Ibn Hazm

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Simpleicons Interface user-outline.svg Ibn Hazm
Monumento a Ibn Hazm.jpg
Rayuwa
Haihuwa Córdoba (en) Fassara, 7 Nuwamba, 994
Harshen uwa Larabci
Mutuwa Huelva (en) Fassara, 15 ga Augusta, 1064
Karatu
Harsuna Larabci
Sana'a
Sana'a Mai Falsafa, Islamic jurist (en) Fassara, literary (en) Fassara, maiwaƙe da geographer (en) Fassara
Muhimman ayyuka The Ring of the Dovo (en) Fassara
Wanda ya ja hankalinsa Ibn 'Abd al-Barr (en) Fassara, Dawud al-Zahiri (en) Fassara, Al-Humaydī (en) Fassara, Al-Dhahabi (en) Fassara, Ibn Taymiyyah, Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya da Muhammad ash-Shawkani (en) Fassara
Jagoranci Ẓāhirī (en) Fassara
Imani
Addini Musulunci

Abu Muhammad'ali ibn Ahmad ibn Sa'id ibn Hazm ( Arabic حزم  ; wani lokacin kuma ana kiransa al-Andalusī aẓ-Ẓāhirī; [1] 7 Nuwamba 994   - 15 Agusta 1064 [2] (456 AH ) ya kasance Musulmi mawãƙi, polymath, tarihi, masana, Falsafa, da kuma theologian, an haife shi a Khalifanci na Cordoba, ayanzu Spain . Ya kasance wakili mai bayar da fatawa da kuma mafarin makarantar Zahiri na tunani a Musulunci kuma ya samar da rahoton ayyukan 400, wanda 40 ne kawai ke ci gaba da rayuwa. Gabaɗaya, ayyukansa na rubuce-rubuce sunkai kusan shafi 80,000. [3] Encyclopedia na Islama ya nuna shi a matsayin daya daga cikin manyan masana a duniyar musulmai, kuma an karbe shi da yawa a matsayin baban nazarin karatun addini tare da al-Biruni .

Rayuwarsa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Zoben kurciya



</br> (Ms a cikin Makarantar Jami'ar Leiden )

Asali[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kakan Ibn Hazm Sa'id da mahaifinsa Ahmad dukkansu sun rike manyan mukamai na bada shawarwari a kotun Umayyad Halifa Hisham II . [4] Masana sun yi imani cewa su Kiristocin Iberian ne wadanda suka musulunta. [5]

Haɓakawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bayan an haife shi cikin dangi mai mahimmanci a siyasa da tattalin arziki, Ibn Hazm ya yi aiki tare da mutanen da ke da iko da kuma tasiri a duk rayuwarsa. Ya sami damar kaiwa ga matakan gwamnati ta hanyar samartakarsa wanda yawancin mutane a lokacin ba za su taɓa sani ba duk tsawon rayuwarsu. Wadannan abubuwan da suka samu tare da gwamnati da 'yan siyasa sun sa Ibn Hazm ya sami ci gaba mai cike da rudani har ma da bakin ciki game da yanayin dan Adam da iyawar dan'adam don yaudarar da zalunta. [6] Amsarsa ita ce yi imani cewa babu wata mafaka ko gaskiya sai fa tare da Allah marar kuskure, kuma cewa tare da mutane kawai suna lalata da rashawa. Ibn Hazm ya kasance sananne ne saboda tsabar raina shi game da ɗan adam da kuma girmamawa ga ka'idodin yare da amincin sadarwa.

Kulawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ibnu Hazm ya kasance yana zaune a cikin da'irar masu shugabancin mulkin Umayyawa . Abubuwan da ya samu game da rayuwarsa sun haifar da sha'awar kulawa da kulawa, kuma ya sami kyakkyawan ilimi a Córdoba. Kwarewar sa ta sa ya shahara kuma ya ba shi damar shiga aiki a karkashin Khalifofin Córdoba da Al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir, Grand Vizier har zuwa ƙarshen halifofin Umayyawa, Hisham III . Hakanan abokin aikin abokin Abd al-Rahman Sanchuelo .

Bayan rasuwar mai girma al-Muzaffar a cikin 1008, Umayyad Khalifa na Iberiya ya shiga cikin yakin basasa wanda ya kasance har zuwa 1031 wanda ya haifar da rushewar ikon tsakiyar Córdoba da fitowar wasu ƙananan ƙasashe masu ƙarfi waɗanda ake kira Taifas .

Taswirar tarihi na Majorca da Minorca ta Ostoman adon Piri Reis .

Mahaifin Ibn Hazm ya mutu a shekara ta 1012. Aka tsare Ibn Hazm a kurkuku a zaman wanda ake zargi da goyon bayan Umayyads . [2] A shekarar 1031, Ibn Hazm ya koma gidan mahaifinsa a Manta Lisham kuma ya fara bayyana dalilan gwagwarmayar sa ta hanyar rubuce rubuce. Ya kasance wakili mai bayar da fatawa da kuma kwaleji na makarantar Zahiri na tunanin Musulunci, kuma ya samar da rahoton ayyukan 400 wanda kawai 40 ke raye. [7] Saboda abokan hamayyarsa na siyasa da na addini sun sami iko bayan rushe khalifa, ya yarda da tayin neman mafaka daga gwamnan tsibirin Majorca a cikin shekarun 1040, kuma ya ci gaba da yaduwar makarantar Zahiri a can kafin ya dawo Andalusia.

Contemporaries sun haɗa da magana da cewa, "Harshen Ibn Hazm ɗan'uwan tagwaye ne ga takobin al-Hajjaj " (janar na 7 da aka fi sani da gwamnan Iraki), kuma ya faɗi haka sau da yawa cewa wannan magana "Ibn Hazm ya ce" ya zama karin magana.

Kamar yadda wani Athari, ya yi gāba da kamã da jũna fassarar addini texts, fifita maimakon a nahawu da syntactical fassarar Alkur'ani . Ya ba da damar sanin yakamata ta hanyar wahayi da fahimta kawai da kuma la'akari da dalilan cire isasshe a cikin shari'a da addini. Ya ƙi ayyukan da aka saba yi tsakanin yawancin makarantun al'adu na gargajiya kamar rarraben malamai . [8] Yayinda da farko ya kasance mai bin dokar makarantar Maliki a cikin Sunni Islam, sai ya koma makarantar Shafi'i daga baya kuma, a lokacin yana da shekara talatin, daga karshe ya zauna tare da makarantar Zahiri . [6] [9] Wataƙila sanannen sanannen sananne ne ga makarantar, kuma shine asalin tushen ayyukan ɗorewa akan dokar Zahirite. Ya karanci hukunce-hukuncen makarantar da hanyoyin da ke ƙarƙashin Abu al-Kharar al-Dawudi al-Zahiri na karamar Hukumar Santarém, daga ƙarshe ya sami ci gaba zuwa matakin malami na makarantar. A shekara ta 1029, an fitar da su biyu daga babban masallacin Cordoba saboda ayyukansu.

Ayyuka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Da yawa daga cikin manyan ayyukan Ibn Hazm, wadanda suka kusanci na Muhammad bn Jarir al-Tabari da as-Suyuti ', mazhabobin sa da kuma abokan hamayyar sa sun kone shi a Seville. Ayyukansa na tsira, yayin da ake sukar sa a matsayin maimaitawa, didactic da ɓoye cikin salon [10] ma suna nuna rashin jin daɗin rashin jituwa ga masu sukar iliminsa da hukumomin sa.

Ibn Hazm ya rubuta ayyuka a kan shari'a, tauhidi, da kuma littattafan likita sama da goma. Ya yi kira da a hada ilimin kimiyya cikin tsari mai inganci. A cikin tsarin ilmin kimiyyar ilmin kimiya ya bayyana fannonin ilimi a matsayin matakai na samun ci gaba wanda aka kafa a tsarin karatun shekara biyar, daga yare da fassarar Kur'ani, zuwa rayuwa da kimiyyar jiki, zuwa tauhidin hankali.

Cikakken Nazarin Critical[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin Fisal ( Cikakken Nazarin Critical ), wani rubutu kan kimiyar Islama da tauhidi, Ibn Hazm ya ba da hazakar fahimta sama da dalilan mutumtaka. Gane mahimmancin hankali, kamar yadda Kur’ani da kansa ya gayyaci tunani, ya yi jayayya cewa wannan tunani yana nuni ne kawai da wahayi da bayanan hankali, tunda tushen ka'idodn ana samun kansu ne daga ƙwarewar hankali . Ya kammala da cewa dalilin ba dalibi bane na bincike mai zaman kanta ko ganowa, amma yakamata ayi amfani da wannan fahimta a matsayinta, ra'ayin da zai zama tushen tushen wayewar kai . [11]

Hukuncin Shari'a[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Zai yiwu mafi girman aikin Ibn Hazm a cikin Larabci a wannan zamani (an fassara zaɓe zuwa Turanci), shine Muhallah (المحلى بالأثار), Ko kuma Adorned Treatise. An ruwaito shi wani taƙaitaccen aiki ne wanda ya fi tsayi da aka sani da al-Mujallah (المجلى). Yana da mahimmanci a hankali kan batutuwan fikihu ko fiqh (فقه), amma kuma ya shafi batutuwa na aqida a babin ta na farko Kitab al-Tawheed (كتاب التوحيد), Wanda ke mayar da hankali kan lamurra masu alaƙa da tauhidi da mahimman ka'idodin kusanci ga rubutun Allah. . Daya daga cikin mahimman abubuwan da suka fito daga wannan babban maudu'in na fikihu shine cewa ibn Hazm ya karyata tsarin tunani ko kuma kimantawa (قياس), yana fifita hanya mafi kyau ta zahiri ga matani.

Logic[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ibnu Hazm ya rubuta Matsayin Logic, wanda a cikin sa yake jaddada mahimmancin fahimta a matsayin tushen ilimi. [12] Ya rubuta cewa "asalin hanyoyin dukkan ilimin ɗan adam sune hankulan da ake amfani da shi sosai da kuma dalilai na hankali, haɗe da daidaitaccen fahimtar harshe". Ibn Hazm ya kuma kushe wasu daga cikin masana tauhidi masu ra'ayin gargajiya wadanda ke adawa da amfani da dabaru kuma ya bayar da hujjar cewa tsararrun musulmai ba su dogara da dabaru ba. Amsarsa ita ce musulman farko sun shaida wahayin kai tsaye, alhali kuwa an fallasa musulmai na lokacinsa da sabanin imani, saboda haka amfani da dabaru ya zama dole don adana koyarwar musulinci na gaskiya. Ihsan Abbas ne ya fara buga wannan rubutun a cikin harshen larabci a 1959, kuma Abu Abd al-Rahman Ibn Aqil al-Zahiri ne ya fara buga shi a 2007.

Dabi'a[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin littafinsa, In Pursuit of Virtue (Cikin Neman Nagarta), ibn Hazm yaso masu karatunsa da bayanai masu zuwa:

Karka yi amfani da kuzarinka sai dai wani dalili da yafi naka daraja. Ba za a samu irin wannan dalilin ba sai a wurin Allah Madaukakin Sarki: yin wa’azi na gaskiya, kare mace, kauda wulakancin da mahaliccinka bai yi maka ba, ka taimaki wadanda aka zalunta. Duk wanda ya yi amfani da kuzarin sa don abubuwan banza na duniya kamar mutum yake wanda yake musayar lu'u-lu'u da dutse. [13]

Waƙe[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Wakarsa nanan a kiyaye acikin littafin Ibn Said al-Maghribi na Pennants of the Champions :

Kun zo wurina tuntuni
Nasara sun ja kararrawa.
Rabin-wata ya tashi
kama da gira mai tsufa
ko m instep.
Kuma ko da yake har yanzu yana cikin dare
lokacin da kuka zo bakan gizo
aka yi haske a sararin sama,
nuna kamar launuka masu yawa
kamar wutsiya daddawa.

Magani[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Malaman Ibn Hazm na magani sun hada da al-Zahrawi da Ibn al-Kattani kuma ya rubuta wasu ayyukan likita guda goma, [14] gami da Kitab fi'l-Adwiya al-mufrada da al-Dhahabi ya ambata. [15]

Ra'ayoyi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Harshe[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Baya ga ra'ayoyinsa kan gaskiya a cikin sadarwa, Ibn Hazm shi ma ya yi magana da kimiyyar yare zuwa wani mataki. Ya kalli yaren larabci, yaren Ibraniyanci da yaren Syriac a matsayin dukkan harshe daya ne wanda harshensu ya kasance yayin da masu iya magana suka zauna a yankuna daban-daban kuma suka kirkiro kalmomi daban-daban da kuma masani daga tushen baki daya. Ya kuma bambanta da masana ilimin tauhidi da yawa na musulmai a cikin cewa bai dauki larabci kamar mafificin waɗansu yarukan ba; wannan ya faru ne saboda gaskiyar cewa Kur'ani bai bayyana Larabci irin wannan ba, kuma a mahangar Ibn Hazm babu wata hujja game da iƙirarin cewa kowane harshe ya fi wani.

Karatun rubutu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ibn Hazm sananne ne saboda tsananin gaskiyarsa kuma ana ganinsa gwarzon makarantar Zahirite na zahiri a cikin Sunni Islām. Misali da ake yawan kawo misali dashi shine fassarar sa ta farkon aya ta 23 a surar Al-Isra ta Kur'ani da ya hana mutum ya ce "uff" ga iyayen mutum; Ibn Hazm ya ce rabin ayar kawai ta haramta ce da "uff" kuma ba ya hana bugawa iyayen wani misali, amma a maimakon haka bugun su ya haramta da rabi na biyu na ayar da kuma aya ta 24 wacce ta yi umarni da alheri. lura da iyaye. [16]

Falsafa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ayyukan Ibn Hazm sun dan taba sosai a kan al'adun falsafancin Girka. Yarda da Epicurus da Prodicus na Ceos, ya bayyana cewa nishaɗin yana kawo farin ciki a rayuwa kuma babu wani abin tsoro a cikin mutuwa. Ya yi imani da cewa wadannan hadisai na falsafa, alhali suna da amfani, basu isa su gina yanayin mutum yadda yakamata ba, ya kuma bayyana cewa imanin musulinci shima ya zama dole.

Ibn Hazm ya ki yarda da 'yancin nufi na kowane mutum, saboda ya yi imani da cewa dukkanin sifofin mutum ya halitta ne daga Allah .

Yan Shia[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ibnu Hazm ya kasance mai suka sosai game da mabiya Shia. Ya ce game da su:

"Farisa sun mallaki masarauta mai girma da kuma fifikon sama da sauran al'ummomi. Sun maida hadarin da suke tattare dasu (ga sauran al'umma) ta hanyar kiran kansu al-Ahrār ('yantattu) da kuma al-Asydd (salihan mutane). Sakamakon haka, sun dauki sauran mutane a matsayin bayinsu. Ko ta yaya, an cutar dasu da rushe masarautarsu ta hannun larabawa wadanda suka dauka karamar hadari akan tsakanin sauran al’ummomin [ga daular]. Al'amuransu sun kara dagula lamurrarsu har sau ninki, yayin da suke kulla makirci a kan Musulunci a lokuta daban-daban. Koyaya, a cikin dukkan makircinsu, Allah ya bayyana gaskiya. Sun ci gaba da shirya mafi tsadar abubuwa. Don haka, wasu daga mutanensu sun karbi musulunci ne kawai don su juya zuwa ga addinin Shi'a, tare da da'awar son Ahl al-Bayt (Iyalan gidan Annabi) da kyama kan zaluncin da ake yiwa Alī. Daga nan sai suka bi ta wannan hanyar har ta kai su ga barin shiriya.

Reception[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Malaman musulinci, musamman wadanda ke yiwa lakabi da Zahirism, galibi sun yabi Ibn Hazm saboda abin da suka ji shi ne iliminsa da juriyarsa. Mai wa'azin Yemen Muqbil bin Hadi al-Wadi'i yana daya daga cikin masu sha'awar Ibn Hazm a cikin 'yan kwanakin nan, yana da ra'ayin cewa babu wani malamin musulmin da ya shigar da hadisan annabci na Muhammadu da Sahaba . [17] Haka ma, malamin Pakistan Badi 'ud-Din Shah al-Rashidi ya koyar da littafin Ibn Hazm littafin Al-Muhalla ga daliban Masjid al-Haram, yayin da suke zaune a Makka . [18] al-Wadi'i da kansa ya koyar da Al-Muhalla a cikin Al-Masjid an-Nabawi, alhali yana Madina . Abu Abd al-Rahman Ibn Aqil al-Zahiri, babban masanin tarihin Ibn Hazm a wannan zamani, ya wallafa ayyuka da yawa kan rayuwar Ibn Hazm, da yawa waɗanda aka buga ta hanyar buga bugu na Ibn Aqil wanda aka sanya wa suna bayan Ibn Hazm. [19]

Tarurrukan zamani na tatsuniyar Ibn Hazm gaba daya na ka’idar shari’ar musulinci ya ga lokuta da dama a tarihin ilimin Larabawa, wadanda suka hada da sake buga littafin Ahmad Shakir na Al-Muhalla, da Muhammad Abu Zahra na tarihin Ibn Hazm, da kuma sake buga littafin Sanarwa daga wasiyyun bayanai akan ka'idojin shari'a ta Sa'id al-Afghani a shekarar 1960 da Ihsan Abbas tsakanin 1980 da 1983.

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Hazm (suna)
  • Miguel Asín Palacios

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. A. R. Nykl. "Ibn Ḥazm's Treatise on Ethics". Also as Ibn Khazem by some medieval European sources. The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures, Vol. 40, No. 1. (Oct. 1923), pp. 30–36.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Joseph A. Kechichian, A mind of his own. Gulf News: 21:30 December 20, 2012.
  3. Ibrahim Kalin, Salim Ayduz (ed.), The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam, Volume 1, p. 328
  4. The court was under the effective rule of the Grand Vizier al-Mansur and his successor and son al-Muzaffar
  5. Britannica "Ibn Ḥazm was born into a notable family that claimed descent from a Persian client of Yazīd, the son of Muʿāwiyah, the first of the Umayyad dynasty rulers in Syria. Muslim families of Iberian (Spanish) background commonly adopted genealogies that identified them with the Arabs; scholars therefore tend to favour evidence suggesting that Ibn Ḥazm was a member of a family of Iberian Christian background from Manta Līsham (west of Sevilla)."
  6. 6.0 6.1 Lois A. Giffen, "Ibn Hazm and the Tawq al-Hamama. Taken from The Legacy of Muslim Spain, pg. 428. Ed. Salma Jayyusi. Leiden: Brill Publishers, 1994.
  7. Camilla Adang, This Day I have Perfected Your Religion For You: A Zahiri Conception of Religious Authority, pg. 19. Taken from Speaking for Islam: Religious Authorities in Muslim Societies. Ed. Gudrun Krämer and Sabine Schmidtke. Leiden: Brill Publishers, 2006.
  8. Bilal Orfali, "In the Shadow of Arabic: The Centrality of Language to Arab Culture." Pg. 34. Brill Publishers, 2011. Print.
  9. Adang, "From Malikism to Shafi'ism to Zahirism: The Conversions of Ibn Hazm", pg. 73-87. Conversions islamiques. Identites religieuses en Islam mediterraneen, ed. Mercedes Garcia-Arenal. Paris: 2001.
  10. Adang, Zahiri Conceptions, pg. 20.
  11. Ibn Hazm, Islamic Philosophy Online.
  12. Muhammad Iqbal, The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam, "The Spirit of Muslim Culture" (cf. and )
  13. In Pursuit of Virtue, section under Treatment to be given to Souls, and the Reform of Vicious Characters, #9
  14. Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Oliver Leaman (ed.), History of Islamic Philosophy, Routledge, 2013, p. 945
  15. Camilla Adang, Maribel Fierro, Sabine Schmidtke (ed.), Ibn ?azm of Cordoba: The Life and Works of a Controversial Thinker, BRILL, 2012, p. 685
  16. Robert Gleave, Islam and Literalism, pg. 170.
  17. Al-Waadi'i, Muqbil "Ijabat al-Sa`il fi Ahamm al-Masa`il", pg. 333
  18. Abdullaah Nasir Rehmaani, "A Biography of Shaykh Badee-ud-Deen Shah Rashidee as-Sindhee." Trns. Abu Naasir and Abu Handhala. Prepared by al-Meezaan.com.
  19. See:
    *Maribel Fierro, "Heresy in al-Andalus". Taken from The Legacy of Muslim Spain, pg. 905. Ed. Salma Jayyusi. Leiden: Brill Publishers, 1994.
    *Ibn Hazam Khilal Alf Aam. Lebanon: Dar al-Gharab al-Islami, 1982. 303 pages.
    *Tahrir ba'd al-masa'il 'ala madh'hab al ashab. 1st Ed. Riyadh: Maktabat Dar al-Ulum, 1981.


Nassoshi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Ringarar kurciya ta Ibn Hazm, fassara da gabatarwar ta AJ Arberry  
  • al-Fasl fi al-milal wa-al-ahwa 'wa-al-nihal, na Ibn Hazm. Bairut: Dar al-Jil, 1985
  • Abenházam de Córdoba y su Tarihi crítica de las ideas religiosas vols. 1-5, na Miguel Asín Palacios. Madrid, 1928-1932
  • Marubutan musulmai akan Yahudanci da kuma Littafin Ibrananci  : daga Ibn Rabban har zuwa Ibn Hazm, na Camilla Adang . Leiden: EJ Brill, 1996.   ISBN   90-04-10034-2
  • Ibn Hazm et la polémique islamo-chrétienne dans l´histoire de l´Islam, na Abdelilah Ljamai. Leiden: Brill, 2003.   ISBN   90-04-12844-1
  • Ibn Hazam Khilal Alf Aam, na Abu Abd al-Rahman Ibn Aqil al-Zahiri . Lebanon : Dar al-Gharab al-Islami, 1982. shafuka 303.
  • Kitab al-'axlaq wa-s-siyar ou Risala fi mudawat an-nufus wa-tahdib al-'axlaq wa-z-zuhd fi r-rada'il / Ibn Hazm al-'Andalusi; introd., éd. sharhi, sake aure par Eva Riad . Uppsala  : Univ. ; Stockholm  : Almqvist & Wiksell kasa da kasa (distr.), 1980.   ISBN   91-554-1048-0
  • Zahiris, Koyarwarsu da Tarihinsu: gudummawa ga tarihin ilimin tauhidi ta Ignaz Goldziher, trans. da kuma ed. Wolfgang Behn. Leiden: EJ Brill, 1971.
  • "Ibn Hazm na Cordova: akan Isagoge na Porphyry", wanda Rafael Ramón Guerrero ya gabatar, a cikin J. Meirinhos - O. Weijers (eds. ): Florilegium mediaevale. Aukaka abubuwa masu zuwa ga Jacqueline Hamesse à l'occasion de son éméritat, Louvain-La-Neuve, FIDEM, 2009, pp.   525-540.

Haɗin waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]