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Decolonization na Afirka

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Decolonization na Afirka
decolonization (en) Fassara
Bayanai
Nahiya Afirka
Taswirar mai motsi yana nuna tsarin yancin kai na ƙasashen Afirka, 1950–2011

Decolonisation na mulkin mallaka na Afirka wani tsari ne da ya gudana daga tsakiyar shekarun 1950 zuwa shekara ta 1975 a lokacin yakin cacar baka, tare da samun sauye-sauye na gwamnati a nahiyar yayin da gwamnatocin mulkin mallaka suka yi sauye-sauye zuwa kasashe masu cin gashin kansu. Tsarin ya kasance sau da yawa yana cike da tashin hankali, rikice-rikicen siyasa, tarzoma mai yaduwa, da shirya tawaye a cikin kasashen arewaci da na kudu da hamadar Sahara da suka hada da tawayen Mau Mau a Kenya ta Birtaniya, Yakin Aljeriya a Aljeriya na Faransa, Rikicin Kongo a Kongo Belgian, Yakin samun yancin kai na Angola a kasar Portugal Angola da juyin juya halin Zanzibar a masarautar Zanzibar da yakin basasar Najeriya a kasar Biafra mai neman ballewa. [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]

Fage[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kwatanta rikicin Afirka a shekarun 1880 da 1913, shekara ta gaba da yakin duniya na farko.

The " Scramble for Africa "tsakanin 1870 zuwa 1914 wani muhimmin lokaci ne na mulkin mallaka na Turai a Afirka wanda ya ƙare tare da kusan dukkanin Afirka, da albarkatun kasa, wanda wasu ƙananan ƙasashen Turai ke iko da su a matsayin mulkin mallaka. Ƴan tsere don tabbatar da ƙasa mai yawa tare da guje wa rikici a tsakanin su, an tabbatar da rabuwar Afirka a cikin yarjejeniyar Berlin ta 1885, ba tare da la'akari da bambance-bambancen gida ba.[6][7] Kusan dukkan kasashen Afirka kafin mulkin mallaka sun rasa ikonsu, sai dai kawai Laberiya (wadda aka zaunar da ita a farkon karni na 19 ta tsoffin bayin Amurkawa na Afirka) da Habasha (daga baya Italiya ta mamaye a 1936).[8] Biritaniya da Faransa suna da mafi girma a hannun jari, amma Jamus, Spain, Italiya, Belgium, da Portugal kuma suna da mazauna. [9] Tsarin cire mulkin mallaka ya fara ne a sakamakon yakin duniya na biyu kai tsaye. A shekarar 1977, kasashen Afirka 50 ne suka sami 'yancin kai daga turawan mulkin mallaka.[10]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. John Hatch, Africa: The Rebirth of Self-Rule (1967)
  2. William Roger Louis, The transfer of power in Africa: decolonization, 1940-1960 (Yale UP, 1982).
  3. Birmingham, David (1995). The Decolonization of Africa. Routledge. ISBN 1-85728-540-9
  4. John D. Hargreaves, Decolonization in Africa (2014).
  5. for the viewpoint from London and Paris see Rudolf von Albertini, Decolonization: the Administration and Future of the Colonies, 1919-1960 (Doubleday, 1971).
  6. Appiah, Anthony; Gates Jr., Henry Louis Gates (2010). Berlin Conference of 1884-1885 . www.oxfordreference.com . ISBN 978-0-19-533770-9 . Retrieved 11 January 2015.
  7. "A Brief History of the Berlin Conference" . teacherweb.ftl.pinecrest.edu . Archived from the original on 15 February 2018. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
  8. Evans, Alistair. "Countries in Africa Considered Never Colonized" . africanhistory.about.com . Archived from the original on 22 February 2015. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
  9. Empty citation (help)
  10. [1] Archived 10 October 2018 at the Wayback Machine , DECOLONISATION OF AFRICA. (2017). HISTORY AND GENERAL STUDIES.