Abū Lahab

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  Abd al-Uzza bn Abdil-Muṭṭalib ( Larabci: عبد العزى بن عبد المطلب‎ , Amharic: አብዱል ኡዛ ቢን አብዱል ሙጦሊብ ), wanda aka fi sani da Abū Lahab ( Larabci: أبي لهب‎ , Amharic: አባት ነበልባል ) ( c. 549 – 624) shi ne kawun Muhammadu rabin mahaifinsa. Ya kasance daya daga cikin shugabannin Kuraishawa na Makka wadanda suka sabawa Annabi Muhammad da mabiyansa kuma an yi Allah wadai da shi a cikin surar Lahab ( Suratul Massad ) ta Alkur'ani saboda adawa da Musulunci .

Rayuwar farko da Iyali[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An haife shi a Makka a shekara ta 549 miladiyya dan Abdul Muttalib shugaban gidan Hashim kuma kawun Annabi Muhammadu . Don haka ya kasance kane ga Abdullahi baban Annabi Muhammadu. Mahaifiyarsa, Lubna bint Hajar, [1] ta fito daga kabilar Khuza'a . Mutanen kabilar Khuza’a sun kasance masu kula da dakin Ka’aba tsawon shekaru aru-aru, kafin Kuraishawa su karbi wannan nauyi ta hannun kakansu Qusai ibn Kilab. Abu Lahab kuma yana da dangantaka da Annabi Muhammad a matsayin kawunsa ta wata hanya, tun da kakar Annabi Muḥammad ita ce Fāṭimah bint 'Amr ta dangin Banu Makhzum . Makwafta suke da Muhammad suka raba katanga da gidansa.

Sunansa na asali shi ne 'Abd al-'Uzza, ma'ana bawa/mai bautar Uzza, allahn Larabawa na makamashi. Amma mahaifinsa ya ce masa Abū Lahab ("Baban Harshe") "saboda kyawunsa da fara'arsa" saboda jajayen kuncinsa.[2] An bayyana shi a matsayin "kwararre mai ƙwanƙwasa mai ƙwanƙwasa gashi biyu, sanye da alkyabbar Aden" [3] kuma a matsayin "mai yawan karimci". [4]

Ya auri Arwā Umm Jamil bint Harb, 'yar'uwar Abu Sufyan (Sakhr), wadda mahaifinta Harb shi ne shugaban gidan Umayya . 'Ya'yansu sun hada da Utbah, [5] Utaybah, [6] Muattab, [6] Durrah (Fakhita), 'Uzza da Khālida. [7] Abu Lahab ya haifi wani da, shi ma Durrah, wanda wata kila wata mace ta haife shi. Wataƙila kuma shi ne mahaifin da bawansa Thuwayba ya haifa.

'Yarsa Durrah ta musulunta kuma ta zama mai riwayar Hadisi. Daya tana cikin Musnad na Ahmad, inda ta ruwaito cewa wani mutum ya tashi ya tambayi Annabi Muhammadu, wane ne mafificin mutane? Ya ce: "Mafi alherin mutane shi ne mafi ilimi, mafi tsoron Allah, mafi yawan umarni da kyawawan ayyuka, mafi yawan hani da alfasha, kuma mafi kusancin zumunta. Ita ma Utbah ta musulunta bayan da aka ci Makkah kuma ta yi mubaya'a ga Muhammad.

Wa Sahabāh (c. 613).[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Lokacin da Annabi Muhammadu ya sanar da cewa Allah ne ya umarce shi da ya yaɗa saƙon Musulunci a fili, Alƙur'ani ya gaya masa ya gargaɗi danginsa game da azabar Ubangiji. Don haka sai ya hau Dutsen Safā ya yi ihu: " Wa sabahah! " Ma'ana: "Ya safiya!" A cikin Larabawa wannan ƙararrawa ta al'ada ce ta al'ada duk mutumin da ya lura da ƙabilar abokan gaba suna gaba da kabilarsa da wayewar gari.

Da jin haka sai mutanen Makka suka taru a kan dutsen. Daga nan Annabi Muhammad ya yi wa ’yan uwa suna. "Ya Banū Hāshim, Ya Banū 'Abd al-Muṭallib... [da dai sauransu], da na gaya muku cewa bayan wannan tudun akwai maƙiyi da zai kawo muku hari, shin za ku gaskata ni?" Mutanen sun amsa cewa za su yi, tun da Annnabi Muhammadu an san shi da gaskiya sosai kuma an ba shi lakabin Al Amin . Ya ci gaba da cewa: "To, ina yi muku gargadi cewa kuna shirin zuwa ga azaba."

Ana nan sai Abu Lahab ya katse da cewa: “Kaitonka sauran yini! Shin abin da kuka kira mu ne a kansa?” Wata al’ada kuma ta tuna da Abu Lahab ya ɗauko dutse da zai jefa wa ɗan’uwansa.

Abu Lahab ya yi watsi da da’awar Muhammadu, ya ce: “Annabi Muhammad ya yi mini alkawarin abubuwan da ba na gani ba. Ya yi zargin cewa za su faru bayan mutuwata; me ya saka a hannuna bayan haka?” Sa'an nan ya busa hannuwansa, ya ce, "Ka iya halaka. Ba zan iya ganin komai a cikin ku ba na abubuwan da Annabi Muhammadu ya ce.” [8]

Suratul Abu Lahab[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Sakamakon wannan lamari kai tsaye, an saukar da wata sura ta Al-Masad ("The Dabino Fibre", sura ta 111), game da shi. Fassarar Sahih International ta Turanci tana karanta:

  1. Hannayen Abu Lahab ya halaka, kuma ya halaka.
  2. Dukiyarsa ba za ta wadatar masa da abin da ya samu ba.
  3. he will [enter to] to ƙone a cikin wata wutã mai ƙuna.
  4. Matarsa (kuma) - mai ɗaukar itace (ƙayan Shaidan wanda ta kasance tana sanya shi a tafarkin Annabi).
  5. A wuyanta akwai igiya na murɗaɗɗen zaren ( masadd ).

Ana kiran Umm Jamil “mai ɗaukar itace” saboda an ce ta ɗauki ƙaya ta jefar da su a tafarkin Annabi Muhammadu. [9] Kasancewar makwabcin Annabi Muḥammad, ita ma ta jefar da shara a bango cikin gidan Annabi Muhammad.

Abu Lahab ya auri 'ya'yansa maza biyu ga 'ya'yan Annabi Muhammad, 'Utbah ga Ruqayyah, 'Utaibah ga Ummu Kulthum . Duk da haka, ba a gama daura auren ba. [10] Bayan sanarwar Al-Masad, Abu Lahab ya gaya wa 'ya'yansa maza: "Kaina ya halatta a gare ku idan ba ku saki 'ya'yan Muhammadu mata ba." Don haka suka sake su. [11] [10] ’Yar Abu Lahab Durrah ta yi aure a wani mataki na auren Zaid bn Harīthah, wanda a lokacin ake kallonsa a matsayin dan Annabi Muhammadu, daga baya aka sake su; amma ba a san lokacin daurin wannan aure da saki ba. [12] Daga baya kuma ta auri Ḥārith ibn Naufal na Banu Hashim; kuma bayan rasuwarsa ta auri Dihya bn Khalifa. [13]

Wasu ayyukan adawa (613–619)[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A lokacin da Kuraishawa suka fara azabtar da musulmi, dan uwan Abu Lahab Abu Talib ya yi kira ga iyalan Hashim da Al-Muddalib da su tsaya tare da shi wajen kare dan uwansa. Al'ada ce a tsakanin Larabawa su goyi bayan danginsu. Duk da rashin jituwar da ke tsakanin Muhammad da wasu daga Banu Hashim da Banu Muṭṭalib, mafi yawansu sun tsaya masa a cikin halin da yake ciki, sun ba shi kariya da tsaro sai Abu Lahab. [14]

Yayin da Annabi Muhammadu ke addu'a a kusa da dakin Ka'aba, Abu Jahl ya taba jefo masa hanjin rakumi da aka yanka. Daga baya Muhammad ya gaya wa Aisha : “Na kasance tsakanin mugayen maƙwabta biyu, Abu Lahab da Uqba ibn Abu Mu’ayt . Suka kawo najasa suka jefar a gaban k'ofa na, suka kawo wani abu mai ban haushi suka jefar a gaban k'ofa." Muhammad ya ce ya fito daga gidansa yana cewa: “Ya ‘ya’yan Abdumanaf! Dabi’ar makwabci ne?” Sai ya jefar da shara.

A shekara ta 7 da yin wa'azin Musulunci, Kuraishawa suka kakabawa Banu Hāshim da Banu Muṭṭalib kauracewa birnin, tare da tilasta musu zama a cikin wani kwazazzabon dutse a wajen birnin. Yawancin mutanen Banu Hāshim ba su karɓi Musulunci a lokacin ba. Amma duk da haka sun tsaya gun Annabi Muhammad sun sha wahala kamar yadda ya sha. Abu Lahab shi kadai ne dan Banu Hāshim wanda ya goyi bayan kaurace wa kuma bai shiga cikin danginsa ba. Ta hanyar tsananin kiyayya, Abu Lahab ya keta wannan al'ada ta Larabawa, ya kuma bi sahun dangin Kuraishawa wadanda ba musulmi ba. Abu Lahab ya yi watsi da alakarsa da dangin Hashim ya ci gaba da zama a Makka. Ba da daɗewa ba, sai ya sadu da surukarsa, Hind bint Utbah, ya ce mata: "Shin ban taimaki Al-Lat da Al-Uzza ba, kuma ban yi watsi da waɗanda suka yi watsi da su ba, kuma na taimaki abokan gābansu. ?” Sai ta ce: E, kuma Allah ya saka maka da alheri Ya Abu Utba. [15]

Tsakanin Kauracewa Badar (619-624)[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Bayan an dage kauracewar sai wani dan uwa Abu Salama ya zo wajen Abu Talib yana neman kariya. Lokacin da dangin Makhzum suka nuna rashin amincewa da haka, Abu Lahab ya goyi bayan ɗan'uwansa. Ya gaya wa Makhzumiyawa cewa: “Ya Kuraishawa, kun ci gaba da kai wa wannan shehin hari saboda ya ba shi kariya a tsakanin mutanensa. Wallahi ko dai ku daina wannan ko kuma mu tsaya tare da shi har sai ya samu abinsa”. Makhzumawa sun so su ci gaba da goyon bayan Abu Lahab, don haka suka amince kada su bata wa Abu Salama rai. [6]

Abu Talib ya rasu a shekara ta 620, [16] Tun daga wannan lokaci, Muhammadu ya zagaya wuraren baje kolin kasuwanci da kasuwanni don ya shaida wa kabilun Larabawa cewa shi Annabi ne kuma ya kira su zuwa ga bauta wa Allah . Abu Lahab ya kasance yana biye da shi wajen baje kolin, yana mai cewa, “Wannan xan’adam yana nufin ku tube Al-Lat da Al-Uzza daga wuyan ku, da waxanda ke tare da ku na qabilar Malik xan Uqaish saboda bidi’ar bata da ya zo da ita. Kada ku yi masa biyayya, kada kuma ku kula shi.” [17]

Wani ya ruwaito cewa: “Kafin Musuluncina na kasance ina ganin Annabi a kasuwanni a wajen Makkah yana kira da cewa: “Ya ku mutane ku ce babu abin bautawa da gaskiya sai Allah, kuma za ku rabauta. Mutane sukan taru a kusa da shi sai wani mutum, mai fuska mai haske, mai hankali, mai gashi guda biyu (yana rataye) ya fito daga baya ya ce: ‘Wannan mutumin ya bar addinin (na kakanninsa). Shi maƙaryaci ne. Yana bin Annabi duk inda yaje. Sai mutane su tambayi wane ne shi, su ji cewa baffansa (Annabi) ne.” {Musnad Ahmed 492/3}


</br>Annabi Muhammad da mafi yawan musulmai sun bar Makka a shekara ta 622, kuma Abu Lahab bai da wata mu'amala kai tsaye da dan'uwansa.

Mutuwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kamar yadda majiyoyin Musulunci suka ruwaito, a lokacin da sauran Kuraishawa suka je Badar domin kare ayarin ‘yan kasuwa da ke dauke da dukiyoyinsu daga wani hari da ake tsammanin za su kai musu, Abu Lahab ya ci gaba da zama a Makka, inda ya aika da dan’uwan Abu Jahal al-’ṣ bn Hisham a madadinsa wanda ya bi bashi. Dirhami dubu hudu da ya kasa biya. Don haka sai ya dauke shi aiki tare da su da sharadin a cire masa bashi. [18]

Farkon mutanen da suka isa Makka da labarin cin nasarar Kuraishawa a yakin Badar, su ne al-Haysuman da Abdullahi bn al-Khuza’ī, wadanda suka yi ta kukan cewa da yawa daga cikin hakimansu sun fada fagen fama. Abu Lahab ya tafi babban tantin Zamzam, "fuskarsa baƙar fata kamar tsawa". Ba a jima ba sai ga dan uwansa Abu Sufyan bn al-Harith ya iso, don haka sai ya kira shi ya kawo labari. Wasu ƴan tsiraru ne suka taru a kusa da su biyun yayin da Abū Sufyan ya gaya wa kawunsa, “Haƙiƙa, kuraishawa sun haɗu da abokan gabanmu kuma suka juya baya. (Musulmi) suka kore mu, suna kama fursuna yadda suka ga dama. Ba zan iya zargin ’yan kabilarmu ba domin sun fuskanci ba su kaɗai ba, amma mutane sanye da fararen riguna masu hawa dawakai, waɗanda suke tsakanin sama da ƙasa. Ba su bar kome ba, kuma babu wanda ya sami dama." (A.Guillaume, Rayuwar Muhammad, 2007, shafi na 310)

A can karshen tantin, wani musulmi mai ‘yantacce mai suna Abu Rafi’ da matar Abbas Lubaba suka zauna suna zazzage kibau. Da suka ji labarin mutanen da suke cikin farare na hawa tsakanin sama da ƙasa, sai suka daina jin daɗinsu, sai Abu Rafi'u ya ce: " Mala'iku ne!" Abu Lahab ya fusata har ya tilasta wa Abu Rafi’ mai rauni kasa ya yi masa duka. Lubaba ta dakko sandar tanti da ke kusa, ta buga kan surikinta, tana kuka tana cewa: "Kana tunanin za ka iya zaginsa don kawai Abbas ba ya nan?"

Majiyar muslunci ta ce Lubaba ya raunata Abu Lahab sosai, har ta kai ga tsaga kansa, inda ya kwanta da wani bangare na kokon kansa. Rauni ya rikide ya zama najasa, gaba dayan jikinsa ya barke ya zama budadden pustules. Ya rasu bayan mako guda. Wannan zai kasance a ƙarshen Maris 624. Kamshin raunin da Abu Lahab ya ji yana da ban tsoro har babu wanda zai iya zuwa kusa da shi. Iyalinsa sun bar jikinsa da ya rube yana bazuwa a gidansa na tsawon dare biyu ko uku har wani makwabcinsu ya tsawata musu. “Abin kunya ne. Kaji kunyar barin mahaifinka ya rube a gidansa, kada ka binne shi daga idon mutane! Sai suka aika da bayi su cire gawarsa. An shayar da shi daga nesa, sannan aka tura shi da sanduna a cikin wani kabari a wajen Makka, aka jefe shi da duwatsu. [19]

Wata ruwaya ta Muslim ta ce bayan rasuwar Abu Lahab, wasu daga cikin ‘yan uwansa sun yi mafarki, suka gan shi yana shan azaba a cikin wuta. Ya gaya musu cewa bai sami jin daɗi a Lahira ba, amma an gafarta masa wahalhalun da ya sha "hakan" (yana nuna sarari tsakanin babban yatsan yatsa da ɗan yatsa) saboda aikin kirki guda ɗaya na lalata bawansa Thuwayba, wanda ya ɗan ɗanyi kaɗan. reno Muhammad a matsayin uwar reno.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Ibn Hisham note 97. Translated by Guillaume, A. (1955). The Life of Muhammad p. 707. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  2. Muhammad ibn Ishaq, Sirat Rasul Allah. Translated by Guillaume, A. (1955). The Life of Muhammad, p. 195. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  3. Muhammad ibn Ishaq, Sirat Rasul Allah. Translated by Guillaume, A. (1955). The Life of Muhammad, p. 195. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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  5. Muhammad ibn Saad, Tabaqat vol. 8. Translated by Bewley, A. (1995). The Women of Madina p. 24. London: Ta-Ha Publishers.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Ibn Ishaq/Guillaume p. 170.
  7. Ibn Saad/Bewley vol. 8 p. 37 (all three daughters are listed here, with Umm Jamil named as their mother).
  8. Ibn Ishaq/Guillaume pp. 159-160.
  9. Ibn Ishaq/Guillaume p. 161.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Ibn Saad/Bewley vol. 8 p. 25.
  11. Ibn Ishaq/Guillaume p. 314.
  12. Muhammad ibn Saad, Tabaqat vol. 3. Translated by Bewley, A. (2013). The Companions of Badr p. 32. London: Ta-Ha Publishers.
  13. Ibn Saad/Bewley vol. 8 p. 37.
  14. Ibn Ishaq p. 120.
  15. Ibn Ishaq/Guillaume p. 159.
  16. Ibn Ishaq/Guillaume p. 191.
  17. Ibn Ishaq/Guillaume pp. 194-195.
  18. Ibn Ishaq/Guillaume p. 291.
  19. Ibn Ishaq/Guillaume p. 310.