Hamada a yankin Sahel

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Sahel
Camels trample the soil in the semiarid Sahel as they move to water holes, such as this one in Chad
The Sahel region in Africa: a belt up to 1,000 km (620 mi) wide that spans 5,400 km (3,360 mi) from the Atlantic Ocean to the Red Sea
Ecology
Realm Afrotropical
Biome Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Borders
Animals Camels, Horses
Bird species Migratory birds
Mammal species Oryx, Gazelles, African buffalo
Geography
Area 3,053,200 km2 (1,178,800 sq mi)
Countries
Elevation 200 and 400 meters (660 and 1,310 ft)
Rivers Senegal, Niger, Nile
Climate type Semi-arid

Sahel / / sə ˈhɛl / ; Larabci: ساحلsāḥil [ˈsaːħil], "coast, shore") shine yanayin da rayuwa na canjin Hamada a Afirka tsakanin Sahara zuwa arewa da savanna na Sudan zuwa kudu. Da yake da yanayi maras bushewa, ya ratsa tsakiyar kudu ta tsakiya na Arewacin Afirka tsakanin Tekun Atlantika da Kuma na Bahar Maliya .

Yankin Sahel na Afirka ya hada daga yamma zuwa gabas na arewacin ƙasarSenegal, kudancin ƙasar Mauritaniya, tsakiyar ƙasar Mali, arewacin ƙasar Burkina Faso, da matsananci kudancin ƙasashen Aljeriya, Nijar, matsananciyar arewacin ƙasar Najeriya, iyakar arewacin ƙasar Kamaru da Jamhuriyar Afirka ta Tsakiya, tsakiyar Afirka Chadi, tsakiya da kudancin Sudan, iyakar arewacin Sudan ta Kudu, Eritriya da kuma arewacin Habasha .

A tarihi, yankin yammacin Sahel wani lokaci ana kiransa yankin Sudan ( bilād as-sūdān بلاد السودان ). "Ƙasashen Sudan"). Wannan bel ɗin yana kusa tsakanin Sahara da yankunan bakin teku na yammacin Afirka.

Geography[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Koren kore na lokacin damina dajin Sahelian, tare da hanyar Bamako - Kayes a Mali . Bishiyoyin da ke gaban gaba su ne acacia. Kula da babban bishiyar baobab .
Makiyaya da dabbobi da karnukan azawakh a yankin Sahel

Yankin Sahel ya 5,900 kilometres (3,670 mi) daga Tekun Atlantika daga yamma zuwa Bahar Maliya a gabas, a cikin bel ɗin da ya bambanta daga ɗari da yawa zuwa kilomita dubu (c. 600 miles) a faɗinsa, wanda ke da 3,053,200 square kilometres (1,178,850 sq mi) . Wani yanki ne na rikon kwarya na ciyayi maras bushewa, savannas, ciyayi, da ciyayi masu ƙaya da ke kwance tsakanin savanna na Sudan mai dazuzzuka zuwa kudu da Sahara a arewa.

Hotunan yanayin yankin Sahel ya fi karkata ne; Yawancin yankin yana tsakanin kimanin 200 and 400 metres (660 and 1,310 ft) a cikin girma. Tsaunukan tsaunuka da dama sun tashi daga yankin Sahel, amma an sanya su a matsayin yankuna daban-daban saboda flora da namun daji sun bambanta da wuraren da ke kewaye. Ruwan sama na shekara ya bambanta daga kusan 100–200 millimetres (4–8 in) a arewacin Sahel zuwa kusan 700–1,000 millimetres (28–39 in) a kudu.

Flora da fauna[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yankin Sahel galibi yana cike da ciyayi da savanna, tare da wuraren dazuzzuka da ciyayi. Murfin ciyawa yana ci gaba da ci gaba da kasancewa a duk faɗin yankin, wanda nau'ikan ciyawa na shekara-shekara ke mamaye su kamar Cenchrus biflorus, Schoenefeldia gracilis da Aristida stipoides . Nau'in acacia sune manyan bishiyoyi, tare da Acacia tortilis sun fi kowa, tare da Acacia senegal da Acacia laeta . Sauran nau'in bishiyoyi sun hada da Commiphora africana, Balanites aegyptiaca, Faidherbia albida, da Boscia senegalensis . A arewacin yankin Sahel, yankunan hamada, da suka hada da Panicum turgidum da Aristida sieberana, madaidaicin wuraren ciyawa da savanna. A cikin dogon lokacin rani, Kuma bishiyoyi da yawa suna rasa ganye kuma galibin ciyawa a kowace shekara suna mutuwa.

Sahel ta kasance gida ne ga ɗimbin dabbobi masu kiwo, ciki har da scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah), dama gazelle (Gazella dama), Dorcas gazelle (Gazella dorcas), gazelle mai ja (Gazella rufifrons), ƙaton buffalo na prehistoric. ( Pelorovis ) da Bubal hartebeest (Alcelaphus busephalus buselaphus), tare da manyan mafarauta irin su kare daji na Afirka ( Lycaon pictus ), Arewa maso yammacin Afrika cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus hecki), Arewa maso gabashin Afrika cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus soemmeringii) , thetheran leo) . Kuma An rage nau'in nau'in da yawa ta hanyar farauta da gasa tare da dabbobi masu rauni ( Damazelle ( Dama Gazelle da Dog na Afirka ), ko kuma suka lalata ( Oryx mai ƙaho na Scimitar mai yiwuwa ya ɓace a cikin daji, kuma duka Pelorovis da Bubal hartebeest yanzu sun ɓace).

Dausayin yanayi na Sahel yana da mahimmanci sosai ga tsuntsaye masu ƙaura da ke tafiya a cikin Afirka da kuma kan titin Afirka-Eurasia .

Yanayi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ennedi Plateau yana kan iyakar Sahara da Sahel

Yankin Sahel yana da yanayi mai raɗaɗi na wurare masu zafi ( Köppen yanayin rarrabuwa BSH ). Yanayin yawanci zafi, rana, bushewa da ɗan iska duk tsawon shekara. Yanayin yankin Sahel yana kama da, amma bai wuce yanayin hamadar Sahara da ke arewa ba.

Yankin Sahel yana samun ƙarancin hazo kaɗan zuwa rahusa kowace shekara. Takin yana da tsayi mai tsayi, lokacin rani mai yawa da kuma ɗan gajeren lokacin damina. Hazo kuma ba a saba da shi ba, kuma ya bambanta sosai daga yanayi zuwa yanayi. Yawancin ruwan sama yakan sauka a cikin watanni hudu zuwa shida a tsakiyar shekara, yayin da sauran watannin na iya zama bushewa. Gabaɗaya cikin yankin Sahel yana karɓar tsakanin kusan 200 mm da 700 mm na ruwan sama a shekara. Tsarin rarrabuwar kawuna da aka saba ɗauka don yanayin Sahel bisa ga ruwan sama na shekara shine kamar haka: yanayin Sahara-Sahelian, tare da ma'anar hazo tsakanin shekara a ƙalla 100 zuwa 200. mm (kamar Khartoum, Sudan), matsanancin yanayi na Sahel, tare da ma'anar hazo tsakanin 200 zuwa 700 na shekara-shekara. mm (kamar Niamey, Nijar) da yanayin Sahelian-Sudan, tare da ma'anar hazo tsakanin 700 zuwa 1,200 kowace shekara. mm (kamar Bamako, Mali). Dangantakar zafi a cikin ciyayi yana ƙasa da ƙasa sosai, yawanci tsakanin kashi 10% zuwa 25% a lokacin rani kuma tsakanin kashi 25% zuwa 75% a lokacin damina. Mafi ƙanƙanta danshi yana da dangi zafi ƙasa da 35%.

Yankin Sahel yana da yanayi na dindindin, mai tsananin zafi, tare da yanayin zafi maras bambanta. Sahel ba kasafai ke fuskantar yanayin sanyi ba. A lokacin mafi zafi, matsakaicin matsakaicin yanayin zafi yana tsakanin 36 and 42 °C (97 and 108 °F) (har ma da ƙari a cikin yankuna mafi zafi), sau da yawa fiye da watanni uku, yayin da matsakaicin ƙananan yanayin zafi yana kusa da 25 to 31 °C (77 to 88 °F) . A lokacin "lokaci mafi sanyi", matsakaicin yanayin zafi yana tsakanin 27 and 33 °C (81 and 91 °F) kuma matsakaicin ƙananan yanayin zafi yana tsakanin 15 and 21 °C (59 and 70 °F) . Ko'ina a cikin Sahel, matsakaicin matsakaicin zafin jiki ya wuce 18 °C (64 °F) .

Yankin Sahel yana da tsayi zuwa tsayin daka sosai a duk shekara, tsakanin sa'o'i 2,400 (kusan kashi 55% na sa'o'in hasken rana ) da sa'o'i 3,600 (fiye da 80% na sa'o'in hasken rana). Tsawon lokacin hasken rana a yankin Sahel yana fuskantar matakan hamada, kuma yana kama da na hamadar Larabawa, alal misali, duk da cewa yankin Sahel yanki ne kawai ba hamada ba. Murfin girgije yana ƙasa da ƙasa sosai. Misali, Yamai, Nijar na da hasken rana na sa'o'i 3,082; Gao, Mali yana da kusan sa'o'i 3,385 na hasken rana; Timbuktu na kasar Mali yana da sa'o'i 3,409 na rana, kuma N'Djamena na kasar Chadi yana da hasken rana na sa'o'i kusan 3,205.

Al'adu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Fulani makiyaya a Mali

A al'adance, yawancin mutanen yankin Sahel sun kasance ƴan ƙauye ne, noma da kiwon dabbobi a cikin tsarin da bai dace ba, wanda tabbas shine mafi ɗorewa hanyar amfani da yankin Sahel. Bambance-bambancen da ke tsakanin busasshiyar Arewa mai yawan sinadiran kasa da kuma kudu mai dausayi mai yawan ciyayi, ana amfani da shi ne ta hanyar samun makiyayan suna kiwo abinci mai inganci a Arewa a lokacin damina, da tattakin kilomita dari zuwa Kudu don kiwo. akan mafi yawan abinci, amma ƙarancin abinci mai gina jiki yayin lokacin bushewa.[ana buƙatar hujja]

A Yammacin Sahel, auren mata fiye da daya da kuma auren kananan yara ya zama ruwan dare. Ana kuma yi wa mata kaciya a wannan yankin Sahel. [1]

Etymology[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An aro kalmar “Sahel” ne daga sunan yankin Larabci, الساحل al-sāḥil . Sāḥil a zahiri yana nufin "gabas, tudu", wanda aka bayyana a matsayin nuni na alama ga gefen kudu na babban yankin Sahara. Duk da haka, a irin wannan amfani ba a tabbatar da shi a cikin Larabci na gargajiya ba, kuma an yi nuni da cewa kalmar ta yiwu asalinta ta samo asali ne daga kalmar Larabci سهل . sahl "a fili" maimakon.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Farkon noma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kusan kashi 4000 BC, yanayin Sahara da Sahel ya fara bushewa cikin sauri da sauri. Wannan sauyin yanayi ya sa tafkuna da koguna sun ragu sosai kuma ya haifar da karuwar hamada . Wannan, ta biyun, ya rage yawan ƙasar da za ta iya zama matsuguni kuma ya haifar da ƙaura na al'ummomin noma zuwa yanayi mafi ɗanɗano a yammacin Afirka .

Masarautar Sahel[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

1905 nunin kabilu a cikin Sahel

Masarautun Sahel jerin masarautu ne da aka kafa a yankin Sahel tsakanin ƙarni na 9 da 18. Arzikin jihohin ya samo asali ne daga sarrafa hanyoyin kasuwanci da ke ratsa sahara a cikin hamada, musamman ma kasashen musulmi. Ƙarfinsu ya samo asali ne daga samun manyan dabbobi kamar raƙuma da dawakai waɗanda suke da sauri don kiyaye babbar daula a ƙarƙashin ikon tsakiya kuma suna da amfani a yaƙi. sannan Duk waɗannan masarautu an raba su sosai tare da manyan biranen da ke da ikon cin gashin kansu. Manyan masarautun Sahel na farko sun bayyana bayan AD 750 kuma sun tallafa wa manyan biranen kasuwanci a yankin Niger Bend, ciki har da Timbuktu, Gao da Djenné .

Jihohin Sahel dai an hana su fadada kudanci zuwa yankin dazuzzukan jihar Bonoman da ke arewacin kasar Akan da kuma kabilar Yarbawa kasancewar mayaƙan da suka hau duk ba su da wani amfani a cikin dazuzzukan kuma dawakai da raƙuma sun kasa tsira daga zafin rana da cututtuka na yankin.

Zaman mulkin mallaka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yammacin Sahel ya fada hannun Faransa a ƙarshen karni na 19 a matsayin wani yanki na Faransanci na Yammacin Afirka . An ƙara Chadi a cikin shekarata 1900 a matsayin wani yanki na Faransa Equatorial Africa . An raba yankunan Faransanci a cikin shekarata 1960.

Gabashin Sahel (bangaren da ake kira Sudan ) bai fada hannun turawan turai ba amma Muhammad Ali na Masar ya hade shi a shekara ta 1820. Ya kasance ƙarƙashin gwamnatin Burtaniya a matsayin wani ɓangare na Masarautar Masarautar Masar a cikin shekarar 1914. Yankin Sahel na Sudan ya zama wani yanki na Sudan mai cin gashin kansa a Shekarar 1956, kuma Sudan ta Kudu ta sami 'yancin kai daga Sudan a shekarar 2011.

Fari na baya-bayan nan[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tsawon shekaru aru-aru, yankin Sahel yana fama da fari da fari a kai a kai. Daya megadrought ya kasance daga 1450 zuwa 1700, 250 shekaru. An yi wani babban fari a yankin Sahel a shekara ta 1914 wanda ruwan sama ya yi kasa da matsakaicin shekara, wanda ya haifar da yunwa mai yawa. Daga shekarun 1951 zuwa 2004, yankin Sahel ya fuskanci fari mai tsauri da tsanani a Afirka. A shekarun 1960 an sami karuwar ruwan sama mai yawa a yankin, wanda hakan ya sa yankin arewa mai busasshiyar ya fi samun sauki. Akwai turawa, da gwamnatoci suka goyi bayan mutane su koma arewa. Lokacin da dogon lokaci na fari daga shekarata 1968 zuwa 1974 ya fara, kiwo cikin sauri ya zama marar dorewa kuma babban sikelin ya biyo baya. Kamar fari a shekara ta 1914, wannan ya haifar da yunwa mai yawa, amma a wannan karon an ɗan husata da ganin duniya da kuma fitar da taimako. Wannan bala'i ya kai ga kafa asusun bunkasa noma na duniya .

2010 fari[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tsakanin Yuni da Agusta shekarata 2010, yunwa ta afkawa yankin Sahel. Noman Nijar sun kasa girma a lokacin zafi, 350,000 sun fuskanci yunwa, kuma 1,200,000 na fuskantar barazanar yunwa. A kasar Chadi zazzabi ya kai 47.6 °C (117.7 °F) a ranar 22 ga watan Yuni a Faya-Largeau, ya karya tarihin da aka kafa a 1961 a wuri guda. Nijar ta yi daurin gindin mafi girman yanayin zafi a shekarar 1998, haka kuma a ranar 22 ga watan Yuni, a 47.1. °C a Bilma . An karya wannan rikodin washegari, lokacin da Bilma ta ci 48.2 °C (118.8 °F) . An kai ga mafi zafi da aka yi rikodin a Sudan a ranar 25 ga Yuni, a 49.6 °C (121.3 °F) a Dongola, ya karya tarihin da aka kafa a 1987. Nijar ta ba da rahoto a ranar 14 ga Yuli cewa zawo, yunwa, gastroenteritis, rashin abinci mai gina jiki da cututtukan numfashi sun yi rashin lafiya ko kuma kashe yara da yawa. Sabuwar mulkin sojan ya nemi agajin abinci na kasa da kasa tare da daukar kwararan matakai na kiran agajin kasashen waje. A ranar 26 ga Yuli, zafi ya kai kusan matsayi na tarihi a kan Chadi da Nijar, kuma a arewacin Nijar kimanin mutane 20 sun mutu sakamakon rashin ruwa a ranar 27 ga Yuli.

Hamada da asarar ƙasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yankin Sahel na fuskantar matsalolin muhalli da ke haifar da dumamar yanayi . Idan har sauyin yanayi a yankin Sahel "ba a yi tafiyar hawainiya ba kuma kwararowar hamada ta yiwu a koma ta hanyar ayyuka masu ɗorewa da kowane nau'i na dazuzzuka, lokaci kaɗan ne kawai" ƙasashe kamar Nijar sun rasa ƙasarsu gaba ɗaya zuwa hamada saboda rashin tsaro da ba a kula da su ba. ayyukan mutane. :9Fiye da noma, kiwo, yawan jama'a da yawa, da zaizayar kasa, sun haifar da hamada mai tsanani a yankin. [2] Wannan ya shafi ginin matsuguni, wanda ya sa ya zama dole a canza kayan da aka yi amfani da su. An gabatar da aikin gine-ginen da babu itace a yankin Sahel a shekarar 1980 ta taron karawa juna sani na raya kasa, wanda tun a wancan lokaci ya sami babban tasiri a yankin. Wani babban shiri na yaki da kwararowar hamada a yankin Sahel ta hanyar dazuzzuka da sauran ayyukan shi ne Babbar Ganuwar Kore .

Manyan guguwar ƙura suma suna faruwa akai-akai. A cikin watan Nuwamban shekarar 2004, yawan guguwar ƙura da dama ta afkawa ƙasar Chadi, wadda ta samo asali daga Bala'in Bodélé . Wannan yanki ne gama gari don guguwar ƙura, wanda ke faruwa akan matsakaita akan kwanaki 100 kowace shekara.

A ranar 23 ga Maris,Na shekarata 2010, wata babbar guguwa mai yashi ta afkawa Mauritaniya, da Senegal, da Gambiya, da Guinea-Bissau, da Gini, da Saliyo na cikin gida. Wani kuma ya afku a kudancin Aljeriya, da Mauritania na cikin gida, da Mali da kuma arewacin Ivory Coast a lokaci guda.

Rashin zaman lafiya da tashin hankali[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kungiyoyin ta'addanci da suka hada da Boko Haram da Al-Qaeda a yankin Magrib (AQIM) da ke aiki a yankin Sahel sun taimaka wajen tashe-tashen hankula, tsatsauran ra'ayi da rashin zaman lafiya a yankin. A watan Maris din shekarar shekarata 2020, Amurka ta aika da wakili na musamman a yankin Sahel domin yakar tashe-tashen hankula daga kungiyoyin 'yan ta'adda.

Manzo Peter Pham ya fara sabon aikinsa a ranar 1 ga Maris shekarar 2020. Ya kasance wakilin Amurka na musamman a yankin manyan tabkuna na Afirka tun watan Nuwamba shekarata 2018.

Rikicin makiyaya da manoma a Najeriya, Mali, Sudan da sauran kasashe a yankin Sahel ya ta'azzara saboda sauyin yanayi, gurbacewar kasa, da karuwar jama'a . Ana kuma danganta fari da karancin abinci da rikicin Arewacin Mali .

A ranar 9 ga Yuli, shekarata 2020, Amurka ta nuna damuwa game da karuwar zarge-zargen take hakin bil'adama da cin zarafi daga jami'an tsaron jihar a Sahel. Amsar Amurka ta zo ne bayan Human Rights Watch ta fitar da wasu takardu dangane da hakan a ranar 1 ga Yuli. Rahotanni a watan Maris din shekarar 2022 sun nuna cewa mayakan na ci gaba da bazuwa a Kudancin Sahel.

Wurare masu kariya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yankunan da aka kare a Sahel sun hada da Ferlo Nord Reserve a Senegal, Sylvo-Pastoral and Partial Faunal Reserve na Sahel a Burkina Faso, Ansonga-Ménake Faunal Reserve a Mali, Tadres Reserve a Nijar, da Waza National Park a Kamaru.

Duba wasu abubuwan[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named bixby.berkeley.edu
  2. Schmidt, Laurie J. (18 May 2001). "From the Dust Bowl to the Sahel". NASA.

Sources[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ci gaba da karatu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hanyoyin haɗi na waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

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