Karbala

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Globe icon.svgKarbala
كربلاء (ar)
کربلا (fa)
Kerbela Hussein Moschee.jpg

Wuri
 32°37′N 44°02′E / 32.62°N 44.03°E / 32.62; 44.03
Ƴantacciyar ƙasaIrak
Governorate of Iraq (en) FassaraKarbala Governorate (en) Fassara
Babban birnin
Yawan mutane
Faɗi 690,100 (2014)
Labarin ƙasa
Altitude (en) Fassara 28 m
Bayanan Tuntuɓa
Lambar aika saƙo 56001

Karbala ko sahara ( Larabci: كَرْبَلَاء‎, romanized: Karbalāʾ  [karbalaːʔ], /k ɑːr b ə l ə / KAR -bə-lə, kuma US : / ˌ k ɑːr b ə l ɑː / KAR -bə- Lah . ) birni ne, da ke a yankin tsakiyar Iraki, wanda yake kusa da 100 kilometres (62 mi) kudu maso yamma na Baghdad, da kuma 'yan mil mil gabas na Tafkin Milh, wanda aka fi sani da Lake Razzaza. Karbala ita ce babban birnin Masarautar Karbala, kuma tana da kimanin mutane 700,000 (2015).

Garin, wanda aka fi sani da wurin da aka yi Yaƙin Karbala a cikin shekara ta 680 CE, ko wuraren bautar Imam Husayn da na Abbas, [1] [2] ana ɗauke da shi a matsayin birni mai tsarki ga musulmin Shi’a, daidai da Makka, Madina da Urushalima . Miliyoyin miliyoyin 'yan Shi'a na ziyartar wurin sau biyu a shekara, suna kishiyar Makka da Mashhad da yawan mahajjata a kowace shekara. Miliyoyin ‘yan Shi’a ne ke tuna shahadar Husayn bn Ali kowace shekara. Kimanin mahajjata miliyan 8 ne suka ziyarci garin don yin bikin ʿĀshūrāʾ (rana ta goma ga watan Muharram ), wanda ke nuna ranar da Husayn ya mutu, amma babban taron shi ne Arbaʿīn (rana ta 40 bayan 'Ashura'), inda har zuwa Miliyan 30 suka ziyarci kaburbura. Mafi yawan mahajjatan suna tafiya ne a kafa daga duk kewayen kasar Iraki da kuma sama da kasashe 56.

Bayanin Lantarki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Akwai ra'ayoyi da yawa a tsakanin masu bincike daban-daban, game da asalin kalmar "Karbala". Wasu sun nuna cewa "Karbala" yana da alaƙa da yaren "Karbalato", yayin da wasu kuma suke ƙoƙari su sami ma'anar kalmar "Karbala" ta hanyar nazarin yadda ake rubuta ta da kuma yarenta. Sun yanke hukuncin cewa ya samo asali ne daga kalmar larabci "Kar Babel" wacce ta kasance tsohuwar ƙauyukan Babila waɗanda suka haɗa da Nainawa, Al-Ghadiriyya, Karbella (Karb Illu. Kamar yadda yake a Arba Illu [Arbil]), Al-Nawaweess, da Al- Mai hankali. Wannan sunan karshe a yau ana kiransa Al-Hair kuma anan ne kabarin Husayn ibn Ali yake.

Mai binciken Yaqut al-Hamawi ya nuna cewa ma'anar "Karbala" na iya samun bayanai da yawa, daya daga ciki ita ce, wurin da Husayn bn Ali ya yi shahada an yi shi ne daga kasa mai laushi- "Al-Karbalat".

A cewar 'yan Shi'ah da imani, cikin Mala'ikan Gabriel ruwaito da gaskiya ma'anar sunan Karbala' to Muhammad : a hade da Karb ( Larabci: كَرْب‎ , Ƙasar da zai sa dayawa mãyen) da kuma Bala '( Larabci: بَلَاء‎ , masifu). "

Yanayi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Karbala tana fuskantar yanayin hamada mai zafi ( BWh a cikin yanayin yanayin yanayi na Köppen ) tare da tsananin zafi, doguwa, lokacin rani mai raɗaɗi da sanyin hunturu. Kusan dukkanin ruwan sama na shekara ana karɓar tsakanin Nuwamba zuwa Afrilu, kodayake babu watan da ke da ruwa.

Climate data for Karbala
Watan Janairu Fabrairu Maris Afrilu Mayu Yuni Yuli Ogusta Satumba Oktoba Nuwamba Disamba Shekara
Average high °C (°F) 15.7
(60.3)
18.8
(65.8)
23.6
(74.5)
30.6
(87.1)
36.9
(98.4)
41.5
(106.7)
43.9
(111.0)
43.6
(110.5)
40.2
(104.4)
33.3
(91.9)
23.7
(74.7)
17.6
(63.7)
30.8
(87.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) 10.6
(51.1)
12.9
(55.2)
17.4
(63.3)
23.9
(75.0)
29.7
(85.5)
33.9
(93.0)
36.4
(97.5)
35.9
(96.6)
32.3
(90.1)
26.2
(79.2)
17.7
(63.9)
12.3
(54.1)
24.1
(75.4)
Average low °C (°F) 5.4
(41.7)
7.0
(44.6)
11.2
(52.2)
17.1
(62.8)
22.5
(72.5)
26.3
(79.3)
28.8
(83.8)
28.2
(82.8)
24.3
(75.7)
19.0
(66.2)
11.6
(52.9)
6.9
(44.4)
17.4
(63.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 17.6
(0.69)
14.3
(0.56)
15.7
(0.62)
11.5
(0.45)
3.5
(0.14)
0.1
(0.00)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.3
(0.01)
4.1
(0.16)
10.5
(0.41)
15.3
(0.60)
92.9
(3.64)
Average precipitation days 7 5 6 5 3 0 0 0 0 4 5 7 42
Source: World Meteorological Organisation (UN)[3]

An yi Yaƙin Karbala a hamada a kan hanya zuwa Kufa a ranar 10 ga watan Oktoba 10, shekara ta 680 (10 Muharram 61 AH). Dukansu Husayn bin Ali da dan uwansa Abbas bin Ali sun binne su ne ta hanyar kabilar Banī Asad, a abin da daga baya ya zama sananne da Mashhad Al-Husayn . Yakin da kansa ya faru ne sakamakon kin amincewar Husain na bukatar Yazid I na neman yin mubaya'a ga khalifancinsa. Gwamnan Kufan, Ubaydallah bn Ziyad, ya aika da mahaya dubu talatin a kan Husayn yayin da yake tafiya zuwa Kufa . An umarci mahaya, a karkashin Umar bin Sa’ad, da su hana Husayn da mabiyansa ruwa domin tilasta Husayn ya yarda ya ba da bai’a. A ranar 9 ga Muharram, Husayn ya ƙi, kuma ya nemi a ba shi daren yin salla. A ranar 10 ga Muharram, Husayn bn Ali ya yi sallar asuba sannan ya jagoranci rundunarsa tare da dan uwansa Abbas. Da yawa daga cikin mabiyan Husayn, gami da dukkanin 'ya'yansa na yanzu Ali Akbar, Ali Asghar (dan wata shida) da yayansa Qassim, Aun da Muhammad an kashe su. [4]

A cikin 63 AH (682 ), Yazid bn Mu'awiya ya saki sauran dangin Husayn daga gidan yari. A kan hanyarsu ta zuwa Makka, sun tsaya a wurin da aka gwabza yakin. Akwai rikodin Sulayman bn Surad da zai je aikin hajji a wurin tun a farkon 65 AH (685 CE). Birnin ya fara zama kabari da hubbare ga Husayn kuma ya girma a matsayin birni domin biyan bukatun mahajjata. Birni da kaburburan an fadada su sosai daga sarakunan musulmai masu zuwa, amma sun sha wahala sau da yawa daga rundunoni masu kai hari. Asalin dakin ibada ne wanda Halifan Abbasawa Al-Mutawakkil ya lalata a 850 amma an sake gina shi a halin yanzu kusan 979, amma wuta ta lalata wani ɓangare a cikin 1086 kuma aka sake gina shi.

Kamar Najaf, garin ya sha wahala daga matsalar ƙarancin ruwa wanda kawai aka warware shi a farkon karni na 18 ta hanyar gina madatsar ruwa a kan Hanyar Husayniyya. A cikin shekara ta 1737, garin ya maye gurbin Isfahan a Iran a matsayin babbar cibiyar karatun Shi'a. A tsakiyar karni na sha takwas ya sami rinjaye daga shugaban malanta, Yusuf Al Bahrani, babban mai tallata al'adun Akhbari na Shia yana tunani, har zuwa rasuwarsa a shekara ta 1772, [5] bayan haka kuma makarantar Usuli mai tsattsauran ra'ayi ta zama mai yawa tasiri.

Buhun Wahhabi na Karbala ya faru ne a 21 ga Afrilu shekara ta 1802 (1216 Hijri) (1801), a karkashin mulkin Abdul-Aziz bin Muhammad mai mulki na biyu na Gwamnatin Saudiyya ta Farko, lokacin da Musulman Wahabiyawa 12,000 daga Najd suka afka wa garin na Karbala . Harin ya yi daidai da ranar bikin Ghadir Khum, ko 10 ga Muharram . Wannan yakin ya bar rayuka 3,000-5,000 da dome na kabarin Husayn bn Ali, jikan Muhammad kuma dan Ali bin Abi Talib, ya lalace. Fadan ya dauki tsawon awanni 8.

Bayan mamayar daular Saudiyya ta Farko, garin ya sami ikon cin gashin kai a lokacin mulkin Ottoman, wanda ke karkashin jagorancin wasu gungun kungiyoyin 'yan daba da na mafia da ke kawance da mambobin' ulama. Don sake tabbatar da ikon su, sojojin Ottoman sun yiwa garin kawanya. A ranar 13 ga watn Janairu, shekara ta 1843 sojojin Ottoman suka shiga garin. Yawancin shugabannin gari sun gudu sun bar tsaron garin galibi ga 'yan kasuwa. Kimanin Larabawa 3,000 aka kashe a cikin birni, da kuma wasu 2,000 a waje da bango (wannan yana wakiltar kusan 15% na yawan jama'ar gari). Turkawan sun rasa mazaje 400. [6] Wannan ya sa ɗalibai da malamai da yawa suka koma Najaf, wacce ta zama babbar cibiyar addinin Shi'a. [7] Tsakanin 1850 da 1903, Karbala ya sami wadataccen kwararar kuɗi ta hanyar Oudh Bequest . Lardin Indiya na Shiad da ke Awadh, wanda Birtaniyya ta sani da Oudh, a koyaushe yana tura kudi da mahajjata zuwa birni mai tsarki. Kudin Oudh, rupees miliyan 10, sun samo asali ne daga shekara ta 1825 daga Awadh Nawab Ghazi-ud-Din Haider . Daya bisa ukun shi ne ya je ga matansa, sauran kuma kashi biyu bisa uku sun tafi biranen Karbala da Najaf masu tsarki. Lokacin da matansa suka mutu a cikin 1850, kuɗin sun tara tare da riba a hannun Kamfanin Burtaniya na Gabashin Indiya . Kungiyar ta EIC ta tura kudin zuwa Karbala da Najaf bisa ga duk abin da matan suka ga dama, da fatan yin tasiri ga Malamai kan ni'imar Burtaniya. Wannan ƙoƙari don neman yardar gaba ɗaya ana ɗauka cewa gazawa ce. [8]

A cikin shekara ta 1928, an gudanar da wani muhimmin aikin magudanar ruwa don kawar da garin daga fadamar rashin lafiya, wanda aka kafa tsakanin Hussainiya da Kogin Bani Hassan a Kogin Yufiretis.

Masallaci a Karbala (1932)

Tsaron Gidan Majalisa a Karbala - wasu gumurzun da aka gwabza tsakanin aranar 3 ga Afrilu zuwa 6 ga Afrilu shekara ta, 2004 tsakanin 'yan tawayen Iraki na rundunar Mahdi da ke kokarin mamaye zauren majalisar da kuma kare sojojin Poland da Bulgaria daga Sashin Kasashen Duniya na Tsakiyar Kudu.

A shekara ta 2003 bin 2003 mamayewa na Iraki, da Karbala majalisar dattawan gari yunkurin zabe United States Marine Corps Laftanar Kanar Matthew Lopez a matsayin magajin garin. Babu shakka don sojojin sa, yan kwangila, da kuɗaɗen sa sun kasa barin sa.

A ranar 14 ga watan Afrilu,shekara ta 2007, wani bam da ke cikin mota ya fashe kusan 600 feet (180 m) daga wurin ibadar, suna kashe mutane 47 da raunata sama da 150.

A ranar 19 ga Janairun 2008, Mabiya Shi’a ‘yan Iraki miliyan biyu sun yi tattaki a cikin garin Karbala, Iraki don tunawa da Ashura . Dakarun Iraki da ‘yan sanda dubu 20 ne suka tsare taron yayin tashin hankali saboda rikici tsakanin sojojin Iraki da‘ yan Shia wanda ya yi sanadiyyar mutuwar mutane 263 (a Basra da Nasiriya ).

Yawon shakatawa na addini[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Karbala, tare da Najaf, ana daukar shi ne wurin da musulmai mabiya Shi'a ke zuwa yawon bude ido kuma masana'antar yawon bude ido a garin ta bunkasa bayan karshen mulkin Saddam Hussein. Wasu abubuwan jan hankali na yawon shakatawa na addini sun hada da:

  • Masallacin Al Abbas
  • Haramin Imam Husayn
  • Ifiritu
  • Rushewar Mujada, kimanin 40 kilometres (25 mi) zuwa yamma da garin [9] [10]

Filin jirgin sama a Karbala sun hada da:

    • Karbala Filin jirgin saman arewa maso gabas
    • Filin jirgin saman Karbala (wanda ke kudu maso gabashin Karbala)

Imani na addini[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

s = ns "/> [11] Qattara (ko Karana), Dūr-Katlimmu, Assur, Arrapha, Terqa, Nuzi, Mari, Eshnunna, Dur-Kurigalzu, Der, Sippar, Babila, Kish, Susa, Borsippa, Nippur, Isin, Uruk, Larsa da Ur, daga arewa zuwa kudu. Lura da kusancin kusancin Babila da Sippar da Tafkin Milh, wanda ke kusa da Karbala.

Wasu daga cikin ‘yan Shi’ar suna ganin wannan ayar ta Alqurani tana magana ne game da kasar Iraki, yankin Kufah na tsarkakakkun wuraren Shi’a, Najaf, Karbala, Kadhimiyyah [lower-alpha 1] da Samarra, tunda masu wa'azin Tauhidi Ibrāhīm ( Ibrahim ) da Lūṭ ( Lutu ), [13] waɗanda ake ɗaukarsu Annabawa a Islama, an yi imanin cewa sun rayu a tsohon garin Iraqi Kutha Rabba, [14] kafin zuwa " Kasa Mai Albarka ". [15]

Akwai hadisai da yawa na Shi'a da ke bayar da labarin matsayin Karbala:

Filin wasa na kasa da kasa na Karbala

Karbalaa FC kungiyar kwallon kafa ce da ke garin Karbala.

Akwai nassoshi da yawa a cikin littattafai a cikin fina-finai zuwa "Karbala", galibi ana nufin mutuwar Husayn a Yaƙin Karbala. Husayn galibi ana nuna shi akan farin dokin da kibiyoyi suka rataye. Akwai fina-finai da shirye-shiryen bidiyo game da abubuwan da suka faru a Karbala a yanayi mai rai da kuma haƙiƙa (duba mahaɗan waje "Karbala: Lokacin da Sararin samaniya Yayi Hawan jini"; "Safar-e-Karbala").

Hoton bidiyo na ainihin garin ya wanzu a cikin wani shirin Burtaniya mai taken "Yankin Kashe Saddam." Shirin shirin ya nuna yadda sojojin Saddam suka lalata garin a cikin watan Maris na 1991 ta hanyar kyamarar bidiyo ta wasu 'yan'uwa maza biyu da ke zaune a garin.

Hawza cibiyoyin ilimin addinin musulunci ne wadanda mujtahid ko Allamas ke gudanarwa tare don koyar da musulmai yan shia da shiryar dasu ta hanya mai tsauri na zama da Alim. Dangane da hawaz a Karbala, Bayan rasuwar wani mashahurin Alama, Sayyid Muhammad, jagoranci a bangaren malami ya koma zuwa taklid zuwa mujtahid. Wannan mahimmin abu ne wanda ya jagoranci jagorancin Malama don zama a Karbala da kuma Najaf. Da farko hauza ta Karbala (cibiyar koyar da addinin Musulunci) ta ƙunshi yawancin Iraniyawa da Ulama ta Turkiya. Bayan rasuwar Sharif-ul-Ulama Mazandarani a 1830 da kuma danniyar yan shia da Ottoman suka yi a shekara ta 1843 duk sun taka muhimmiyar rawa wajen sauya Ulamas da yawa don haka Najaf ya zama cibiyar jagorancin Islama ta Shi'a a cikin ilimi.

Kamar yadda yake a yanzu, akwai jami'o'i biyu a Karbala. Jami'ar Karbala, wacce aka ƙaddamar a ranar 1 ga Maris, shekara ta 2002, ɗayan manyan jami'o'i ne a Iraki dangane da harkokin ilimi, albarkatun ɗan adam, da kuma binciken kimiyya. An kafa Jami'ar Ahl Al Bayt a watan Satumba na shekara ta 2003 da Dokta Mohsen Baqir Mohammed-Salih Al-Qazwini. Jami'ar na da manyan kwalejoji shida: Kwalejin Shari'a, Arts, Kimiyyar Islama, Fasaha da Kiwon Lafiya, Magunguna da Ilimin Hakora.

Jami'ar Warith al-Anbiya da ke Karbala, kwanan nan an kafa ta a karkashin wani aikin na Masallacin Husayn Mai Tsarki, tana da ƙwarewar injiniya, gudanarwa, tattalin arziki, doka da ilimin lissafi, wanda ke shirye don karɓar ɗalibai a shekarar farko ta ilimi wato a shekàra ta 2017–2018.

Conasashen Indiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin yankin Indiya, Karbala, baya ga ma'anar garin Karbala (wanda galibi ake kira da Karbala-e-Mualla ma'ana Karbala mai ɗaukaka), yana kuma nufin filaye na gari inda jerin gwanon tunawa ke ƙarewa da / ko ta'zīya a lokacin Ashura ko Arba'een, galibi irin waɗannan filayen suna da shabeeh (kwafin) Rauza ko wasu tsare-tsare. [16] [17]

A Kudancin Asiya inda ta'zīya ke nufin musamman ga ƙananan kaburbura da aka yi amfani da su a jerin gwanon da aka gudanar a Muharram. Abin ya faro ne daga gaskiyar cewa nisan da Indiya ta yi daga Karbala ya hana a binne Shi'an Indiya a kusa da kabarin Husayn ko yin hajji akai-akai ( ziyarat ) zuwa kabarin. Wannan shine dalilin da yasa 'yan Shi'ar Indiya suka kafa karbalas na gida a kan yankin ta hanyar kawo ƙasa daga Karbala da kuma yayyafa ta a kan kuri'a da aka sanya a matsayin makabartu na gaba. Da zarar an kafa karbalas a kan yankin ƙasa, mataki na gaba shi ne kawo kabarin Husayn zuwa Indiya. Wannan an kafa shi ne ta hanyar gina kwatankwacin kabarin Husayn da ake kira ta'zīya don aiwatarwa cikin jerin gwanon Muharram. Dubunnan ta'zīyas masu siffofi daban-daban ana yin su kowace shekara don watannin makokin Muharram da Safar; kuma ana daukar su cikin tsari kuma ana iya binne su a karshen Ashura ko Arba'een.

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Yakin Karbala
  • Zanga-zangar Shi'a ta 1977 a Iraki
  • Tarzoma 1991 a Karbala
  • Harin Bam na Karbala na 2003
  • Harin Bam na Ashura na Iraki a 2004
  • Harin Bam na Karbala na 2007
  • Arba'een
  • Ashura
  • Karbala, Iran
  • Karbala, Fars
  • Karbala, Zanjan
  • Jerin wadanda suka jikkata a rundunar Husayn a yakin Karbala

Bayanan kula[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Kadhimyyah used to be a township of its own, but is now a part of the city of Baghdad.[12]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Shimoni & Levine, 1974, p. 160.
  2. Aghaie, 2004, pp. 10–11.
  3. "World Weather Information Service – Karbala". United Nations. Retrieved 1 January 2011.
  4. al-Tabari, Muhammad ibn Jarir – History of the Prophets and Kings; Volume XIX The Caliphate of Yazid ibn Muawiyah, translated by I.K.A Howard, SUNY Press, 1991
  5. Juan Cole, Sacred Space and Holy War, IB Tauris, 2007 p. 71–72
  6. Cole, Juan R.I. and Moojan Momen. 1986. "Mafia, Mob and Shiism in Iraq: The Rebellion of Ottoman Karbala 1824–1843." Past & Present. No 112: 112–143.
  7. Cole, Juan R. I. Sacred Space and Holy War: The Politics, Culture and History of Shi'ite Islam. London: I.B. Tauris, 2002.
  8. "A Failed Manipulation: The British, the Oudh Bequest and the Shī'ī 'Ulamā' of Najaf and Karbalā'." Meir Litvak, British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, JSTOR 826171
  9. منارة موجدة «مَعلَمٌ حددت وظيفته تسميته». Al-Shirazi. Retrieved January 5, 2018.
  10. الآثار منارة موجدة. Holy Karbala. Retrieved January 5, 2018.
  11. Summarized from the book of story of Muhammad by Ibn Hisham Volume 1 pg.419–421
  12. "Kadhimiya". Encyclopaedia of Iranian Architectural History (in Farisa). Archived from the original on 3 October 2015.
  13. [Al Kur'ani 26:160]
  14. History of Islam by Professor Masudul Hasan
  15. [Al Kur'ani 21:51]
  16. (Re-)defining Some Genre-Specific Words: Evidence from some English Texts about Ashura, Muhammad-Reza Fakhr-Rohani, University of Qom, Iran
  17. A citation from Fruzzetti, "Muslim Rituals," for this use of Karbala is as follows: "The Muslims then proceed to 'Karbala' to bury the flowers which were used to decorate the tazziyas, the tazziyas themselves being kept for the next year's celebration." (pp. 108–109).

Kara karantawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

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Hanyoyin haɗin waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]