Yaƙin Algiers

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Yaƙin Algiers
Asali
Lokacin bugawa 1966
Asalin suna La Bataille d'alger
Asalin harshe Turanci
Larabci
Faransanci
Ƙasar asali Italiya da Aljeriya
Distribution format (en) Fassara video on demand (en) Fassara
Characteristics
Genre (en) Fassara docudrama (en) Fassara da drama film (en) Fassara
Harshe Faransanci da Larabci
During 117 Dakika
Launi color (en) Fassara da black-and-white (en) Fassara
Filming location Aljir
Direction and screenplay
Darekta Gillo Pontecorvo (en) Fassara
Marubin wasannin kwaykwayo Gillo Pontecorvo (en) Fassara
Saadi Yacef (en) Fassara
Franco Solinas (en) Fassara
'yan wasa
Jean Martin (en) Fassara
Saadi Yacef (en) Fassara
Brahim Haggiag (en) Fassara (Ali La Pointe (en) Fassara)
Larbi Zekkal (en) Fassara
Fusia El Kader (en) Fassara (Hassiba Ben Bouali (en) Fassara)
Mohamed Ben Kassen (en) Fassara (Little Omar (en) Fassara)
Samar
Mai tsarawa Antonio Musu (en) Fassara
Editan fim Mario Morra (en) Fassara
Other works
Mai rubuta kiɗa Ennio Morricone (en) Fassara
Director of photography (en) Fassara Marcello Gatti (en) Fassara
Kintato
Narrative location (en) Fassara Aljeriya
Muhimmin darasi revolution (en) Fassara da Algerian War (en) Fassara
Tarihi
External links
hoton mayyakan algiers

Yaƙin Algiers (Italian La battaglia di Alheri ; Larabci: معركة الجزائر‎, romanized: Maʿrakat al-Jazāʾir ) fim ɗin yaƙi ne na shekarar 1966 wanda Gillo Pontecorvo ya rubuta tare kuma ya ba da umarni. Ya dogara ne akan abubuwan da 'yan tawaye suka yi a lokacin yakin Aljeriya (1954-1962) da gwamnatin Faransa a Arewacin Afirka, wanda ya fi shahara shi ne yakin Algiers, babban birnin Aljeriya. An harbe shi a wuri a cikin salon labarai na Roberto Rossellini : a cikin baƙi da fari tare da gyare-gyaren nau'in rubuce-rubuce don ƙara wa ma'anar sahihancin tarihi, tare da yawancin ƴan wasan kwaikwayo marasa ƙwararru waɗanda suka rayu ta ainihin yaƙin. Pontecorvo da Ennio Morricone ne suka shirya makin fim ɗin. Yawancin lokaci ana danganta shi da silima neorealist na Italiya.

Fim ɗin ya fi mayar da hankali kan mayaƙin juyin juya hali Ali La Pointe a cikin shekarun 1954 zuwa 1957, lokacin da mayaka na FLN suka sake haduwa suka faɗaɗa cikin Casbah, babban birnin Algiers. Sojojin Faransa na kokarin dawo da yankin sun gamu da abin da suka aikata. Fim ɗin mai ban mamaki yana magana ne game da ƙungiyoyin ƙungiyoyin asiri da kuma hanyoyin da ba bisa ka'ida ba, kamar azabtarwa, da mulkin mallaka ke amfani da shi don ɗaukar shi. Aljeriya ta yi nasarar samun ƴencin kai daga hannun turawan Faransa, wanda Pontecorvo ya yi magana a cikin shirin fim din.

Fim ɗin ya samu ƙarbuwa sosai. Duka kungiyoyin masu tayar da kayar baya da hukumomin jihar sun yi la'akari da shi a matsayin wani muhimmin sharhi kan yakin da ake yi a birane. Yana bautarka 48th wuri a kan sukar 'Top 250 Films na 2012 Wurin & Sound zabe, , kazalika da 120th wuri a kan Empire magazine ta jerin daga cikin "500 mafi girma fina-finai na duk lokaci". An zaɓi shi don shigar da jerin "fina-finan Italiyanci 100 da za a tsira". Wani batu na rikice-rikice na zamantakewar zamantakewa, ba a nuna fim ɗin ba tsawon shekaru biyar a Faransa; A ƙarshe an sake shi a cikin 1971. [1]

Magana[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Yaƙin Algiers ya sake gina abubuwan da suka faru a babban birnin ƙasar Faransa Aljeriya tsakanin Nuwamba 1954 zuwa Disamba 1957, lokacin Yaƙin neman Ƴancin Aljeriya. Labarin ya fara ne da tsarin ƙungiyoyin juyin juya hali a cikin Casbah. Saboda yakin bangaranci tsakanin al'ummar kasar Aljeriya da Pied-Noir, inda bangarorin biyu ke tada kayar baya, Faransa ta aike da dakaru na sojojin Faransa zuwa birnin domin yaki tare da kame 'yan kungiyar 'yan tawayen kasar ta FLN. Ana nuna ma'aikatan a matsayin kawar da dukkan shugabannin FLN ta hanyar kisa ko kamawa. Fim din ya ƙare da wani code na nuna zanga-zangar kishin ƙasa da tarzoma, wanda ke nuna cewa duk da cewa Faransa ta yi nasara a yaƙin Algiers, amma ta yi rashin nasara a yaƙin Aljeriya.

A dabara na FLN yaƙin tayar da ƙayar baya da kuma Faransa counter tayar da kayar baya, da kuma uglier faru na yaƙi aka nuna. Masu mulkin mallaka da masu mulkin mallaka duk suna aikata ta'asa ga fararen hula. Kwamandan FLN na Casbah ta hanyar aiwatar da hukuncin kisa ga masu aikata laifukan Aljeriya da wadanda ake zargi da hadin gwiwar Faransa; suna aikata ta'addanci, gami da ayyuka kamar harin bam na Milk Bar Café, don muzgunawa Turawa. Jami’an tsaro na kai hare-hare da kashe-kashe da cin zarafi ga ƴan adawa. An nuna sojojin Faransa a matsayin suna amfani da azabtarwa, tsoratarwa, da kisan kai.

Pontecorvo da Solinas sun ƙirƙiri jarumai da yawa a cikin wasan kwaikwayon su waɗanda suka dogara akan ƙwararrun yaƙi na tarihi. Labarin ya fara da ƙarewa daga hangen Ali la Pointe (Brahim Haggiag), ɗan ƙaramin laifi wanda ke da tsattsauran ra'ayi a siyasance yayin da yake kurkuku. Kwamandan FLN El-hadi Jafar ne ya ɗauke shi, wanda Saadi Yacef ya buga, wanda ya kasance tsohon kwamandan FLN. [2]

Laftanar-Kanar Mathieu, kwamandan runduna, shine babban halin Faransanci. Sauran haruffan su ne yaron Petit Omar, wani titi urchin wanda shi ne manzo FLN; Larbi Ben M'hidi, babban jigo na FLN wanda ya ba da dalilan siyasa na tayar da ƙayar baya; da Djamila, Zohra, da Hassiba, mata uku na FLN na birni waɗanda suka kai harin ta'addanci. Yakin Algiers kuma ya ƙunshi dubunnan ƴan wasan Aljeriya. Pontecorvo yi nufin da su nuna da "Casbah-as- ƙungiyar mawaƙa", sadarwa tare da Chanting, marin fuska, da kuma ta jiki sakamako.

Shiryawa da kuma salo[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Wasan allo[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

The Casbah, inda aka dauki fim din

Yaƙin Algiers ya sami kafuwa ne daga littafin 1962 Souvenirs de la Bataille d'Alger, asusun kwamandan soja na FLN na yaƙin neman zaɓe, na Saadi Yacef. [3] Yacef ya rubuta littafin ne a lokacin da ake tsare da shi a matsayin fursuna na Faransa, kuma hakan ya kara karfafawa FLN da sauran mayakan sa kai. Bayan samun 'yancin kai, Faransawa sun saki Yacef, wanda ya zama jagora a sabuwar gwamnati. Gwamnatin Aljeriya ta goyi bayan daidaita tarihin Yacef a matsayin fim. Salash Baazi, shugaban FLN wanda Faransanci ya kora, ya tuntubi darektan Italiyanci Gillo Pontecorvo da marubucin allo Franco Solinas tare da aikin.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Yacef ya rubuta nasa wasan kwaikwayo, wanda ba ya da wani zance ko labarin fim. [4] Masu samar da Italiya sun ƙi shi a matsayin nuna son kai ga Aljeriya. Ko da yake suna jin daɗin kishin ƙasar Aljeriya, masu shirya fim ɗin sun so fim ɗin ya magance abubuwan da suka faru ta hanyar tsaka tsaki. A karshe screenplay na The Battle of Algiers yana da wani Algeria protagonist da kuma siffanta da mugunta da kuma wahala duka biyu Aljeriya da Faransa, pieds-noir da kuma sojoji. [5]

Don biyan buƙatun fim, Yaƙin Algiers yana amfani da haruffa masu haɗaka kuma yana canza sunayen wasu mutane. Misali, Kanar Mathieu ya Ƙunshi jami'an yaƙi da ta'addanci na Faransa da dama, musamman Jacques Massu . [6] Saadi Yacef ya ce Mathieu ya dogara ne akan Marcel Bigeard, kodayake halin da ake ciki yana tunawa da Roger Trinquier. Da aka zarge shi da nuna Mathieu a matsayin kyakkyawa kuma mai daraja, marubucin allo Solinas ya musanta cewa wannan ita ce manufarsa. A wata hira da ya yi da shi ya ce Kanar yana da kyau kuma yana da al'ada, domin wayewar yammacin duniya ba ta da mutunci ko rashin tarbiyya. [7] Akwai mahimmiyar kamanceceniya tsakanin shugaban FLN a cikin fim ɗin Ben H'midi da Kanar Mathieu wanda ya ƙara da nuna Pontecorvo na daidaicin ta'addancin ɓangarorin biyu.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Salon gani[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Domin The Battle of Algiers, Pontecorvo da cinematographer Marcello Gatti yin fim a baki da fari da kuma gudanar da wani gwaji tare da daban-daban dabaru ba fim da look newsreel da shirin fim. Tasirin ya kasance mai gamsarwa sosai har fitar da Amurkawa ta ba da sanarwar cewa "ba ƙafa ɗaya" na labaran labarai ba a yi amfani da su ba. [8]

Amfani da Pontecorvo na gaskiyar almara yana ba da damar fim ɗin "don yin aiki tare da ɗaure biyu kamar yadda yake magana da masu sauraro daban-daban." Fim ɗin ya yi amfani da talabijin na musamman don haɗa masu sauraron yammacin duniya da hotunan da suke fuskanta akai-akai waɗanda aka tabbatar da su don bayyana "gaskiya". Da alama an yi fim ɗin ne ta hanyar ra'ayi na mai ba da rahoto na yammacin duniya, yayin da ake amfani da ruwan tabarau na telephoto da kyamarori na hannu, yayin da "wanda ke nuna gwagwarmaya daga nesa" tare da sojojin Faransa da aka sanya tsakanin taron jama'a da kyamara." [9]

Ƴan wasa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Mahmoud, Hassiba, Little Omar, da Ali La Pointe a maboyar.

Pontecorvo ya zaɓi ya jefa ƴan Algeriya da ba ƙwararru ba. Ya zaɓi mutanen da ya sadu da su, ya zaɓe su musamman a kan kamanni da tasirin motsin rai (sabili da haka, yawancin layinsu an lakafta su). [10] Kwararren dan wasan kwaikwayo na fim din shine Jean Martin, wanda ya buga Colonel Mathieu; Martin ɗan wasan Faransa ne wanda ya yi aiki da farko a wasan kwaikwayo. Pontecorvo ya so ƙwararren ɗan wasan kwaikwayo, amma wanda ba zai saba da yawancin masu sauraro ba, saboda wannan zai iya yin tsangwama ga gaskiyar fim ɗin.

An kori Martin shekaru da yawa da suka gabata daga Théâtre National Populaire saboda sanya hannu kan takardar shaidar 121 a kan Yaƙin Aljeriya. Martin tsohon soja ne; ya yi aiki a rundunar sojan ruwa a lokacin Yaƙin Indochina kuma ya shiga cikin Resistance Faransa. Hoton sa yana da zurfin tarihin rayuwa. A cewar wata hira da marubucin allo Franco Solinas, dangantakar aiki tsakanin Martin da Pontecorvo ba ta da sauƙi. Ba da tabbacin ko salon wasan kwaikwayo na ƙwararrun Martin zai bambanta da yawa da waɗanda ba ƙwararru ba, Pontecorvo ya yi jayayya game da zaɓin wasan kwaikwayo na Martin. [11]

wanda ke taka leda El-Hadi Jaffar da Samia Kerbash wanda ke taka Fatiha an ce dukkansu mambobin FLN ne kuma Pontecorvo an ce sun samu kwarin gwiwa sosai daga asusunsu. Ƴan wasan da aka yaba su ne:

  • Jean Martin a matsayin Colonel Philippe Mathieu
  • Brahim Haggiag a matsayin Ali La Pointe
  • Saadi Yacef a matsayin Saari Kader/El-Hadi Jafar
  • Tommaso Neri a matsayin Captain Dubois
  • Samia Kerbash a matsayin Fathia
  • Ugo Paletti a matsayin Kyaftin
  • Fusia El Kader a matsayin Halima
  • Franco Moruzzi
  • Mohammed Ben Kassen a matsayin Little Omar

Sauti da kiɗa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Sauti - duka kiɗa da tasiri - suna yin ayyuka masu mahimmanci a cikin fim ɗin. Ƴn asalin ƙasar Aljeriya suna ta busa, maimakon tattaunawa, a yayin wani wurin da mata mayakan FLN ke shirin tayar da bam. Bugu da ƙari, Pontecorvo ya yi amfani da karar harbe-harbe, jirage masu saukar ungulu da injunan manyan motoci don nuna alamar hanyoyin yaki na Faransa, yayin da fashewar bama-bamai, rugujewa, kuka da rera waka ke nuna alamar hanyoyin Algeriya. Gillo Pontecorvo ya rubuta waƙar don Yaƙin Algiers, amma saboda an lasafta shi a matsayin "mai yin waƙar waƙa" a Italiya, an buƙaci ya yi aiki tare da wani mawaki kuma; Abokinsa na kirki Ennio Morricone ya haɗa kai da shi. Drum solo solo, wanda ake ji a duk cikin fim ɗin, shahararren ɗan wasan Italiya Pierino Munari ne ya buga.

Tarihin Saki da Gado[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Mahimman liyafar[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Daraktan Italiyanci Gillo Pontecorvo (second from right) tare da matarsa Picci da ɗan wasan kwaikwayo na Aljeriya kuma mai shirya fina-finai Saadi Yacef tare da wasu baƙi a bikin fina-finai na Venice karo na 27, wanda fim ɗin ya lashe kyautar zinare .

Pontecorvo ya yi tsayayya da jarabar yin soyayya ga jaruman. Ya nuna irin mugunyar hare-haren da FLN da Faransa suka aikata. Fim din ya lashe kyautar Zakin Zinariya a bikin Fim na Venice kuma an zaba shi don lambar yabo ta Academy guda uku (a cikin shekaru da ba a jere ba, nasara ta musamman): Mafi kyawun Fim ɗin Harshen Waje a 1967, da Mafi kyawun Screenplay (Gillo Pontecorvo da Franco Solinas ) da Darakta mafi kyau (Gillo Pontecorvo) a cikin 1969.

Sauran lambobin yabo sun haɗa da lambar yabo ta Cinema City of Venice (1966), lambar yabo ta International Critics Award (1966), Kyautar City of Imola (1966), Kyautar Ribbon Azurfa ta Italiya (darektan, daukar hoto, furodusa), Kyautar Ajace na Cinema d 'Essai (1967), Golden Asphodel na Italiyanci (1966), Diosa de Plata a bikin Fim na Acapulco (1966), Golden Grolla (1966), Kyautar Riccione (1966), Mafi kyawun Fim na 1967 ta masu sukar Cuban (a cikin kuri'un da Mujallar Cuban Cine suka dauki nauyi), da Kyautar United Churches of America (1967).

Roger Ebert ya ba fim ɗin 4/4 taurari, yana kiran shi "fim mai girma" wanda "akwai a wannan matakin na gaskiya mai ɗaci. Yana iya zama ƙwarewar fim mai zurfi fiye da yadda yawancin masu sauraro za su iya jurewa: ma rashin kunya, ma gaskiya, ma rashin tausayi da kuma rashin tausayi. Game da yakin Aljeriya ne, amma wadanda ba su da sha'awar Aljeriya na iya maye gurbin wani yaƙi; Yaƙin Algiers yana da tsarin tunani na duniya.” [12] Fim ɗin ya mamaye matsayi na 48 a cikin Manyan Fina-Finan 250 na Critics na 2012 Sight & Sound poll, da kuma matsayi na 120 a cikin jerin mujallu na Empire na 500 mafi girma na fina-finai na kowane lokaci. A cikin 2010, Empire kuma ya zama fim na 6 a cikin Mafi kyawun Fina-finan Duniya na 100. [13] An zaɓi shi don shigar da jerin " fina-finan Italiyanci 100 da za a tsira ".

Daraktan fina-finai na Amurka Stanley Kubrick ya yaba wa fim ɗin da cewa: “Dukkan fina-finai, a ma’ana, labaran karya ne. Mutum yayi ƙoƙari ya kusanci gaskiya gwargwadon yiwuwa, kawai ba gaskiya bane. Akwai mutanen da suke yin abubuwa masu wayo, waɗanda suka burge ni kuma suka yaudare ni. Misali, Yakin Algiers . Yana da ban sha'awa sosai." Har ila yau, a cewar Anthony Frewin, mataimakin Kubrick na sirri, ya ce: "Lokacin da na fara aiki a Stanley a watan Satumba na 1965, ya gaya mani cewa ba zan iya gane ainihin abin da fina-finai ke iya ba ba tare da ganin Yaƙin Algiers ba. Har yanzu yana sha’awar hakan tun kafin rasuwarsa.” [14]

Ba'amurke ɗan fim Steven Soderbergh ya lissafa fim ɗin a matsayin abin ƙarfafawa a kan fim ɗin Traffic yana lura cewa fim ɗin (tare da Costa-Gavras 's Z) yana da "wannan babban jin daɗin abubuwan da aka kama, maimakon shiryawa, wanda shine abin da muka kasance a baya.

Ba'amurke ɗan fim Christopher Nolan ya lissafa fim ɗin a matsayin ɗaya daga cikin abubuwan da ya fi so kuma ana yaba shi don ƙarfafa fina-finansa kamar The Dark Knight Rises da Dunkirk.

Masanin ilimin Falasdinu-Ba-Amurke Edward Said (sanannen aikinsa na Orientalism) ya yaba da yakin Algiers (tare da sauran fim ɗin Pontecorvo, Burn!) kamar yadda fina-finai biyu"... sun tsaya ba tare da kwatankwacinsu ba tun lokacin da aka yi su a cikin 60s. Duk fina-finan tare sun zama ma'auni na siyasa da na ado ba su sake daidaitawa ba."

Marubuci kuma mai fafutuka ɗan ƙasar Pakistan Tariq Ali ya sanya The Battle of Algiers a cikin jerin fina-finansa guda 10 da ya fito don kaɗa kuri’ar gani da sauti na fina-finan da suka fi kowane lokaci.

Fim ɗin nan ɗan ƙasar Jamus Werner Herzog ya yaba da fim din kuma yana daya daga cikin ƴan fina-finan da ake buƙatar kallon daliban makarantar fina-finai.

Mai shirya fina-finan Ingila Ken Loach ya lissafa fim ɗin a matsayin ɗaya daga cikin fina-finansa 10 da ya fi so a kowane lokaci kuma ya bayyana tasirin fim ɗin a harkar fim ɗin da ya ce: “Ya yi amfani da ƴan wasan da ba ƙwararru ba. Ba abin mamaki ba ne. Yana da ƙananan maɓalli. Ya nuna tasirin mulkin mallaka a rayuwar yau da kullum. Wadannan fasahohin sun yi tasiri sosai a harkar fim… Na ga fim din lokacin da ya fito a 1966. Yana daya daga cikin adadin fina-finan da suka yi tasiri a kaina."

A kan shafin yanar gizon tarawa na Rotten Tumatir, fim ɗin yana riƙe da ƙimar amincewa na 99% dangane da sake dubawa na 87, tare da matsakaicin ƙimar 9.06 / 10; Yarjejeniyar rukunin yanar gizon ta ce: "Bincike mai ƙarfi, mai kama da rubuce-rubuce na martani ga rundunar mamaya, Yaƙin Algiers bai ɗan tsufa ba tun lokacin da aka sake shi a 1966." A kan Metacritic, fim ɗin yana da nauyin nauyin nauyin 96 daga cikin 100 bisa ga masu sukar 22, yana nuna "yabo na duniya".

Ba duk liyafar ta kasance tabbatacce ba. A Faransa, Cahiers du cinéma ya keɓe wani fasali na musamman ga fim ɗin wanda ya ƙunshi labarai guda biyar na masu suka, masana falsafa, da masanan fina-finai. Kimantawar da suka yi na fim ɗin gaba ɗaya an yi ta da kakkausan harshe, ta yadda "ya yi zagon ƙasa, bisa dalilai na ɗabi'a, haƙƙin duk wani mai suka ko manazarci da bai yi Allah-wadai da fim ɗin ba, ballantana duk wanda ya kuskura ya ɗauki fim ɗin ya cancanci kulawar fim."

An haramta shi a Faransa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ganin rarrabuwar kawuna kan yaƙin Aljeriya, fim ɗin ya haifar da cece-kuce na siyasa a Faransa kuma an dakatar da shi har tsawon shekaru biyar. [15] Jama’a sun ci gaba da yin gardama kan dalilan yaki da mulkin mallaka, kuma sun sake yin gardama kan yadda aka nuna wadannan a cikin fim din. Wannan fim shine farkon samuwa ga Metropole Faransanci wanda ya fuskanci mulkin mallaka na Faransa kai tsaye. Daraktan ya samu barazanar kisa daga mutanen da ke da tausayi ga ra'ayin sojojin Faransa.

Pontecorvo ya ce "Ƴan Algeriya ba su sanya wani cikas a hanyarmu ba saboda sun san cewa zan yi wani fim mai mahimmanci ko kaɗan game da batun. Hukumomin Faransa, waɗanda suka nuna matukar damuwa kan lamarin Aljeriya, sun haramta fim din na tsawon watanni uku." Saboda barazanar tashin hankali da kungiyoyin farkisanci suka yi ta yi, gwamnati ta hana nuna fim din na tsawon shekaru huɗu, kodayake Pontecorvo ya yi imanin cewa ya yi fim ne na siyasa. [16]

Yaƙin Algiers da ƙungiyoyin ƴan daba[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Sakin Yaƙin Algiers ya zo daidai da lokacin da aka samu mulkin mallaka da kuma yaƙe-yaƙen ƴantar da ƙasa, da kuma yadda ake samun karuwar masu tsattsauran ra'ayi na hagu a cikin kasashen yammacin duniya inda 'yan tsiraru masu yawa suka nuna sha'awar gwagwarmayar makami. Tun daga ƙarshen 1960s, Yaƙin Algiers ya sami suna don iza wutar rikicin siyasa; musamman dabarun yakin basasa na birni da ta'addanci a cikin fim din da ake zaton 'yan Black Panthers ne, da sojojin Jamhuriyar Ireland na wucin gadi, da kungiyar 'yantar da Falasɗinu da kuma Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front. [17] Yaƙin Algiers a fili shine fim ɗin da Andreas Baader ya fi so. [18]

Nunawa a duniya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Shekarun 1960 nunawa a Argentina[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Shugaba Arturo Frondizi ( Radical Civic Union, UCR) ya ba da umarnin gabatar da kwas na farko kan yaƙe-yaƙe na juyin juya hali a Kwalejin Soja mafi girma. A shekara ta 1963, 'yan makaranta a Makarantar Makarantun Navy (ESMA) sun fara karɓar azuzuwan yaƙi da tawaye. A daya daga cikin kwasa-kwasansu, an nuna musu fim din Yaƙin Algiers. Antonio Caggiano, babban Bishop na Buenos Aires daga shekarun 1959 zuwa 1975, yana da alaƙa da wannan a matsayin limamin soja. Ya gabatar da fim din cikin yarda da shi kuma ya kara masa sharhin da ya shafi addini. Daga baya an san ESMA a matsayin cibiyar yaƙin datti na Argentine da azabtarwa da cin zarafi na masu tayar da ƙayar baya da fararen hula marasa laifi.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Anibal Acosta, ɗaya daga cikin ƴan wasan ESMA da aka yi hira da shi shekaru 35 bayan wata 'yar jarida ta Faransa Marie-Monique Robin, ya bayyana zaman:

Sun nuna mana wancan fim din ne domin su shirya mana wani irin yaki da ya sha bamban da yaƙin da muka shiga makarantar sojan ruwa. Suna shirya mu don aikin ’yan sanda a kan farar hula, waɗanda suka zama sabon abokan gaba.

2003 nunawa Pentagon[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A lokacin 2003, manema labarai sun ba da rahoton cewa Ma'aikatar Tsaro ta Amurka (Pentagon) ta ba da hoton fim ɗin a ranar 27 ga watan Agusta. Hukumar kula da ayyuka na musamman da rikice-rikicen da ba su da ƙarfi sun ɗauki hakan a matsayin mai amfani ga kwamandoji da sojojin da ke fuskantar irin wannan matsala a Iraqi da ta mamaye. [19]

Falo don tantancewa ya ce:

A cewar jami'in ma'aikatar tsaron da ke kula da wasan nuna fim din, "nuna fim din yana ba da haske a tarihi game da yadda Faransawa ke gudanar da ayyukanta a Aljeriya, kuma an yi niyya ne don a ba da bayani kan ƙalubale da Faransawa ke fuskanta."

2003-2004 sake sakin wasan kwaikwayo[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A lokacin binciken Pentagon na 2003, ana samun nau'ikan fim ɗin na doka da na "ɗan fashin teku " VHS da DVD a cikin Amurka da sauran wurare, amma ingancin hoton ya ragu. An sake buga bugu a Italiya a cikin 1999. Hotunan Rialto sun sami haƙƙin rarrabawa don sake fitar da fim ɗin a cikin Birtaniya a cikin watan Disamba 2003 da kuma a Amurka da Faransa a cikin kwanaki daban-daban a 2004. An nuna fim ɗin a cikin Espace Accattone, rue Cujas a Paris, daga Nuwamba 15, 2006, zuwa Maris 6, 2007. [20]

bugun 2004 Criterion DVD[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A ranar 12 ga watan Oktoba, 2004, The Criterion Collection ya fitar da fim ɗin, an canja shi daga bugu da aka mayar, a cikin saitin DVD mai fayafai uku. A extras sun hada da tsohon US counter-ta'addanci mashawarci Richard A. Clarke da kuma Michael A. Sheehan tattauna The Battle of Algiers ' hoton na ta'addanci da yaƙin yaƙi. Daraktan Spike Lee, Mira Nair, Julian Schnabel, Steven Soderbergh, da Oliver Stone sun tattauna tasirinsa akan fim. Wani shirin gaskiya a cikin saitin ya haɗa da tattaunawa da kwamandojin FLN Saadi Yacef da Zohra Drif .[ana buƙatar hujja]

Bugun 2011 Criterion Blu-ray[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Wani sabon canja wurin dijital mai girma, wanda darektan daukar hoto Marcello Gatti ke kula da shi, ya fito da sharudɗa akan Blu-ray Disc a cikin shekarar 2011.

Hanyoyin haɗi na waje[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. "The Illegitimate Legitimacy of the Battle of Algiers in French Film Culture", Patricia Caillé, Interventions: International Journal of Postcolonial Studies Volume 9, Issue 3, 2007 Special Issue: Gillo Pontecorvo's Battle of Algiers, 40 Years On
  2. Benjamin Stora, Les Mots de la Guerre d'Algérie, Presses Universitaires du Mirail, 2005, p. 20.
  3. "The Source". The Battle of Algiers booklet accompanying the Criterion Collection DVD release, p. 14.
  4. The Battle of Algiers booklet accompanying the Criterion Collection DVD release, p. 14.
  5. Peter Matthews, "The Battle of Algiers: Bombs and Boomerangs", in The Battle of Algiers booklet accompanying the Criterion Collection DVD release, p. 7.
  6. Arun Kapil, "Selected Biographies of Participants in the French-Algerian War", in The Battle of Algiers booklet accompanying the Criterion Collection DVD release, p. 50.
  7. Pier Nico Solinas, "An Interview with Franco Solinas", in The Battle of Algiers booklet accompanying the Criterion Collection DVD release, p. 32.
  8. J. David Slocum, Terrorism, Media, Liberation. Rutgers University Press, 2005, p. 25.
  9. Barr Burlin, Lyrical Contact Zones: Cinematic Representation and the Transformation of the Exotic. Cornell University Press, 1999, p 158.
  10. Peter Matthews, "The Battle of Algiers: Bombs and Boomerangs", p. 8.
  11. PierNico Solinas, "An Interview with Franco Solinas", in The Battle of Algiers booklet accompanying the Criterion Collection DVD,
  12. [1]
  13. "The 100 Best Films of World Cinema: 6. The Battle of Algiers", Empire.
  14. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Stanley Kubrick, cinephile
  15. PierNico Solinas, "An Interview with Franco Solinas", in The Battle of Algiers booklet accompanying the Criterion Collection DVD release, p. 37.
  16. Cowie, Peter, Revolution! The Explosion of World Cinema in the 60s, Faber and Faber, 2004, pp. 172–73
  17. Peter Matthews, "The Battle of Algiers: Bombs and Boomerangs", in The Battle of Algiers booklet accompanying the Criterion Collection DVD release, p. 9.
  18. Klaus Stern & Jörg Herrmann, "Andreas Baaders, Das Leben eines Staatsfeindes", p. 104.
  19. "Re-release of The Battle of Algiers Archived 2021-05-17 at the Wayback Machine, Diplomatic License, CNN, January 1, 2004.
  20. See La Bataille d'Alger: Horaires à Paris Archived 2010-01-11 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 6 March 2007.