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Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

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Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
Geheimrat (en) Fassara

Rayuwa
Cikakken suna Johann Wolfgang Goethe
Haihuwa Frankfurt, 28 ga Augusta, 1749
ƙasa Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (en) Fassara
Harshen uwa Jamusanci
Mutuwa Weimar (en) Fassara, 22 ga Maris, 1832
Makwanci Weimarer Fürstengruft (en) Fassara
Yanayin mutuwa Sababi na ainihi (Ciwon zuciya)
Ƴan uwa
Mahaifi Johann Caspar Goethe
Mahaifiya Catharina Elisabeth Goethe
Abokiyar zama Christiane Vulpius (en) Fassara
Ma'aurata Lili Schönemann (en) Fassara
Yara
Ahali Cornelia Schlosser (en) Fassara
Ƴan uwa
Yare Goethe (en) Fassara
Karatu
Makaranta Jami'ar Leipzig
(1765 - 1768) : jurisprudence (en) Fassara
University of Strasbourg (en) Fassara
(ga Afirilu, 1770 - 1771) : jurisprudence (en) Fassara
Matakin karatu Licentiate (en) Fassara
Harsuna Jamusanci
Malamai Adam Friedrich Oeser (en) Fassara
Justus Christian Loder (en) Fassara
Johann Schweighäuser (en) Fassara
Sana'a
Sana'a theatre manager (en) Fassara, botanist (en) Fassara, ɗan siyasa, painter (en) Fassara, mai falsafa, Malamin akida, masana, art critic (en) Fassara, music critic (en) Fassara, librarian (en) Fassara, maiwaƙe, travel writer (en) Fassara, physicist (en) Fassara, literary (en) Fassara, Marubuci, marubucin wasannin kwaykwayo, autobiographer (en) Fassara, Mai wanzar da zaman lafiya, statesperson (en) Fassara, polymath (en) Fassara, aphorist (en) Fassara, diarist (en) Fassara, mineralogist (en) Fassara, zoologist (en) Fassara, art theorist (en) Fassara, Lauya, mai rubuta kiɗa, librettist (en) Fassara, marubuci, mai zane-zane da art historian (en) Fassara
Muhimman ayyuka Faust (en) Fassara
The Sorrows of Young Werther (en) Fassara
Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship (en) Fassara
Elective Affinities (en) Fassara
Prometheus (en) Fassara
Theory of Colours (en) Fassara
Italian Journey (en) Fassara
West–Eastern Diwan (en) Fassara
Egmont (en) Fassara
The Sorcerer's Apprentice (en) Fassara
Der Erlkönig (en) Fassara
Maxims and reflections of Goethe (en) Fassara
Kyaututtuka
Wanda ya ja hankalinsa Friedrich Schiller (en) Fassara, Napoleon, Hafez (en) Fassara, Johann Gottfried Herder (en) Fassara, Voltaire, Karl Linnaeus, William Shakespeare, Benedictus de Spinoza (en) Fassara da Ossian (en) Fassara
Mamba German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina (en) Fassara
Academy of Science for Public Utility (en) Fassara
Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities (en) Fassara
Göttingen Academy of Sciences (en) Fassara
Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences (en) Fassara
German Archaeological Institute (en) Fassara
freemasonry (en) Fassara
Zentral-Dombauverein zu Köln von 1842 (en) Fassara
Silesian Society for Patriotic Culture (en) Fassara
Warsaw Society of Friends of Learning (en) Fassara
Russian Academy of Sciences (en) Fassara
Silesian Society for Patriotic Culture (en) Fassara
Sächsischer Kunstverein (en) Fassara
Arcadian Academy (en) Fassara
Fafutuka Sturm und Drang (en) Fassara
Weimar Classicism (en) Fassara
Age of Enlightenment (en) Fassara
Artistic movement ƙagaggen labari
lyric poetry (en) Fassara
drama (en) Fassara
tragedy (en) Fassara
Imani
Addini Lutheranism (en) Fassara
IMDb nm0324473

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (28 ga watan Agusta 1749-22 Maris 1832) mawaƙin Jamus ne, kuma marubucin wasan kwaikwayo, marubuci, masanin kimiyya, ɗan majalisa, darektan wasan kwaikwayo, kuma critic ne. Ayyukansa sun haɗa da wasan kwaikwayo, waƙa, adabi, da sukar ƙayatarwa, da kuma littatafai game da ilimin halitta, jiki, da launi. An yi la'akari da shi a matsayin marubuci mafi girma kuma mafi tasiri a cikin harshen Jamus, aikinsa yana da tasiri mai zurfi da fadi a kan tunanin adabi, siyasa, da falsafar Yammacin Turai tun daga ƙarshen karni na 18 zuwa yau.

Goethe ya zauna a Weimar a watan Nuwamba 1775 bayan nasarar littafinsa na farko, The Sorrows of Young Werther (1774). Duke na Saxe-Weimar, Karl Agusta, ya karrama shi a cikin karni na 1782. Goethe ya kasance farkon ɗan takara a cikin motsin adabi na Sturm und Drang. A cikin shekaru goma na farko a Weimar, Goethe ya zama memba na majalisar sirri ta Duke (1776-1785), ya zauna a kan yaki da kwamitocin tituna, ya lura da sake buɗe ma'adinan azurfa a kusa da Ilmenau, kuma ya aiwatar da sauye-sauye na gudanarwa a Jami'ar Jena. Ya kuma ba da gudummawa ga tsara wurin shakatawa na Botanical na Weimar da sake gina fadarsa ta Ducal. [lower-alpha 1]

Babban aikin kimiyya na farko na Goethe, Metamorphosis of Plants, an buga shi bayan ya dawo daga yawon shakatawa na 1788 na Italiya. A cikin karni na 1791 ya zama darektan gudanarwa na gidan wasan kwaikwayo a Weimar, kuma a cikin karni na 1794 ya fara abota da ɗan wasan kwaikwayo, masanin tarihi, kuma masanin falsafa Friedrich Schiller, wanda ya fara buga wasanninsa har zuwa mutuwar Schiller a 1805. A wannan lokacin Goethe ya buga littafinsa na biyu, Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship; ayar almara Hermann da Dorothea, kuma, a cikin karni na 1808, kashi na farko na wasan kwaikwayo da ya fi shahara, Faust. Tattaunawarsa da ayyuka daban-daban da aka raba a cikin shekarar 1790s tare da Schiller, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Johann Gottfried Herder, Alexander von Humboldt, [2] Wilhelm von Humboldt, da Agusta da Friedrich Schlegel sun kasance tare da suna Weimar Classicism.

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe a wajen aiki

Masanin falsafa dan kasar Jamus Arthur Schopenhauer mai suna Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship daya daga cikin manyan litattafai hudu da aka taba rubutawa, [lower-alpha 2] yayin da Ba'amurke masanin falsafa kuma marubuci Ralph Waldo Emerson ya zabi Goethe a matsayin daya daga cikin "mazajen wakilai" guda shida a cikin aikinsa na wannan sunan (tare da Plato, Emanuel Swedenborg, Montaigne, Napoleon, da Shakespeare). Bayanin Goethe da abubuwan lura sun kasance tushen ginshiƙan ayyukan tarihi da yawa, musamman Tattaunawar Johann Peter Eckermann tare da Goethe (1836). Mawaƙa da yawa sun tsara waƙarsa zuwa kiɗa ciki har da Mozart, Beethoven, Schubert, Berlioz, Liszt, Wagner, da Mahler.

Rayuwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ƙuruciya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Mahaifin Goethe, Johann Caspar Goethe, ya zauna tare da iyalinsa a cikin wani babban gida (today the Goethe house) a Frankfurt, sannan birni mai 'yanci na Daular Roma Mai Tsarki. Ko da yake ya yi karatun shari'a a Leipzig kuma an nada shi Kansila na Imperial, Johann Caspar Goethe bai shiga cikin harkokin hukuma na birnin ba. [4] Johann Caspar ya auri mahaifiyar Goethe, Catharina Elisabeth Textor, a Frankfurt a ranar 20 ga watan Agusta 1748, lokacin yana 38 kuma tana 17. [5] Duk 'ya'yansu, ban da Johann Wolfgang da 'yar uwarsa Cornelia Friederica Christiana (an haife shi a 1750), sun mutu tun suna kanana.

Wurin Haihuwar Goethe a Frankfurt (Großer Hirschgraben)

Mahaifinsa da malamai masu zaman kansu sun ba wa matasa Goethe darussa a cikin batutuwa na yau da kullum na lokacinsu, musamman harsuna (Latin, Hellenanci, Ibrananci na Littafi Mai Tsarki (a takaice), Faransanci, Italiyanci, da Ingilishi). Goethe kuma ya sami darussan rawa, hawa, da wasan shinge. Johann Caspar, yana jin takaici a cikin burinsa, ya ƙudurta cewa ya kamata 'ya'yansa su sami duk abubuwan da bai samu ba. [4]

Ko da yake Goethe babban sha'awar yana zane, da sauri ya zama mai sha'awar wallafe-wallafe; Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock (1724-1803) da Homer suna cikin waɗanda ya fi so. [6] Ya kasance mai sadaukarwa ga gidan wasan kwaikwayo, kuma ya burge shi da wasan kwaikwayo na tsana da ake shirya kowace shekara.  a gidansa; wannan ya zama jigo mai maimaitawa a cikin aikinsa na adabi Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship.

Ya kuma ji daɗin karanta ayyukan tarihi da addini. Ya rubuta game da wannan lokacin:

I had from childhood the singular habit of always learning by heart the beginnings of books, and the divisions of a work, first of the five books of Moses, and then of the Aeneid and Ovid's Metamorphoses. ... If an ever busy imagination, of which that tale may bear witness, led me hither and thither, if the medley of fable and history, mythology and religion, threatened to bewilder me, I readily fled to those oriental regions, plunged into the first books of Moses, and there, amid the scattered shepherd tribes, found myself at once in the greatest solitude and the greatest society.[7]

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

Goethe kuma ya saba da 'yan wasan kwaikwayo na Frankfurt. [8] A farkon yunƙurin wallafe-wallafen ya nuna sha'awar Gretchen, wanda daga baya zai sake bayyana a cikin <i id="mwmA">Faust ɗinsa</i>, da kuma abubuwan da ya faru tare da wanda zai bayyana a takaice a Dichtung und Wahrheit. [9] Ya ƙaunaci Caritas Meixner (1750-1773), 'yar dillalin Worms mai arziki kuma abokiyar 'yar uwarsa, wanda daga baya zai auri ɗan kasuwa G. F. Schuler. [10]



Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Anna Katharina (<i id="mwqA">Käthchen</i>) Schönkopf.
  1. "Classical Weimar UNESCO Justification". Justification for UNESCO Heritage Cites. UNESCO. Retrieved 7 June 2012.
  2. Empty citation (help)
  3. Schopenhauer, Arthur (January 2004). The Art of Literature. The Essays of Arthur Schopenahuer. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Herman Grimm: Goethe. Vorlesungen gehalten an der Königlichen Universität zu Berlin. Vol. 1. J.G. Cotta'sche Buchhandlung Nachfolger, Stuttgart / Berlin 1923, p. 36
  5. Catharina was the daughter of Johann Wolfgang Textor, sheriff (Schultheiß) of Frankfurt, and of Anna Margaretha Lindheimer.
  6. Oehler, R 1932, "Buch und Bibliotheken unter der Perspektive Goethe – Goethe's attitude toward books and libraries", The Library Quarterly, 2, pp. 232–249
  7. Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von. The Autobiography of Goethe: Truth and Poetry, From My Own Life, Volume 1 (1897), translated by John Oxenford, pp. 114, 129
  8. Valerian Tornius [de]: Goethe – Leben, Wirken und Schaffen. Ludwig-Röhrscheid-Verlag, Bonn 1949, p. 26
  9. Emil Ludwig: Goethe – Geschichte eines Menschen. Vol. 1. Ernst-Rowohlt-Verlag, Berlin 1926, pp. 17–18
  10. Karl Goedeke: Goethes Leben. Cotta / Kröner, Stuttgart around 1883, pp. 16–17.


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