Enugu (birni)

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Globe icon.svgEnugu
Akwata Roundabout.jpg

Inkiya Ciutat del Carbó, Birnin kwal da Coal City
Wuri
 6°26′25″N 7°29′39″E / 6.4403°N 7.4942°E / 6.4403; 7.4942
Ƴantacciyar ƙasaNajeriya
Jerin jihohi a NijeriyaJihar Enugu
Babban birnin
Yawan mutane
Faɗi 715,774 (2010)
• Yawan mutane 1,287.36 mazaunan/km²
Labarin ƙasa
Bangare na Kasar Inyamurai
Yawan fili 556 km²
Altitude (en) Fassara 247 m
Sun raba iyaka da
Bayanan tarihi
Ƙirƙira 1909
Bayanan Tuntuɓa
Tsarin lamba ta kiran tarho 042
Wasu abun

Yanar gizo enugustate.gov.ng
Enugu.

Enugu[1] (Igbonci/Inyamuranci Énugwú)[2][3] birni ne, da ke a jihar Enugu, a ƙasar Nijeriya. Shi ne babban birnin jihar Enugu. Bisa ga ƙidayar jama'a a shekarar 2006, jimilar mutane 722,664. An gina birnin Enugu a shekara ta 1912. Enugu ta samo asalin sunan ta ne daga kalmomin Inyamuranci guda biyu; Énú Ụ́gwụ́ ma'ana "saman tsauni" dangane da cewa birnin na bisa tsauni. An sanya wa garin sunan dangane da "Enugwu Ngwuo" inda aka fara samun gawayin coal. Enugwu Ngwuo na ɗaya daga cikin kauyuka goma da suka haɗu suka samar da kabilar Ngwuo, wanda akan kira su 'ya'yan Ngwuako wanda ya kirkiro kabilar tun iyaye da kakanni. Ngwuako ya sanya dansa "Udeneogu" ya tsaya a saman tsaunin (Enu-Ugwu) don kare mutanen kabilar daga makiya. Kalmar Enugwu Ama Udeneogu, na nufin ( Enugwu garin Udeneogu). Mutanen na rayuwa a saman dutsen sannan su noma filayen dake jikin tsaunukan. Ngwuo tana da iyaka da kabilar Oshie daga kudu, kabilar Ojebeogene daga arewa, sai kuma Nkanu daga gabas. Gano gawayin coal a filayen noma dake jikin Enugwu Ngwuo ya jawo hankalin mutane daga sassa daban daban don neman hanyar cigaban rayuwa kamar yadda aka nuna a taswira, hakan ya jawo samun sabuwar tsarin gwamnati wanda akafi sanida Gwamnatin Enugwu Ngwo, wanda itace muhimmiyar silar wayewar yankin na farko wanda aka sanida da Enugu a yau. Ci gaban ta fara daga kasar Ngwuo wacce akafi sanida Enugwu Ngwuo har zuwa lokacin da garin ta zama birni aka cire kalmar "Ngwuo" daga sunanta, a dalilin hakan karamar alkarya ta Ngwuo tayi silar samar da babban birni a yau, sannan tayi ta bunkasa ta mamaye yankunan birnin Nkanu kamar Nike da Akunino har zuwa Neke da Emene.

Tun Karni na 17, mutanen Nike (wani kashi na yaren Igbo) ke zaune a wurin. Acikin 1900 Turawan Mulkin mallaka na daular Burtaniya ta kirkiri yankin Kariyar turawa na Kudancin Najeriya. Gano gawayi da turawa suka yi yayi sanadiyar samar da titin jirgin kasa na Eastern Line don daukan gawayin daga yankin zuwa tashar jirgin ruwa na Port Harcourt, birnin da aka kirkira saboda haka mai nisan kilomita 243 (151 mi) daga kudancin garin da ake kira da "Enugu Coal Camp". An sauya sunan garin zuwa Enugu kuma ta bunkasa a matsayin ɗaya daga cikin tsirarun birane da aka kira ta hanyar cudanya da turawa. Zuwa 1958, Enugu tana da mahaka gawayin coal fiye da mutum 8000. Zuwa shekara ta 2005, babu sauran ayyukan hakar gawayi coal a yankin.

Enugu ta zama babban birnin Yankin Gabashin Najeriya bayan samun 'yancin Najeriya a 1960; sauyi da aka samu na canje-cajen yankuna a shekara ta 1967, 1976 da kuma 1991 yayi sanadin garin ta zamo babban birnin Jihar Enugu na yanzu. A ranar 30 ga watan Mayu 1967, an kaddamar da Enugu a matsayin babban birnin yankin Tarayyar Biafra, a dalilin hakan Enugu ta zamo babban birnin Kasar Inyamurai. Bayan da sojojin Najeriya suka kwace birnin Enugu, an mayar da Umuahia na zamo babban birnin Biafra.

Masana'antu a birnin sun hada da kasuwanni da kuma kamfanonin lemun kwalba. Har wayau, Enugu na daya daga cikin yankin masu bada umurni a kamfanonin shirya fina-finai na Najeriya wacce akeyi wa lakabi da "Nollywood". Muhimmin filin jirgin sama na Enugu shine Akanu Ibiam International Airport.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tairihin Fari[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mazaunin Enugu na farko shi kauyen Nike na Ogui, wacce take wanzuwa tun zamanin cinikayyar bayi na "Atlantic Slave Trade".[4] Nike da yaren inyamuranci na nufin "da karfi ko iko".[5] Ta sanadiyyar kasuwancin bayi ne mutanen Nike suka mallaki mafi akasarin yankin, wanda mafi yawanci ba'a taba zama da su ba. Mutanen Nike na amfani da bayi a matsayin dabarun yaki, sukan sanya bayi a gefe-gefen garin ta yadda zai yi wuyan gaske makiya su isa ga haifaffun garin.[6] Mutanen Nike sun hada gwiwa da mutanen Aro inda suka samar da kungiya da ake kira Aro Confederacy (1690–1901)[7] wacce ta kasance kungiyar inyamurai masu gudanar da harkokin cinikayyar bayi a yankin Enugu.[8] Tare da mutanen Aro da suke zuwa cinikayya daga Arochukwu akwai kuma hausawa da suke zuwa daga arewa. Hausawa suka kawo dawakai ga inyamurai wanda ake amfani dasu wajen tsubbace-tsubnace. Dukkansu; Hausawa da mutanen aro sukan shigo su fita cikin yankin da ake kira Enugu a yau kuma ana daukansu matsayin baki.[9]

Masana'antu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A shekarar 1901, kamfe na turawa don kai hari ga mutanen Aro don bude sabon yankin soji da mulkin mallakan turawa ya soma. Yakin tsakanin turawa da mutanen Aro ya fara a ranar 1 ga watan December 1901 har zuwa 24 ga watan March 1902 lokacin da akaci galabar mutanen Aro na yankin.[10] Zamanin tarayyar Aro ya kare kuma aka hade sauran yankunan Aro acikin yankunan kula da kariyan turawan mulkin mallakan Kudancin Najeriya na 1900.[11][12] Turawa sun fara isa yankin Enugu a 1903 a lokacin da mai binciken ilimin kasa dan Burtaniya da Australia Albert Ernest Kitson ya jagoranci bincike a yankin kudancin Najeriya don bincike musamman akan tattalin arzikin kasa da a karkashin jagoranci da kulawar kungiyar Imperial Institute, London. An gano gawayin coal a 1903 a kauyen Enugwu Ngwo,[13] zuwa 1913 kuma a yakunan Udi da Okoga an gano gawayi adadin da zai isa amfani wajen kasuwanci.[14] Zuwa 1914, turawa sun riga sun hade yankunan arewaci da kudanci Njeriya don samar da yankin mallakan turawa na Najeriya.[15]

A shekarar 1915, Turawa sun fara magana da 'yan asalin mutanen Enugu na yanzu danagane da bayar da ita don gina titin jirgin kasa na "Eastern Line" masana'antar hako gawayin coal. Gidajen farko-farko da aka fara ginawa a yankin sun hada da tsofaffin gidajen turɓaya na gargajiyar Igbo W. J. Leck da wasu turawa suka zauna daga saman tsaunin. Akwai kuma wani mazauni da Alfred ya zauna wanda ake kira Ugwu Alfred ma'ana a inyamuranci "Tsaunin Alfred" wanda Alfred Inoma ya zauna (shine shugaban leburorin da suka zo daga Onitsha) yana nan a kusa da tsaunin.[16] Bayan turawa sun amsa filin, Frederick Lugard - gwamna jenar na Najeriya a lokacin, ya sanya wa ma wajen hakar gawayin "Enugu Coal Camp", don bambance ta da Enugwu Ngwo,[5] wacce ke kallon birnin daga wani tudu dake yammacin Enugu. An fara aikin hakar gawayin coal na farko ne a ma'aikatar hake-hake na Udi a shekara ta 1915 wacce aka rufe ta bayan shekaru biyu kuma aka musanya ta da mahakar kwarin Iva Valley.[17][18] Enugu ta zamo muhimmiyar ma'akatar hakan gawayi kuma itace daya isassa a duk fadin Afurka ta Yamma. An gina titin jirgin kasa na Eastern Line wanda ta hada Enugu da Port Harcourt a 1916 don fitar da coal daga Enugu zuwa tashoshin jiragen[19][20] da aka gina saboda hakan.[21] Enugu ta zamo daya daga cikin daidaikun biranen da aka samar dangane da cudanya da turawa a fadin Afurka ta kudu. Zuwa 1916, gwamnatin mulkin mallakan turawa ta gyara gine sashin da aka keba mata na musamman don zama. Yankin da aka kebawa gwamnati wato (GRA) sun zama mazaunan turawa wanda ke arewacin rafin Ogbete: haka zalika akwaii wuri na musamman da aka gyara don mutanen gari daga kudancin rafin. Yankunan Enugu da aka gina suka kasu kashi biyu kuma, kuma zuwa 1917 garin ya samu zama birni. A yankin Afurka kuwa, sai karuwar jama'a ake samu musamman ma'aikata da suke zaune a kebabben wajajen tsaunin Udi kusa da a'aikatar gawayin da kuma Kwarin Iva.[22]

A cikin shekara ta 1938, Enugu ta zamo cibiyar gudanarwa na Yankin Gabas (Eastern Region). Adadin ma'aikatan da ke hakar coal ya kai 6000 (yawanci daga ma'aikatra Udi) a 1948 zuwa 8,000 a 1958. Adadin yawan mutanen Enugu ya karu matuka musamman saboda ma'katun ta; adadin mutanen garin sun kai 62,000 a 1952.[23] Hake-hake a Enugu kan zama tashin hankali musamman al'amarin da ya faru a ranar 18 ga watan Nuwamban 1949, lokacin da 'yan sandan turawan mulkin mallaka suka harbe ma'ikata 21 zuwa barzahu, kuma suka raunana akalla mutum 51. Wannan kisan kiyashin ake kira da "Harbe-harben Kwarin Iva" ("The Iva Valley Shooting" a turance)[24] wanda 'yan kishin kasa "Zikist" musamman daga yakunan Gabashin Najeriya suka turara.[5][25][26] Zikizanci ("Zikisim") kungiyace na bujurewa da 'yan kishin kasa karkashin jagorancin Nnamdi Azikiwe, wanda ya kasance fitaccen dan kishin kasa daga jam'iyyar National Council of Nigeria and the Cameroons (NCNC). Wannan harbi ya samo asali ne daga lokacin da ma'aikata suka nuna rashin jin dadinsu game da cewa ma'akatar hakan gawayin sun cinye masu ladan ayyukansu, kafafen labarai na kasa ta yada jita-jitan. Da yawa daga ciki mutanen Zikist sunyi amfani da wannan harbe-harbe don amfanin kansu na siyasa don su kuma ture gwamnatin turawa wajen Najeriya.[27] An wallafa cikakken bayani kan al'amarin a wajen tunawa da daya daga cikin turawan da suka zauna a yankin' wato James Stewart Smith.[28]

Samun "Yancin kai, yaki, da bayan hakan[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Enugu ta zamo babban birni a 1956 da Umaru Altine a matsayin magajin gari (mayor). Bayan shekaru hudu da hakan, Najeriya ta samu 'yancin kai a 1960. A ranar 27 May 1967 ne gwamnatin Najeriya ta raba yankunan Yammain, Arewacin da Gabacin Najeriya zuwa jihohi 12, kuma Enugu ta zamo babban birnin jihohin Gabacin Najeriya ta tsakiya wato "East Central State". A ranar 30 Mayun 1967, an kaddamar da Enugu a matsayin babban birnin Tarayyar Biafra wanda aka samar daga jihohin Gabas ta tsakiya, Cross River da kuma jihar Rivers. Ojukwu yayi sanarwan a matsayin shugabn yankin Gabacin wanda daga baya akai ta kai masu hare-hare aka kashe wasu da dama aka raunata wasu, daga bisani kuma Inyamurai sukai ta juyin mulkin yayinda hakan yasa suka kashe wasu daga cikin manyan-manyan shuwagabannin arewa. Asalin 'yan adawan Inyamurai sune Hausa da Fulani dake arewacin Najeriya. Yakin da Hausawa suka jagoranta don kwato yankin daga hannun Inyamurai yasa Inyamurai da ke sauran Yammacin da Arewacin Najeriya sun koma gida zuwa Gabashin Najeriya kuma Enugu ta zamo babban masaukinsu. Gidan rediyon Biafra wato "Voice of Biafra" (wanda a da akafi sani da "Eastern Nigerian Broadcasting Service") tana nan a Enugu; daga wannan gidan rediyo ne shugaban Biafra Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu yake yada maganganu da karerayi ga 'yan Najeriya da kuma mutanen Biafra. A dalilin wannan yakin, Enugu ta fuskanci karancin mutanen da ba 'yan asalin harshen ba. A ranar 4 October 1967, Gwamnatin Najeriya ta tashi boma-bomai a gabar yankin kafin kwato ta bayan 'yan makonni, daga bayan haka ne babban birnin Biafran ta koma Umuahia.[29] Shekaru da dama bayan maido Enugu cikin jihohin Najeriya, har wayau ana kiranta da "Babban Birnin Inyamurai".[5][30]

Enugu ta komo matsayinta na babban birnin Yankunan Gabas ta Tsakiyar Najeriya a shekakra ta 1970 bayan an warware rikicin tarayyar Biafra. A ranar 3 February 1976 aka maida yankin zuwa jihohi biyu Imo da Anambra; a lokacin akwai jihohi 19 a Najeriya,[31] sai Enugu ta zamo babban birnin Anambra. A ranar 27 August 1991, a lokacin mulkin soja na Ibrahim Babangida aka raba jihar Anambra zuwa jihohi biyu; jihar Enugu da jihar Anambra.[32] Birnin Enugu ta zauna matsayinta na babban birnin sabon jihar da aka samar, a yayin da Awka ta zamo babban birnin sabon jihar Anambra.[33]

Labarin Kasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Saman doron-kasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Duk da cewa sunanta saman tsauni da Inyumuranci, Enugu tana gabar kwari ba a saman tsauni ba.[4][5] Enugu tana zaune a kwarin ruwan rafin Cross River da kuma Benue trough kuma tana da mafi kyawun gawayin coal na zamani.[34] Tsohon dutsen Precambrian ya mamaye yankin. Alamun gawayin ajikin duwatsu kan kai kaurin mita 1 ko 2 (3.3 ko 6.6 ft). Tsaunukan Enugu kan kai tsawon mita 1,000m (3,300 ft). Daga cikin al'amuran kasar Enugu sun hada da tafkin Nike (Lake) inda aka gina Nike Lake Hotel. Akwai kuma rafuka guda shida wanda sune mafi girma a birnin kuma sun hada da Ekulu, Asata, Ogbete, Aria, Idaw da kogin Nyaba.[35] Kogin Ekulu shine ruwa mafi girma a birnin garin kuma yana da muhimmanci wajen samar da ruwan amfanin yau da kullum a birnin.[36]

Yanayi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Enugu tana da yanayi na tropical rain forest zone da alamun yanayi na savannah.[37][38] Birnin na da kasafin yanayi na tropical savanna climate (Köppen: Aw). Yanayin sararin samaniya a birnin na da gumi da laima da lokuta mafi laima tsakanin watan March zuwa Nuwamba. Matsakaicin yanayi na zafi/sanyi na duka jihar Enugu na tsakanin 26.7 °C (80.1 °F). Kamar kowacce yanki na Afurka ta yamma, yanayin na damuna da rani ne ke wanzuwa a birnin. Adadin matsakaicin ruwan sama a Enugu kan kai milimita 2,000ml (79 in). Wanda ke zuwa yana dauke har zuwa cikin damuna lokacin da zai karfi. Har wayau akwai lokaci na sanyi a garin, mai zuwa da kura wanda ke kwashe makonni a tsakanin watannin December zuwa Junairu. Kaman sauran yankunan Najeriya, Enugu nada zafi kusan ilahirin shekara.

Climate data for Enugu
Watan Janairu Fabrairu Maris Afrilu Mayu Yuni Yuli Ogusta Satumba Oktoba Nuwamba Disamba Shekara
Record high °C (°F) 36.1
(97.0)
37.8
(100.0)
37.8
(100.0)
36.7
(98.1)
35.0
(95.0)
33.3
(91.9)
35.0
(95.0)
32.8
(91.0)
32.8
(91.0)
34.4
(93.9)
35.0
(95.0)
35.6
(96.1)
37.8
(100.0)
Average high °C (°F) 33.5
(92.3)
34.9
(94.8)
34.7
(94.5)
33.6
(92.5)
32.0
(89.6)
30.5
(86.9)
29.5
(85.1)
29.6
(85.3)
30.2
(86.4)
31.2
(88.2)
32.6
(90.7)
32.9
(91.2)
32.1
(89.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) 25.6
(78.1)
27.2
(81.0)
28.3
(82.9)
27.4
(81.3)
26.6
(79.9)
25.5
(77.9)
25.0
(77.0)
24.8
(76.6)
24.8
(76.6)
25.3
(77.5)
26.0
(78.8)
25.6
(78.1)
26.0
(78.8)
Average low °C (°F) 20.3
(68.5)
22.8
(73.0)
23.9
(75.0)
23.9
(75.0)
23.1
(73.6)
22.6
(72.7)
22.3
(72.1)
22.3
(72.1)
22.1
(71.8)
22.3
(72.1)
21.6
(70.9)
20.0
(68.0)
22.3
(72.1)
Record low °C (°F) 12.8
(55.0)
12.8
(55.0)
16.1
(61.0)
19.4
(66.9)
19.4
(66.9)
18.9
(66.0)
19.4
(66.9)
18.9
(66.0)
18.3
(64.9)
18.9
(66.0)
14.4
(57.9)
12.2
(54.0)
12.2
(54.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 18.8
(0.74)
15.4
(0.61)
70.3
(2.77)
130.1
(5.12)
217.2
(8.55)
251.9
(9.92)
241.9
(9.52)
237.1
(9.33)
292.0
(11.50)
200.9
(7.91)
12.1
(0.48)
7.7
(0.30)
1,695.4
(66.75)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 1.4 1.2 3.9 6.8 12.2 13.7 15.6 15.3 17.8 12.2 1.3 0.7 102.1
Average relative humidity (%) (at 15:00 LST) 34.3 37.4 45.6 56.4 63.6 68.5 71.3 70.8 70.3 66.4 50.5 38.7 56.1
Mean monthly sunshine hours 186.0 173.6 182.9 183.0 186.0 153.0 117.8 117.8 123.0 173.6 219.0 217.0 2,032.7
Mean daily sunshine hours 6.0 6.2 5.9 6.1 6.0 5.1 3.8 3.8 4.1 5.6 7.3 7.0 5.6
Source 1: NOAA[39]
Source 2: Deutscher Wetterdienst (extremes)[40]

Sassan Birni da kuma Gine-Gine[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Gini mafi tsawo a babban birnin Enugu shine ginin bankin African Continental Bank (ACB) mai bene hawa shida.[41] An ginawa bankin African Continental Bank Limited ne a karshen shekarun 1950s wanda Nnamdi Azikiwe ya kirkira bayan ya zama shugaban kasa na farko bayan sa,um 'yancin kasar a watan October 1960.[42] Anyi bikin bude ginin a ranar 30 Aprelu, 1959.[43] Sauran gine-gine masu tsawo sun hada da Hotel Presidential wanda aka bude a watan August 1963 na da bene hawa bakwai da dakuna 100 kuma yana nan a unguwar Independence Layout. A tsakiyar Enugu akwai ginin Michael Okpara Square, wanda aka gina don tunawa da tsohon shugaban Yankin Gabashin Najeriya Michael Okpara. Sannan akwai ginin Gidan Gwamnatin Enugu a birnin, da Gidan Majalisar dokoki na jihar da kuma gidajen shari'ar garin.[44]

Wuraren aikin hake-haken gawayin coal na Enugu sun gefen gari, wanda mafi yawancinsu an kulle su yanzu. Ma'aikatar hako gawayin na kwarin Iva na nan kusa da birnin Ngwo da kuma saman tsaunin Enugu.[22] Ana zuwa kwarin Iva valley ta titi da ya hada Enugu da Ngwo.[45] Sauran mahakar suna nan a Ogbete da kuma Coal Camp layouts; wanda suna wajen garin kuma a kusa da Iva Valley.[22]

Zane-zanen gine-ginen Enugu a farkon lamari ya kasance na turawa ne, a dalilin hakan yawancin tsarin gine-ginen Enugu tsari ne irin na turawa. Anyi amfani da salon ginin turawa da tsarin gidajen Victoria wanda turawa da ma'aikatan gwamnatin turawa 'yan Najeriya ke zama musamman a karni na 20.[46] Misalin ire-iren wannan gine-gine sune kaman a ginin cocuka musamman cocin Holy Ghost Cathedral da ke gilasai masu alaman Greco-Roman da an gani anga tsarin turawa.[47]

Gwamnati[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Birnin Enugu tana da kananan hukumomi uku karkashin ta; Enugu East, Enugu North da kuma Enugu South. Duka wadannan kananan hukumomi na da nata majalisar, da 'yan majalisa, da chairman da suke kula da harkokin ilimi da na lafiya a kananan hukumomin. Enugu ta kudu ta kasu kashi biyu, birni da kauye kuma kowacce ana zabar mata chairman dinta daban. Ciyamomin kananan hukumomin sun hada da; Paul Ogbe na birnin Enugu ta kudu, Theresa Egbo na kauyen Enugu ta Kudu, Emma Onoh na Enugu ta Arewa, da kuma Christopher Ugwu a matsayin ciyaman na karamar hukumar Enugu ta Gabas; duka wadannan ciyamomi na wakiltan kananan hukumominsu a majalisar dokoki na jihar. Ma'aikatun Ministry of Lands, Survey and Town Planning (a mataki na jiha) da kuma Local Planning Authority (a matakin karamar hukuma) ke da alhakin kula da gudanar da harkokin filayen a jihar.[48] Enugu ta kasu zuwa Enugu ta Arewa/Kudu wanda Chukwuegbo Ofor ke wakailta and Enugu ta gabas wanda Gilbert Nnaji ke wakilta;dukkansu 'yan jam'iyyar PDP ne kamar gwamnansu Ifeanyichukwu Ugwuanyi wanda ake yiwa lakabi da (GBURU-GBURU).[49]

Jama'a[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ƙaruwar yawan jama'a a Enugu
YearPop.
1921 3,170[50][51]
1931 12,959[51]
1953 62,764[50][51]
1963 138,457[50]
1982 349,873[50]
1983 367,567[50]
1984 385,735[50]
1987 446,535[50]
1991 407,756[52]
2002 595,000[53]
2006 722,664[54]

Dangane da kidaya na shekara ta 2006, sashin birnin Enugu na mutane kimanin 722,664.[55] Mafi akasarin mutanen Enugu kiristoci ne,[56] kaman dao sauran garuruwan kudu maso gabashin Najeriya. Mafi yawan mutanen Enugu na amfani da harshen Turanci da kuma harshen su na gado wato Igbonci. Igbo shine asalin harshen Enugu. ana amfani da turancin Najeriya wato pidgin a garin saboda rabe-rabe harsunan Najeriya da Igbo a birni.[57] Enugu tana cikin harsunan Igbo daga arewacin yankin tare da sauran yankuna kaman Owo, Nike, Agbani, da kuma birane kamar Awka da Nsukka.[58]

Asalin mutanen Enugu sune mutanen Enugwu-Ngwo dake zaune a yankin tsaunin kusa da tsaunukan Milliken daga yamma. Bayan Inyamurai dake zaune a birnin, akwai sauran yaruka kamar Yarbawa wanda ke da jama'a da dama a garin da kuma saura kaman Hausa, Kanuri, Ijaw, da kuma Fulani.[59]

Laifuka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Laifuka sun karu a Enugu tun daga 2009 musamman garkuwa da mutane da kuma fashi da makami a musamman watannin Satumba zuwa December.[60] Gwamnatin jihar Enugu ta mika takadda zuwa majalisar dokoki na jihar acikin watan Febreru shekara ta 2009 da ta kaddamar da garkuwa da mutane a matsayin babban laifi a jihar.[61] An kwamushe akalla mutum 1,088 acikin watannun Satumba da kuma December; mutum 270 aka kwamushe a watan Satumba, 303 a watan Octoba, 295 a watan Nuwamba da kuma mutum 220 a December. Masu laifi 477 aka kama da zargin laifin garkuwa da mutane.[62] Suna amsa kudade miliyoyi na kudin Najeriya don musayar abunda suke garkuwa dashi. An sanya kudade kimanin miliyan ₦500 million (3.3 million a Dalar Amurka dangane da chanjin kudi a 26 ga watan June 2010)[63] don musayar sekataren gwamnan Enugu wato Dan Nwomeh, daga baya suka rage zuwa milyan 200, zuwa miliyan 50 har dai daga karshe suke sakeshi ba tare da an biya komai ba; yawancin laifukan Enugu sun hada da garkuwa da mutane.[64]

Al'adu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Enugu tana da nata al'adun na gargajiya dangane da saura makwaban ta. A bukukuwa na al'ada biyu a Enugu; bikin "Mmanwu festival" da kuma na "New yam festival". Bikin Mmanwu festival na faruwa ne acikin watan Nuwamba kuma ana amfani da dodanni (masquerade) wanda kowanne yana da nashi sunan. Ana gudanar da bikin ne a filin wasan kwallo kafa na the Nnamdi Azikiwe Stadium, kuma ya hada da tattakin dodanni tare da waƙoƙi wanda kungiyar "Enugu Council of Arts and Culture" ke dauka nauyi. Biki na biyu a muhimmanci a jihar Enugu shine bikin "New yam festival" wanda aka fi sani da iwa ji, kuma ana kadda at da bikin ne a tsakanin watan in Augusta da October daidai lokacin girban sabon doya.[65][66][67] Doya na daga cikin muhimmanci abu daga al'adan inyamurai.[68]

Wasu bukukuwan da aka ƙirƙira daga baya sun hada da; "Enugu Festival of Arts" wanda kungiyar Enugu Council of Arts and Festivals suke shiryawa. An ƙirƙira ƙungiyar ne a shekara ta 1986, kuma ta nunka sa yanayin bikin shagulan musamman ta hanyar canza mata wurin taro daga Ƙauyuka zuwa birni Baƙi dake halartar bikin na samun Daman dandana kayan abincin inyamurai da gargajiya kamar Okpa "Okpa Enugu", Abacha - abincin gargajiya ne da ake yi da rogo "African salad" fiofio da makama ta su kamar Nkwobi, farfesu.

Wuraren bude idanu na tarihi a Enugu basu da yawa sai dai gwamnati sun inganta wasu kamar tsauni Udi wanda ana iya ganin ko ina na birnin daga zaman sa, takin Nike lake Resort dake wajen gari, karin Iva Valley da makamantansu. Wuraren shakatawa a birnin sun hada da "Murtala Muhammad Part". Tsaffin ma'akatun haƙo gawayi coal wato Onyeama da Okpara duk a bude suke ga masubziyara. Sauran Wurare sun hada da Institute of Management and Technology (IMT) Sculptural Garden and Art Gallery, the Eastern Region Parliamentary Building, the Old Government Lodge,[86] and Enugu Golf course. Enugu Zoo wato gidan na mun daji na Enugu shi a wani wajen bude idanu ne a birnin. National Commission for Museums and Monuments (NCMM) ke kula da gidan na mun dajin. Akwai kuma "Bona Gallery" a birnin.[69]

Nishaɗi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Waƙa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Enugu tayi fice a fannin wakokin "Highlife music" a 1950s. Salon wakokin Enugu ya wanzu har zuwa yankunan Kudancin Cameroun inda Inyamurai ke da tasiri a yankuna kamar Limbe, Tiko da Douala. Wasu daga cikin fitattun mawaka 'yan asalin Enugu sun hada da; Sonny Okosun mawakin da aka haifa a Enugu kuma yayi wakar sa na farko a birnin a shekara ta 1965, Celestine Ukwu da Michael Ejeagha, 2Face Idibia, rapper Phyno, William Onyeabor, Flavour N'abania da makamantansu.

Midiya da littattafai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Jaridu da ake wallafawa kuma ake saidawa a Enugu sun hada da Daily Star, Evening Star, The Renaissance da kuma New Renaissance. Daya daga cikin tsaffin gidan jarida itace jaridal Eastern Sentinel wanda kungiyar Nnamdi Azikiwe's ta kirkira a 1955 amma ta rushe a 1960. Wasu daga cikin gidajen telabijin da na rediyo dake Enugu sun hada da reshen gidan telabiin na "Nigerian Television Authority (NTA Enugu)", reshen gidan rediyon Najeriya wato "Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria (FRCN)" wacce ke watsa labaranta da harsunan turanci, Igbo, Efik, Ijaw da kuma harshen Tiv. Akwai kuma gidan telebijin na Enugu watau "Enugu State Broadcasting Service Television (ESBS-TV)" gidan telebijin ne na jiha da ke watsa shirye-shiryen sa'oi 18 a karshen mako.[70] Mafi akasarin fina-finan Najeriya anfi daukan su ne a Lagos da Enugu.[71][72] A cikin shekara ta 2007 ne Enugu ta kaddamar da bikin shirin fina-finai na Enugu International Film Festival.

Wasu daga cikin sanannun marubutan Najeriya sun kasance haifaffun Enugu ne kamar su; Chinua Achebe, marubucin littafin Things Fall Apartyayi rayuwa a Enugu a shekara ta 1958, shekaran da aka wallafa littafin.[73] Ya dawo birnin ne tare da iyalansa bayan yayi kaura daga Lagos zuwa birnin daga bisani ya hadu da abokinsa marubuci Christopher Okigbo inda suka sama da gidan wallafa littattafai na Citadel Press, daga cikin jigogin sun hada da How the Dog was Domesticated and How the Leopard Got His Claws.[74] Akwai kuma marubuciyar littafin Half of a Yellow Sun Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie, wacce ta lashe kyautar Orange Prize for Fiction a shekara ta 2007, an haife ta a Enugu a 1977 kuma ta tashi a Nsukka.[75][76]

Wasanni[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kungiyar wasan kwallon kafa na Enugu Rangers kungiyace ta kwararrun 'yan wasa masu buga kofin Najeriya (NIgerian Premier League) kuma suna nan a filin wasan kwallon kafa na Nnamdi Azikiwe Stadium, wanda aka sanya wa sunan a maimakon shugaba kasa na farko a Najeriya. Tsaffin 'yan wasan kwallon kafa na Enugu rangers sun hada da Jay-Jay Okocha da Taribo West.[77][78] Filin itace cibiyar wasan I na daukakin yankin Gabashin Najeriya kafin yakin basasa Najeriya. An buga wasannin duniya na 'yan wasan ƙasa da shekarau 17 a shekara ta 2009 wato FIFA U-17 World Cup (24 October – 15 November) a Enugu da Sauran jihohi biyar na Najeriya. A dalili wannan gasa aka gyara filin wasa ni zuwa na zamani.

Tattalin arziki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kamar yadda ake mata iƙirari da 'birnin gawayi' (coal city)[4] Enugu har zuwa karni na 20 ta dogara ne matuka akan haƙo ma'adanan gawayin coal a tsaunukan Udi wanda hakan ya jawo habakar birnin.[79] Cibiyar haƙo coal na Najeriya wato (Nigerian Coal Corporation) na nan a Enugu tun da aka kirkiri ƙungiyar acikin shekara ta 1950 don kula da harkokin haƙan gawayin a birnin.[80] Dangane da samar da titi jirgin kasa na "Eastern Line", Enugu ta samu hanya zuwa gaɓar tekun Port Harcourt daga kudu sai kuma da jihar Kaduna daga arewaci birnin.[81] Yaƙin basasan Najeriya ya jawo koma baya matuka musamman ta fuskar aikin haƙo ma'adanan Coal a dalilin lalacewa wuri da kayan aiki. Zuwa shekara ta 2005, gawayin ya rage daraja haka za lika aikin haƙo shi.[82] Wasu daga cikin ma'adanan da ake samu a birnin Enugu sun hada da baƙin ƙarfe (iron ore), farar-ƙasa (limestone), farar laka (fine clay), Marmara (marble), da kuma silica sand.[83]

A Enugu, yawanci kayan amfani ana saida su a kasuwannin gargajiya ko kuma bisa hanya, yawancin masu saide-saide akan hanyoyin Najeriya yara ne ƙanana.[84] Akwai muhimmanci kasuwannin uku a birnin Enugu; Ogbete Market, Awkunanaw Market da kuma New Market. Kasuwar "New Market" market kasuwa ce ta saida garin kwaki. Ita kuma kasuwa Ogbete kasuwace da 'yan kasuwa daga yankuna makwaban birnin ke zuwa kamar like Onitsha, Aguleri, Abakaliki da Aba kuma ba'a saida kayan abinci a wannan kasuwa sai dai kayan kamfani kamar lemun kwalba, giya da makamantansu.[85] Sanan akwai kamfani hada mota ƙirar Marasandi[86] a kasuwar da kuma wajen hada abubuwa kaman tiles, Ruffin asbestos,man fetur da kuma magunguna.[87] Har na tsawon lokaci filin jirgin sama na Sosoliso Airlines na da reshensu na sufuri a Akanu Ibiam International Airport dake Enugu.[88]

Yankin tayi fice a fuskar damar da man kadan ya a duk fadi duniya, amma haƙan ya samu cikas tun a yakin basasan Najeriya a dalilin kayan aikin sun lalace da makamantan haka. Sauran kayan amfani na sayarwa da Enugu ke sa marwa sun haɗa da cocoa, gyaɗa, man-gyaɗa da dai Sauran su. Amma a yau, birnin Enugu da Sauran yankuna Najeriya da aka sani ada suna sanar da kayan abinci ga sassa duniya a yanzu suma sun dogara akan shigowa da kayan abinci daga waje.[89]

Ilimi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Enugu tana da muhimmanci jam'oin ilimi guda uku "Enugu State University of Science & Technology (ESUT)"; Jami'ar Najeriya wato University of Nigeria,sashin Nsukka (UNN) da sashin birnin Enugu (UNEC); da kuma Institute of Management & Technology (IMT). Saura sun hada da the Federal Cooperative College, Oji River (FCCO). Godfrey Okoye University, Caritas University, Renaissance University, Coal City university, Novena University, Esut Business School. Akwai kuma kwalejin "Saviour Institute of Science and Technology", polytechnic da kuma Bigard Memorial Seminary. Daga cikin makaranta sakandare akwai College of the Immaculate Conception (CIC) built in 1940, Holy Rosary College (HRC) wanda aka gina a 1943,[90] Colliery Comprehensive Secondary school, Queen's Secondary School, Federal Government College, Royal Crown Academy, Nsukka sai kuma sakandare dake cikin Jami'ar Najeriya.

Kiwon lafiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Wuraren kiwon lafiya a Enugu sun hada da ESUT (Enugu State University of Science and Technology) Teaching Hospital; University of Nigeria, Enugu, Teaching Hospital; Park Lane General Hospital in the GRA; PMC (Peenok Medical Center) located on Ziks Avenue in Uwani; Hansa Clinic on Awolowo Street in Uwani; Niger Foundation Hospital da asibitin Diagnostic Centreda kuma abitin Ntasi Obi Ndi no n'Afufu Hospital organization wacce ke unguwar Enuguabor Street in the Trans-Ekulu layout da dai sauransu. Wasu daga cikin asibitoci na musamman sun hada da asibitin mahaukata da kuma asibitin 'kashi wato Psychiatric Hospital Enugu da the National Orthopaedic Hospital Enugu (NOHE)

Mafi akasarin asibitocin Enugu na 'yan kasuwa ne. Asibitin UNTH da kuma asibitin kashi wato National Orthopaedic na daga cikin asibitocin gwamnati a birnin. Asibitin gwamnatin da yafi kowanne bunkusa a Enugu shine asibitin "Park Lane Hospital"

Sufuri[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Enugu na kan karamar hanyar jirgin kasa na Eastern Line wanda ya wuce har birnin Port Harcourt; tashar jirgin kasan kuwa na nan daura da filin wasan kwallon kafa na National stadium kuma dangane da asalinta da ma'aikatar hako gawayi a birnin tana nan a Unguwar Ogui. Motocin bus da tasi sune muhimman hanyoyin zurga-zurga a birnin.[91] A da acaba (okada) na daya daga cikin hanyoyin sufurin har zuwa lokacinda gwamnatin jihar ta hana sufuri ta hanyar okada a watan Aprelun, 2009.[92] Mafi akasarin masu shiga da fita birnin suna bi ne ta tashar Ogbete Motor Park.[93]

Acikin shekara ta 2009, gwwamnatin Enugu ta kawo salon sufuri ta hanyar tasi don rage talauci da rashin aikin yi a birnin.[94] Tasi 200 kirar Nissan Sunny da kuma suzuki guda 200 bankin Pro-Credit Micro Finance Bank ta raba bashi ga maras aikin yi a birnin a bisa yarjejeniya kan zasu biya a hankali har su mallaki motocin.[95][96] A ranar 13 March 2009 ne gwamnatin birnin ta raba manyan motocu 20 wanda ke daukan mutane akalla 82 don sufuri tsakanin birnin Enugu.[97]

Muhimmin filin jirgin sama a birnin shine filin jirgin sama na Akanu Ibiam International Airport wanda ake iya zuwa a tasi da kuma manyan motocin haya.[91] An fara gyaran filin a ranar 30 Nuwamban, 2009 don fadada filin jirgin wajen daukan manyan jirage. Tsarin aikin ya hada da kara mita 600m (2,000 ft) ga filin gudun jirgin dake da tsawon mitoci 2,400-metre (7,900 ft) don yakai tsawon kilomita 3km (1.9 mi); kuma za'a kara masa fadi daga mita 45 zuwa mita 60m (148 to 197 ft). An kiyasta kudin aikin zai kai miliyan ₦4.13bn[98] wato mliyan 27.3 na dalar Amurka (a cikin shekara ta 26 June 2010).[99]

An bude babban titin A3 na kan hanyar Enugu zuwa Port Harcourt da wuce ta Aba zuwa sauran birane a cikin shekarun 1970s.[100] Titin na A3 ta mike ta arewa zuwa Jos ta hanyar Makurdi.[101] Akwai kuma manyan tituna guda biyu, Babban titin A232 daga birnin Benin City, Asaba da Onitsha zuwa Enugu ta Gabas, da kuma titin A343 daga Abakaliki zuwa Enugu ta yamma,[102] wamda suka sa Enugu ta zamo mahadar yankunan.[103]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

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