Fezzan

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Wikidata.svgFezzan
landscape (en) Fassara
Bayanai
Suna a harshen gida Fesanas
Ƙasa Libya
Wuri
 26°19′58″N 13°25′31″E / 26.3328°N 13.4253°E / 26.3328; 13.4253

Fezzan ( UK : / f ɛ ˈzɑːn / fez-AHN, US : / f ɛ ˈz æn , fə ˈz æ n / fez-AN, fə- ZAN ; [1] yarukan Berber  ; Larabci: فزان‎, romanized: Fizzān  ; Latin ) shi ne yankin kudu maso yammacin Libya na yau. Hamada ce, wanda tsaunuka suka rarraba ta, hawa, da kafaffun koramu (wadis) daga arewa, inda dausayi ke ba tsoffin birane da ƙauyuka damar wanzuwar rayuwa acikin hamadar Sahara da ke da wuyan rayuwa. Kalmar daga farko tana nufin ƙasar da ta wuce yankin bakin teku na Afirka, wacce ta hada da Nafusa da ke yammacin Libya ta zamani a kan Ouargla da Illizi. Kamar yadda waɗannan yankunan Berber suka kasance suna da alaƙa da yankunan Tripoli, Cirta ko Algiers, ana amfani da sunan har wayau wajen kiran yankunan arid dake kudancin Tripolitania .

Suna[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin harsunan Berber, Fezzan (ko ifezzan ) na nufin "dutse mai karfi". [2] Fezzan kuma na iya zama daga asalin sunan yankin a yaren Latin da Girkanci Phasania ko Phazania, wanda ke iya nufin "ƙasar tsuntsayen pheasants ". [3]

Yanayin kasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Wan Caza dunes a cikin hamadar Sahara ta Fezzan

Koramar ash-Shati ta ratsa ta Fezzan daga arewa ( Wadi Al Shatii ) kuma daga yamma da Wadi Irawan. Wadannan yankuna guda biyu, tare da wasu sassan tsaunin Tibesti da ta tsallaka kan iyakar Chadi da kuma dausoyoyi a yankuna daban daban da iyakoki, su ne kadai sassan Fezzan da mutane ke iya rayuwa. Manyan tekuna kasa da aka fi sani da ergs na Idehan Ubari da Idehan Murzuq sun mamaye yawancin ƙasar Fezzan da ta rage.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Daga karni na 5 (kafin zuwan Yesu) zuwa karni na 5 (bayan zuwan Yesu), Fezzan ya kasance gida ga mutanen Garamantes, wanda ke tafiyar da hanyoyin kasuwanci na Trans-Saharan a jere tsakanin Carthage da Daular Roma a Arewacin Afirka da jihohin Sahelian na yamma da tsakiyar Afirka.

Hoton tauraron dan adam na Libya, tare da Fezzan a gefen hagu na ƙasa, yana nuna babban hamada

Septimus Flaccus janar na mutanen Roma a shekara ta 19 K.Z. da Suetonius Paulinus a shekara ta 50 AZ sun jagoranci yaƙi zuwa arewacin hamadar sahara, kuma mai bincike na Roma Julius Maternus ya yi tafiya ta yankin a farkon ƙarni na 1 (bayan zuwan Yesu). Paulinus ya isa har yankin Fezzan sannan ya wuce kudu. [4]

Da ƙarshen daular Romawa [5] bayan rikicin kasuwanci ya gabato, yankin Fezzan ta fara mahimmancinta. Mafi yawan jama'ar ta sun ragu sosai saboda mamayewat hamadar Sahara a farkon zamanai na tsakiya.

A cikin ƙarni na 13 da na 14, Fezzan ya zama wani ɓangare na daular Kanem inda Kanem-Bornu ta faɗaɗa har zuwa yankin Zella, Libya. [6] Yaki da tayi da Daular Kanem–Bornu a farkon karni na sha shida ya kai ga kafuwar daular Awlad Muhammad, inda Murzuk ya zama babban birnin Fezzan. A shekara ta 1565 Muhammad ibn al-Muntasir ne ya mulke .

Sarakunan Ottoman na Arewacin Afirka sun tabbatar da ikonsu a yankin a karni na 17. A zamanin Abdulhamid II (1876-1909) an yi amfani da Fezzan a matsayin sansanin 'yan gudun hijirar siyasa ga Matasan Turkawa domin ita ce lardi mafi nisa daga Istanbul.

Daga farkon 1911, Italiya ta mamaye yankin Fezzan. Duk da haka, ikon Italiya na yankin ya zamo mai wahala har zuwa akalla shekarar alif 1923, tare da hawan Benito Mussolini. Kabila larabawa masu bin tsarin addinin Sunusiya Sufaye sun bijirewa turawan Italiya a yunkurinsu na farko na mulkar yankn Kabilun Abzinawa na yankin sun sami kwanciyar hankali ne kawai ta hanyar fadada Turai jim kadan kafin yakin duniya na biyu, kuma wasu daga cikinsu sun hada kai da Sojojin Italiya a kamfe na Arewacin Afirka .

Sojojin Free French sun mamaye Murzuk, babban garin Fezzan, a ranar 16 ga watan Janairun 1943, kuma suka ci gaba da gudanar da Fezzan tare da ma'aikatan da ke a Sabha, sun kafa sansanin Sojoji na Fezzan-Ghadames. [7] An yi amfani da gwamnatin Faransa sun mulke yankin ta hannun manyan Fezzan na dangin Sayf Al Nasr. [7] ƙabilun da suka ki yin shiru sune Ghat na yammacin Fezzan, da yankinta da ke kewayenta, zuwa Aljeriya da Faransa ke mulka. [7] Duk da haka, lokacin da ikon sojojin Faransa tazo karshe a 1951, daukakin yankin Fezzan ya zama wani ɓangare na Masarautar Libya.

Fezzan ta zamo tungar shugaban Libya Muammar Gaddafi a mafi yawancin yakin basasar Libya na 2011, ko da yake tun daga watan Yuli, dakarun adawa da Gaddafi sun fara samun galaba, inda suka kwace ikon birni mafi girma na yankin wato Sabha daga tsakiya zuwa karshen watan Satumba.

Lambar sirri shine LF (.lf) "a madadin" Libya Fezzan (na "lokacin da ba a sani ba") ta Ƙungiyar Ƙasa ta Duniya (ISO).

Akwai rijiyoyin mai a Fezzan mai iya samar da kimanin barrel 400,000 na mai a kowace rana, amma kamfanonin mai suna kawo ma'aikatansu ne daga arewacin Libya. Kabilun yankin dai ba sa samun wani kudi daga cinikin man fetur, don haka suka koma yin safarar mai a sace daga yankin kudu da hamadar Sahara, wanda ke ciyar da matsalar bakin haure na Turai, kuma sana'ar ce ta dala biliyan 1 a kowace shekara.

Gudanarwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kagara da masallacin Murzuk

Fezzan gunduma ce a ƙarƙashin Turkawa Ottoman da Italiya, kuma lardi ( wilayah ) ko gwamnatin ( muhafazah ) na Tarayyar Libya (tare da Tripolitania da Cyrenaica ) har zuwa 1963. Tare da gabatar da sabon sashin gudanarwa na Libya a shekarar 1963, an soke Fezzan a matsayin sashin gudanarwa mai zaman kanta kuma aka raba ta zuwa muhafazat na Awbari da Sabha. A shekarar 1983, an soke waɗannan ƙungiyoyin gudanarwa don ƙananan gundumomi ko baladiyah. An sake tsara tsarin Baladiyat a shekarar 1987 kuma an maye gurbinsa da shi a shekarar 1995 da tsarin sha’abiya .

Tsohon lardin Fezzan ta ƙunshi gundumomi ( sha'biyat ) na Wadi al Shatii, Wadi al Haya, Jufra, Ghadames, Murzuq, Sabha da Ghat (wasu taswirorin dake yankin Ghadames da makwabciyarta Tripolitania ). Babban birni mai tarihi, birni mafi girma, cibiyar siyasa da gudanarwa ita ce Sabha .

Yawan jama'a[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mazauna yankin sun hada da Berber, da Dawada, da Abzinawa makiyayan Tuareg daga kudu maso yammacin garin, da kuma Toubou daga kudu maso gabas. Al'ummar makiyaya kan ketara iyakokin kasashen Aljeriya, Chadi da Nijar cikin 'yanci. A arewa, Larabawa, Berber da Tuareg da Toubou suka zauna. Yayin da yake da kashi 30% na yankin ƙasar Libya, Fezzan na tallafawa kaɗan ne kawai daga cikin mutanenta. Manya-manyan garuruwa kamar Sabha suna rayuwa a yankunan ruwa na kusa a wadis na arewa da yamma. Yankin arewa maso gabashin yankin ya mamaye har da yankin Haruj, wani fili mai girman gaske kuma babu yawan jama'a .

Yawan mutanen Fezzan sun karu cikin sauri tun daga tsakiyar karni na 20 tare da karuwar yawan al'ummar Libya gaba daya, kuma rabon lardin na al'ummar kasar ya karu da rabi.

Shekara Yawan jama'a Kashi na



</br> Libya ta



</br> yawan jama'a
1954 59,315 5.4
1964 79,326 5.1
1973 128,012 5.7
1984 213,915 5.9
1995 352,276 7.3
2006 442,090 7.8

Tushen: An tattara daga bulletin na ƙidayoyin shekarun 1964, 1973, 1995, 2006.

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Jerin shugabannin mulkin mallaka na Fezzan
  • Tambarin aikawasiku da tarihin gidan waya na Fezzan da Ghadames
  • Jerin abubuwan mallakar Faransanci da mazauna
  • Jamus Museum
  • Fezzan-Ghadames (Gwamnatin Faransa)
  • Fazzan Basin

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Collins
  2. The Arabic Amazigh dictionary / 3 volumes/ published by the Academy of the Kingdom of Morocco. (Dictionnaire bilingue arabe-amazigh, tome 1 (1990), tome 2 (1996), tome 3 (1999), Publications de l'Académie marocaine.)
  3. Présence africaine. Editions du Seuil, 1975; p. 477.
  4. deGraft-Johnson (1954) African Glory, p. 26
  5. Empty citation (help)
  6. Corpus of early Arabic sources for west African history pg. 259-60
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 Berry, LaVerle Bennette "Chapter 1 – Historical Setting -World War II and Independence – Allied Administration" Area Handbook for Libya (1987 edition) Federal Research Division, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.; available at: A Country Study: Libya, accessed 17 May 2009

Hanyoyin haɗi na waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Media related to Fezzan at Wikimedia Commons

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