Tuffa

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Tuffa
fruit (en) Fassara, pome (en) Fassara, fruit of Maloideae (en) Fassara da abinci
Honeycrisp.jpg
Kayan haɗi (R)-amygdalin (en) Fassara
Tarihi
Mai tsarawa Malus (en) Fassara da Malus domestica (en) Fassara
Goggo Smith koren tuffa

Tuffa ( Malus domestica ) itace da ke samar da ɗan tuffa . An fi saninsa da wannan 'ya'yan itace mai ɗanɗano, mai daɗi. Iccen yana girma a duniya. 'Ya'yan iccen ta masu daraja ne, kuma ana shuka su a duk sassanin duniya.

Asalin Iccen ya fito ne daga Asiya ta Tsakiya . Akwai Tuffa tun a dubban shekaru a Asiya da Turai. Turawa ne suka kawo su Arewacin Amurka. Tuffa suna da mahimmancin gaske a addini da na almara a cikin al'adu da yawa.

Ana yaɗar da Tuffa ne ta hanyar dasawa, ko da yake Tuffa na daji suna girma da sauri daga zuriya. Itatuwan Tuffa suna da girma idan suka girma daga kwaya, amma kanana idan an ɗora su akan tushen (rootstock). Akwai fiye da 7.500 a san cultivars na tuffa, tare da kewayon so halaye. Anyi amfani da nau'o'in iri daban-daban don ɗanɗano da amfani iri daban-daban: dafa abinci, cin ɗanyen da kayan cider sune mafi yawan amfani.

Bishiyoyi da itace ke afkawa, ƙwayoyin cuta da kwari . A shekara ta 2010, an tsara jigidar halittar fruita a matsayin wani ɓangare na bincike game da kula da cututtuka da zaɓar kiwo a cikin samar da tuffa

An samar da tuffa a duk duniya a shekarar 2013 ya kai tan miliyan 90.8. China kaɗai ta bunƙasa kashi 49% na jimillar.

Bayanin Asalin Tsiro[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tuffa na da ƙaramin itace mai zubar da ganye wanda ya kai mita 3 to 12 metres (9.8 to 39.4 ft) tsayi Itacen tuffa yana da kambi mai faɗi mai kaifi . A ganye suna alternately shirya sauki ovals . Tsawon su yakai santimita 5 zuwa 12 kuma 3-6 (1.2-2.4in) faɗi. Yana da saman kaifi tare da taushi mai laushi. Furanni suna fitowa a lokacin bazara a daidai lokacin da ganyen suka fara toho. Furannin farare ne. Hakanan suna da launin ruwan hoda dan kadan. Suna da petaled biyar, kuma 2.5 zuwa 3.5 santimita (0.98 zuwa 1.4 a) a diamita . 'Ya'yan itacen suna balaga cikin kaka . Yawanci santimita 5 zuwa 9 (2.0 zuwa 3.5 a ciki) a diamita. Akwai katifu biyar da aka tsara a cikin tauraruwa a tsakiyar 'ya'yan itacen. Kowane carpel yana daya zuwa uku tsaba .

Ƙwallon Malus sieversii a cikin Kazakhstan

Tsaffin bishiyoyin Tuffa na cikin daji shine Malus sieversii . Suna girma a cikin duwatsu na Asiya ta Tsakiya a arewacin Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, da Xinjiang, China, kuma mai yiwuwa ma Malus sylvestris . Ba kamar tuffa na gida ba, ganyensu suna yin ja a lokacin kaka. [1] Ana amfani da su kwanan nan don haɓaka Malus domestica don haɓaka cikin yanayin sanyi .

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Itacen tuffa na daga cikin itacen farko da aka fara nomawa. 'Ya'yan itacen ta sun fi shekaru dubbai kyau. Ance Alexander the Great ya gano tuffa dwarf a Asiya orarama a 300 BC . Asiya da Turai sun yi amfani da tuffa na hunturu a matsayin abinci mai mahimmanci na dubunnan shekaru. Daga lokacin da Turawa suka iso, Ajantina da Amurka sun yi amfani da tuffa a matsayin abinci ma. An kawo apples zuwa Arewacin Amurka a cikin 1600s. A farko apple gõnaki a Arewacin Nahiyar Amirka da aka ce ya zama kusa Boston a 1625. A cikin 1900s, masana'antun 'ya'yan itace masu tsada, inda apple ke da matukar mahimmanci, sun fara haɓaka.

A al'ada[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Maguzanci[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

"Brita as Iduna " (1901) na Carl Larsson
Joseph Kleitsch: Madonna na tiffa (1927)

A cikin tarihin Norse, allahiya Iðunn tana ba da tuffa ga alloli a cikin Prose Edda (wanda aka rubuta a ƙarni na 13 da Snorri Sturluson ) wanda ya sa su matasa har abada. Masanin Ingilishi HR Ellis Davidson ya ba da shawarar cewa tuffa suna da alaƙa da ayyukan addini a cikin maguzancin Jamusawa . Daga can ne, ta yi ikirarin, cewa arna na Norse ya ci gaba. Ta nuna cewa an gano bokitin tuffa a wurin da aka binne jirgin na Oseberg a Norway . Ta kuma yi tsokaci cewa an gano fruita fruitan itace da goro (an bayyana I (unn da canzawa zuwa na goro a Skáldskaparmál ) a cikin kabarin farko na mutanen Jamusawa a Ingila . An kuma gano su a wani wuri a cikin nahiyar Turai. Ta ba da shawarar cewa wannan na iya kasancewa yana da ma'ana ta alama . Kwayoyi har yanzu alama ce ta haihuwa a Kudu maso Yammacin Ingila.

Dafa abinci[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Wani lokaci ana cin tuffa bayan an dafa shi . Sau da yawa ana cin tuffa ba tare da an dafa ba. Hakanan ana iya sanya tuffa a cikin abubuwan sha.

Naman 'ya'yan itacen yana da ƙarfi tare da ɗanɗano ko'ina daga tsami zuwa mai daɗi. Tuffa da aka yi amfani da su don girki suna da tsami, kuma suna buƙatar dafa shi da sukari, yayin da sauran tuffa suna da daɗi, kuma ba sa bukatar girki. Akwai wasu tsaba a cibiya, waɗanda za a iya cire su da kayan aikin da ke cire ainihin, ko ta amfani da wuƙa a hankali .

Sunan kimiyya na itacen apple na jinsin da ke cikin harshen Latin shine Malus . Yawancin apples waɗanda mutane ke girma da su na Malus domestica ne.

Yawancin tuffa suna da kyau a ci ɗanye (ba a dafa shi ba), kuma ana amfani da su a yawancin abinci da aka gasa, kamar su kek ɗin tuffa. Ana dafa tuffa har sai sun yi laushi don yin tufafin miya .

Ana kuma sanya tuffa a cikin ruwan apple na apple da cider . Yawancin lokaci, cider ya ƙunshi ɗan barasa, kusan kamar giya . Yankunan Brittany a Faransa da Cornwall a Ingila an san su da apple ciders.

Yadda ake shuka Tuffa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Idan mutum yana son shuka wani nau'in Tuffa ba zai yuwu ayi hakan ba ta hanyar shuka iri daga nau'in da yake so. Iri za su yi DNA daga Tuffa da cewa da tsaba zo daga, amma shi kuma za ta yi DNA daga cikin fulawar Tuffa cewa pollinated da tsaba, wanda zai iya da kyau ya zama daban-daban irin. Wannan yana nufin cewa itacen da zai tsiro daga dasa zai zama cakuda biyu. Don shuka wani nau'in apple, ƙaramin tsutsa, ko 'scion', ana yanka shi daga itacen da ke tsiro da irin tuffa ɗin da ake so, sa'annan a haɗa da wani kututturen kututture na musamman wanda ake kira rootstock. Itacen da ya girma zai haifar da apyam ne kawai na nau'in da ake buƙata.

Akwai fiye da 7.500 da aka sani cultivars (iri) na apples. Akwai nau'o'in noma daban-daban don yanayin yanayi mai yanayi da yanayi. Largeayan tarin kayan gona na kayan lambu sama da 2,100 Frua Fruan ita Fruan Nationalasa a Englandasar Ingila . Yawancin waɗannan nau'o'in noman suna girma ne don cin sabo (tuffa mai zaki). Koyaya, wasu suna girma ne kawai don girki ko yin cider . Cider apples yawanci ma tart ci nan da nan. Koyaya, suna ba cider dandano mai ɗanɗano wanda apples ɗin zaƙi ba za su iya ba.

Mafi yawan shahararrun nau'ikan Tuffa suna da taushi amma mai kaifi . Hakanan ana buƙatar fata mai launi, saukin jigilar kaya, juriya na cuta, siffar ' Red Delicious ', da shahararren ɗanɗano. Tuffa na zamani yawanci sun fi na tsofaffin ɗakunan girki. Wannan saboda shahararrun dandano a cikin tuffa sun zama daban. Yawancin Arewacin Amurka da Turawa suna jin daɗin tuffa mai zaki. Tuffa mai ɗanɗano mai ɗanɗano tare da wuya kowane ɗanɗano na acid ya shahara a Asiya da Indiya.

A Ƙasar Ingila[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A kasar Ingila akwai kusan nau'ikan Tuffa iri 3000. Mafi yawan nau'in tuffa da ake shukawa a Ingila shine 'Bramley seedling', wanda shahararren Tuffa ne mai dafa abinci.

Lambunan Tuffa ba su da yawa kamar yadda suke a farkon shekarun 1900, lokacin da ba safai ake kawo apple daga wasu ƙasashe ba. Kungiyoyi irin su Common Ground suna koyar da mutane game da mahimmancin ofa ofan itace da ƙananan ofa fruitan itace.

A Arewacin Amurka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yawancin Tuffa suna girma a cikin yankuna masu yanayi na Amurka da Kanada . A wurare da yawa inda noman Tuffa yake da mahimmanci, mutane suna da babban biki:

  • Annapolis Valley Apple Blossom Festival - ana yin kwanaki biyar a kowace bazara (Mayu-Yuni) a Nova Scotia
  • Shenandoah Apple Blossom Festival - ana yin kwanaki shida a kowace bazara a Winchester, Virginia .
  • Bikin Fure na Apple na Jihar Washington - wanda aka yi makonni biyu a kowane bazara (Afrilu-Mayu) a Wenatchee, Washington

Ire-iren Tuffa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A apple mai dadi apple.

Akwai nau'ikan apples iri daban-daban, gami da:

  • Aport
  • Cox's Orange Pippin
  • Fuji (apple)
  • Gala
  • Abincin Daɗi (wani lokacin ana kiransa Green Green Apple)
  • Goggo Smith
  • Jonathan
  • Jonagold
  • McIntosh
  • Lady Pink
  • Red dadi
  • Wine ruwan inabi

Rukuni[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tuffa suna cikin ƙungiyar Maloideae . Wannan shi ne wani subfamily na iyali Rosaceae . Suna cikin gida iri ɗaya da pears .

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]