya ya tafi gudun hijira.[1]

Rayuwar farko[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An haifi Amadou Toumani Touré a ranar 4 ga Nuwamba 1948, a Mopti, inda ya halarci makarantar firamare. A tsakanin 1966 zuwa 1969, ya halarci makarantar sakandare ta Badalabougou da ke Bamako domin zama malami. Daga ƙarshe, ya shiga aikin soja kuma ya halarci Kwalejin Kati Inter-Military College . A matsayinsa na memba na Parachute Corps, ya tashi da sauri ta cikin matsayi kuma bayan darussan horo da yawa a cikin Tarayyar Soviet da Faransa, ya zama kwamandan kwamandojin parachute a 1984.[2]

Aikin siyasa da na soja[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Amadou Touré tare da shugaba Lula da Silva da ministocin gwamnatin Brazil .

A watan Maris na 1991, bayan da murkushe zanga-zangar adawa da gwamnati ta rikide zuwa wani juyin juya hali na jama'a don nuna adawa da mulkin soja na shekaru 23, sojojin kasar sun ki sake yin luguden wuta kan al'ummar Mali, kuma Touré - shugaban masu gadin shugaban kasa - ya kama Shugaba Moussa Traoré. .[3] Kanar Touré (kamar yadda yake a wancan lokacin) ya zama shugaban kwamitin riƙon ƙwarya na jin daɗin jama'a kuma shugaban riƙon ƙasa a duk ƙoƙarin da kwamitin ke yi na miƙa mulkin ƙasar zuwa dimokuradiyya. Ya jagoranci taron kasa wanda tsakanin 29 ga Yuli zuwa 13 ga Agusta 1991 ya tsara kundin tsarin mulkin kasar Mali tare da tsara zaben 'yan majalisa da na shugaban kasa na 1992. Bayan bayyana sakamakon zaben, Touré ya mika mulki ga sabon zababben shugaban kasar Alpha Oumar Konaré . Bayan tafiyar sa na son rai daga ofis, ya samu lakabin "Sojan Dimokuradiyya."

A watan Yunin 2001, Touré ya yi aiki na ɗan lokaci a matsayin manzo na musamman na Sakatare Janar na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya Kofi Annan a Jamhuriyar Afirka ta Tsakiya, bayan da bai yi nasara ba yunƙurin juyin mulkin da aka yi a can.

A cikin Satumba 2001, ya nema kuma aka ba shi ritaya daga aikin soja, ya shiga siyasa a matsayin dan takara a zaben shugaban kasa na 2002 . A zagaye na farko na zaben, ya zo na daya da kashi 28.71% na kuri'un, yayin da a zagaye na biyu ya samu kashi 64.35% na kuri'un da aka kada, inda ya doke dan takarar ADEMA, tsohon minista Soumaïla Cissé, wanda ya samu kashi 35.65%. An rantsar da Touré a ranar 8 ga Yuni 2002.

Shugabancin nasa ya kasance kamar yadda aka saba, saboda kasancewarsa ba dan kowace jam’iyya ba ne, kuma ya sanya ‘yan jam’iyyun siyasar kasar cikin gwamnatinsa. Bayan zabensa na 2002, ya nada Ahmed Mohamed ag Hamani a matsayin Firayim Minista, amma a ranar 28 ga Afrilu 2004, Hamani ya maye gurbin Ousmane Issoufi Maiga , wanda Modibo Sidibé ya maye gurbinsa a ranar 28 ga Satumba 2007.

Touré ya gana da shugaban Amurka George W.Bush

Touré ya sanar a ranar 27 ga Maris 2007, cewa zai sake tsayawa takara a karo na biyu a zaben shugaban kasa na Afrilu 2007. Bisa sakamakon karshe da aka sanar a ranar 12 ga Mayu, Touré ya lashe zaben da kashi 71.20% na kuri'un da aka kada. Babban dan takarar adawa, shugaban majalisar dokokin kasar Ibrahima Boubacar Keïta, ya samu kashi 19.15%; the Front for Democracy and the Republic, wani haɗin gwiwa ciki har da Keïta da wasu 'yan takara uku, sun yi watsi da sakamakon hukuma. Sai dai masu sa ido na kasashen waje sun amince da zaben da aka gudanar a matsayin gaskiya da adalci. An rantsar da Touré a wa'adinsa na biyu a matsayin shugaban kasa a ranar 8 ga Yuni 2007, a wani biki da ya samu halartar wasu shugabannin Afirka bakwai.

Baya ga inganta ababen more rayuwa na kasar Mali, Touré ya kafa tsarin inshorar likitancin kasar na farko.

Dangane da tsarin mulkin Mali, wanda ke da iyakacin wa'adi biyu na shugaban kasa, Touré ya tabbatar a wani taron manema labarai a ranar 12 ga watan Yunin 2011, cewa ba zai tsaya takara ba a zaben shugaban kasa na 2012 .

Juyin mulki na 2012[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A farkon shekarar 2012, wasu sojojin Mali sun yi zanga-zangar nuna adawa da yadda gwamnatin Touré ke tafiyar da ayyukan tada kayar baya a arewacin Mali a shekarar 2012 . Mummunan kisan kiyashin da aka yi a Aguel Hoc (iyakar Nijar) da aka yi wa sojojin Mali sama da 80 ya haifar da tarzoma a cikin sojojin, inda sojoji da matan sojoji suka zargi Shugaba Touré da rashin gudanar da mulki saboda karancin harsasai. A ranar 21 ga Maris, sojoji a wani bariki a Kati, kusa da Bamako, sun kaddamar da tawaye ga ministan tsaron da ya ziyarce shi, kuma tawayen nasu ya rikide zuwa juyin mulki. Wasu gungun saje da kofur sun kwace wasu wurare a birnin Bamako da suka hada da fadar shugaban kasa, hedkwatar gidan talabijin na gwamnati, da wasu barikokin soji. Daga nan ne suka kafa wata hukuma ta wucin gadi, wato National Committee for the Restoration of Democracy and State (CNRDRE), karkashin jagorancin Captain Amadou Sanogo, kuma suka bayyana cewa sun hambarar da Touré, suna zargin gwamnatinsa da gazawa. 'Yan tawayen ba su kama shugaba Touré ba.[4][5]

Sama da makonni biyu ba a san inda Touré yake ba kuma CNRDRE bai taba nuna cewa yana hannun ta ba. CNRDRE ta yi, duk da haka, ta bayyana cewa Touré na cikin "lafiya" kuma wata sanarwa daga gwamnatin Najeriya, duk da cewa tana goyon bayan Touré, ta yi ikirarin cewa 'yan ta'addar sun kama shi. A cewar sojoji masu biyayya ga Touré, duk da haka, yana cikin koshin lafiya, kuma dakarun soji masu goyon bayan gwamnati ne suke gadinsa a wani barikin da ke wajen birnin Bamako.

A ranar 3 ga Afrilu, gwamnatin mulkin sojan kasar ta sanar da cewa tana nazarin tuhume-tuhumen da ake yi na cin amanar kasa da kuma rashin da'a a kan Touré.

A ranar 8 ga Afrilu, Touré ya sake bayyana yin murabus dinsa bisa yarjejeniyar da kungiyar raya tattalin arzikin kasashen yammacin Afirka (ECOWAS) ta kulla na maido da kasar Mali kan tsarin mulkin kasar, yana fadawa masu shiga tsakani na ECOWAS cewa, “Fiye da komai, na yi shi. na kaunar da nake yiwa kasata". A ranar 19 ga Afrilu, Touré ya tafi gudun hijira a makwabciyarta Senegal .

Amadou Toumani Touré ya koma Mali bayan shekaru biyar, a ranar 24 ga watan Disamba 2017.[6]

Wasu ayyuka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin 1993, Touré ya kafa Fondation pour l'enfance, tushen Kula da lafiyar yara. A lokacin shugabancinsa, uwargidan shugaban kasa Toure Lobbo Traore ce ke kula da gidauniyar. Touré mamba yana daya daga cikin mambobi na Hukumar Yarjejeniya Ta Duniya.[7]

Rayuwar sa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Touré ya auri Touré Lobbo Traoré. Sun haifi 'ya'ya mata uku.[8] Ya rasu a Istanbul, Turkiyya, a ranar 9 ga watan Nuwamba, 2020,[9] mako guda bayan cikarsa shekaru 72.[10]

Girmamawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

 

  1. Lewis, David; Diallo, Tiemoko (22 March 2012). "Soldiers say they have seized power in Mali". Reuters (in Turanci). Retrieved 11 November 2020.
  2. Diawara, Malick (10 November 2020). "Mali : l'ex-président Amadou Toumani Touré n'est plus". Le Point (in Faransanci). Retrieved 11 November 2020.
  3. "Mali: Former president Moussa Traoré dead at age 83". The Africa Report. Retrieved 11 November 2020.
  4. "Soldiers overthrow government in Mali". Associated Press. 22 March 2012. Retrieved 22 March 2012.
  5. "France suspends co operation with Mali after coup topples Amadou Toumani Touré". rfi.fr. 22 March 2012. Retrieved 22 March 2012.
  6. "Former Malian president Toure returns from exile". Africanews (in Turanci). 24 December 2017. Retrieved 11 November 2020.
  7. "History". EarthCharter.org (in Turanci). Retrieved 11 November 2020.
  8. Peltier, Elian (10 November 2020). "Amadou Toumani Touré, Former Malian President, Dies at 72". The New York Times (in Turanci). ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 11 November 2020.
  9. Peltier, Elian (10 November 2020). "Mali's ex-President Amadou Toumani Toure dies aged 72". New York Times (in Turanci). Retrieved 2020-11-12.
  10. Peltier, Elian (10 November 2020). "Amadou Toumani Touré, Former Malian President, Dies at 72". The New York Times (in Turanci). ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 11 November 2020.