Jamhuriyar Dominika

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Jamhuriyar Dominika
República Dominicana (es)
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Kirari «Dios, Patria, Libertad»
Suna saboda Santo Domingo (en) Fassara da Lima
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 18°48′N 70°12′W / 18.8°N 70.2°W / 18.8; -70.2

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Yawan mutane
Faɗi 10,403,761 (2013)
• Yawan mutane 213.76 mazaunan/km²
Harshen gwamnati Yaren Sifen
Labarin ƙasa
Bangare na Latin America (en) Fassara, Hispanic America (en) Fassara da Karibiyan
Yawan fili 48,670.82 km²
Wuri mafi tsayi Pico Duarte (en) Fassara (3,101 m)
Wuri mafi ƙasa Lake Enriquillo (en) Fassara (−45 m)
Sun raba iyaka da
Bayanan tarihi
Ƙirƙira 1844
Tsarin Siyasa
Gangar majalisa Congress of the Dominican Republic (en) Fassara
• President of the Dominican Republic (en) Fassara Luis Abinader (en) Fassara (16 ga Augusta, 2020)
• President of the Dominican Republic (en) Fassara Danilo Medina (en) Fassara (16 ga Augusta, 2012)
Ikonomi
Nominal GDP (en) Fassara 94,243,426,487 $ (2021)
Kuɗi Dominican peso (en) Fassara
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Kasancewa a yanki na lokaci
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Jamhuriya Dominacan

Jamhuriyar Dominican ( Spanish : República Dominicana ) ƙasa ce ta Latin Amurka a tsibirin Hispaniola na Tsibirin Karibiyan ; ƙasar Haiti na daga cikin ƙasashen tsibirin. Babban birninta, kuma mafi girma birni, shine Santo Domingo . Harshen ƙasar Spanish.[1]

Ƙasar tana cikin daular Spain har zuwa ƙarshen ƙarni na 18. A cikin ƙarni na 19, Faransa, Spain da Haiti suna iko da ita a lokuta daban-daban, kuma daga baya ta kasance mai cin gashin kanta. Amurka ta mamaye ta daga 1916 zuwa 1924. Jamhuriyar Dominican jamhuriya ce ta demokraɗiyya ta shugaban ƙasa. Ƙasar tana da yanayi mai zafi amma an canza ta ta hanyar haɓakawa da iskar kasuwanci ( iskar da ke fitowa daga arewa maso gabas, daga Tekun Atlantika ).

Mutanen Espanya sun kawo bayi na Afirka zuwa kasar.

Jamhuriyar Dominika na ɗaya daga cikin manyan masu samar da cacao.[2][3][4]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Christopher Columbus ya gano tsibirin Hispaniola a ranar 5 ga Disamba, 1492,[5] amma karo na farko da ya ga wani yanki na Jamhuriyar Dominika ta yanzu shine a ranar 4 ga Janairu, 1493 lokacin da ya ga wani yanki da ya kira Monte Cristi ("Mountain"). na Kristi). Ana kiran wannan dutsen yanzu El Morro kuma yana kusa da birnin Monte Cristi .

Daga Monte Cristi, Columbus ya tafi gabas tare da arewacin bakin tekun tsibirin kuma a ranar 6 ga Janairu, bayan ya ziyarci Samaná Bay, ya koma Spain . A tafiyarsa ta biyu zuwa Amurka, ya kafa birnin Turai na farko a nahiyar, La Isabela, kusa da birnin Puerto Plata na yanzu.

Daga baya, Bartholomew Columbus ya kafa birnin Santo Domingo, birni mafi tsufa na Turai a cikin Amurka. Daga nan, Mutanen Espanya da yawa sun tafi cinye wasu tsibiran ( Cuba, Jamaica, Puerto Rico ). Domin Cuba ta fi kusa da nahiyar, mutane da yawa sun ƙaura daga Hispaniola, sannan zuwa nahiyar. Saboda haka, yawan mutanen tsibirin ya karu a hankali. Ta Yarjejeniyar Ryswick a 1697, Spain ta ba da yammacin ukun na tsibirin ga Faransa kuma ta kiyaye gabas, don haka tsibirin yana da yankuna biyu daban-daban: Faransanci Saint-Domingue da Spain Santo Domingo . A shekara ta 1795, Faransa ta sami dukan tsibirin amma kawai sun iya sarrafa yankin gabas saboda Haiti ta sami ƴanci ba da daɗewa ba. A 1809, gwamnatin Faransa ta mayar da tsohon mulkin mallaka na "Santo Domingo" zuwa Spain.

A ranar 1 ga Disamba 1821, Laftanar Gwamna José Núñez de Cáceres ya ayyana ƴancin kai daga Spain. Sabuwar ƙasar tana da suna Estado Independiente del Haití Español ("Ƙasar Haiti mai zaman kanta ta Spain"). Amma a ranar 9 ga Fabrairun 1822, sojojin Haiti suka mamaye kasar kuma suka zauna tsawon shekaru 22. Juan Pablo Duarte ya kafa ƙungiyar asiri, La Trinitaria, don yin yaki don 'yancin kai na Dominican. Aikin Haiti ya ƙare a ranar 27 ga Fabrairu 1844, lokacin da mazaunan gabashin yankin Hispaniola suka yi sabuwar ƙasa mai suna República Dominicana ("Jamhuriyar Dominika"). Daga 1861 zuwa 1865, ƙasar ta sake zama ƙasar Sipaniya. A ranar 16 ga Agusta 1863 ya fara yaƙin Maidowa lokacin da Dominicans suka yi yaƙi don sake samun ƴanci. Yaƙin ya ƙare a shekara ta 1865 sa’ad da Mutanen Espanya suka bar ƙasar kuma Jamhuriyar Dominican ta sake zama ƙasa mai ƴanci.

Amurka ta mamaye ƙasar daga 1916 zuwa 1924. A shekara ta 1930, Rafael Trujillo ya zama shugaban ƙasar ta hanyar juyin mulki . Trujillo ya kasance azzalumin kama- karya, inda ya kashe dubban mutane, daga cikinsu akwai ’yan Haiti da yawa. An kashe Trujillo a shekara ta 1961. Bayan mutuwar Trujillo, an zabi Juan Bosch a 1962 kuma ya zama, a cikin 1963, zababben shugaban kasa na farko tun 1930. Amma Bosch ya kwashe watanni bakwai kawai yana mulki. A shekarar 1965, an yi yakin basasa tsakanin wadanda ke son Bosch ya dawo kan karagar mulki da kuma wadanda ke adawa da shi. Sannan Amurka ta sake mamaye kasar.

Tun daga ƙarshen yaƙin basasa, shugabannin Jamhuriyar Dominika sun kasance:

  • Joaquín Balaguer (1966-1978)
  • Antonio Guzman (1978-1982)
  • Salvador Jorge Blanco (1982-1986)
  • Joaquín Balaguer (1986-1996)
  • Leonel Fernández (1996-2000)
  • Hipólito Mejía (2000-2004)
  • Leonel Fernández (2004-2012)

Gwamnati[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Jamhuriyar Dominican jamhuriya ce ta demokraɗiyya ta shugaban ƙasa. Gwamnati ta kasu kashi uku: Zartarwa, majalisa da kuma ɓangaren shari'a . Bangaren zartaswa ya kunshi shugaban kasa, mataimakin shugaban ƙasa da kuma ministoci wadanda ake kira Sakatarorin Gwamnati . Shugaban kasa shine shugaban kasa kuma shugaban gwamnati kuma ana zabar shi duk bayan shekaru 4. Ya naɗa majalisar ministoci. Shugaban ƙasa na yanzu shine Luis Abinader.

Reshen Majalisar yana yin dokoki kuma ya ƙunshi Majalisa, wanda ke Santo Domingo, babban birnin Jamhuriyar Dominican. Majalisa ta kasu kashi biyu: Majalisar Dattawa mai wakilai 32 (daya na kowane lardi daya na gundumomi na kasa), sai kuma majalisar wakilai mai wakilai 178.[6]

Sashen shari’a ya ƙunshi kotunan ƙasar, ciki har da Kotun Koli na Shari’a.[7]

Siyasa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Jamhuriyar Dominika ƙasar dimokuradiyya ce ta tsarin mulki da shugaban kasa ke mulki . Ana zaben shugaban kasa duk bayan shekaru 4. Shugaban na yanzu shine Luis Rodolfo Abinader Corona, na PRM.

Akwai muhimman jam'iyyun siyasa 3 a Jamhuriyar Dominican:

  • PRD : Jam'iyyar Juyin Juya Hali ta Dominican (Spanish: Partido Revolucionario Dominicano ). PRD jam'iyyar gurguzu ce. An kafa jam'iyyar ne a shekara ta 1939 a birnin Havana na kasar Cuba . An kafa shi a Jamhuriyar Dominican a cikin 1961.
  • PRSC : Social Christian Reformist Party (Spanish: Partido Reformista Social Cristiano ). Jam'iyya ce mai ra'ayin mazan jiya wacce Joaquín Balager ya kafa a shekarar 1964, wanda ya kasance shugaban Jamhuriyar daga 1966 zuwa 1978 da 1986-96.
  • PLD : Jam'iyyar Dominican Liberation Party (Spanish: Partido de la Liberación Dominicana ) ya kasance ɗan gurguzu lokacin da aka kafa shi a 1973; a halin yanzu jam'iyya ce mai sassaucin ra'ayi .

Ƙasa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Akwai sarƙoƙin tsaunuka da yawa a cikin Jamhuriyar Dominika. Manyan sarkoki guda hudu, daga Arewa zuwa Kudu, su ne:

  1. Cordillera Septentrional (a Turanci, "Arewa Tsaunuka"), kusa da Tekun Atlantika.
  2. Cordillera Central (a Turanci, "Tsakiyar tsaunuka") wanda ke ci gaba zuwa arewacin Haiti inda ake kira Massif du Nord . Duwatsu mafi tsayi na yammacin Indiya suna cikin wannan sarƙar; Pico Duarte, tare da 3,087 m, shine mafi girma. Manyan koguna na Hispaniola suna da tushen su a cikin wannan tsaunuka.
  3. Sierra de Neiba .
  4. Sierra de Bahoruco, wanda aka fi sani da Haití a matsayin Massif de la Selle .

Tsakanin waɗannan tsaunuka, akwai ƙwaruruka masu muhimmanci, kamar:

  • Kwarin Cibao (Jamhuriyar Dominika) ita ce kwari mafi girma kuma mafi mahimmanci na ƙasar. Wannan dogon kwari ya taso daga Arewacin Haiti zuwa Samaná Bay, kudu da Cordillera Septentrional.
  • Kwarin San Juan da Filin Azua manyan kwari ne a kudancin Cordillera Central.
  • Hoya de Enriquillo ko kwarin Neiba wani kwari ne mai bushewa a kudu da Saliyo de Neiba.
  • Llano Costero del Caribe (a cikin Ingilishi, "Plain Coastal Plain") yana kudu maso gabashin ƙasar. Wani katafaren daji ne a gabas da Santo Domingo . A cikin wannan fili akwai shuke-shuken sukari masu mahimmanci.

Akwai wasu ƙananan kwari a cikin tsaunuka: Constanza, Jarabacoa, Bonao, Villa Altagracia.

Koguna hudu mafi mahimmanci na Jamhuriyar Dominican sune Yaque del Norte, Yuna, Yaque del Sur da Ozama . Akwai tafkuna da yawa; mafi girma shine tafkin Enriquillo, a cikin Hoya de Enriquillo .

Mutane[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Yawan jama'a ya canza a Jamhuriyar Dominican.

Jamhuriyar Dominika tana da jimillar yawan jama'a, wanda aka kiyasta a watan Yuli 2009, na mazaunan 9,650,054, ga yawan mazaunan 236.30 a kowace km².

Kusan 64% na mutanen Dominika suna zaune a birane da garuruwa kuma 87% na mutanen da suka kai shekaru 15 ko fiye suna iya karatu da rubutu.

Manyan biranen biyu sune Santo Domingo (babban birni) mai mazauna 1,817,754, da Santiago, a cikin kwarin Cibao kuma tare da mazauna 908,250.

Ƙirar ƙabilanci na mutanen Dominika yana kusa da 85% Mulatto & Black, 14% Fari da 1% na Asiya.

  • Mulatto Dominicans: Yawancinsu zuriyar Kudancin Turai ne da Afirka ta Yamma, amma suna da ƴan asalin asalin Taino.
  • Mestizo Dominicans: Yawancinsu zuriyar Kudancin Turai ne da ƴan asalin tsibirin Hispaniola; wasu daga cikinsu suna da 'yan asalin Yammacin Afirka da Afirka ta Tsakiya.
  • Black Dominicans: Su zuriyar ’yan Afirka ta Yamma ne waɗanda aka kawo su a matsayin bayi don yin aiki galibi akan noman rake. Yawancin zuriyar Dominicans na Afirka ana iya samo su zuwa ƙasashen yammacin Afirka kamar Ghana, Kamaru, da Angola.
  • White Dominicans: Yawancinsu zuriyar Mutanen Espanya ne, Fotigal, da Faransanci. Yawancin zuriyar Dominicans na Turai sun fito ne daga tsibirin Canary da Kudancin Spain, yayin da wasu da yawa suka fito daga Portuguese, Galiciyawa, Asturiyawa, da Faransawa.
  • Dominican Asiya: Su ne mafi ƙanƙanta ƙabilu a cikin Jamhuriyar Dominican. Yawancin su sun samo asali ne daga lardunan gabar tekun Kudancin China da Japan. Wasu daga cikinsu an gauraye su da ’yan Dominican da ba na Asiya ba.
  • Dominicans ƴan asalin ƙasar: galibinsu zuriyar mutanen Taino ne waɗanda suka tsira zuwa ƙarni na farko na mulkin mallaka na Turai, bauta ko cututtuka. Suna da asali daban-daban na asali fiye da yawancin Dominicans, amma suna da al'adu iri ɗaya tare da mulatto da mestizo Dominicans. Mafi yawansu sun samo asali ne daga Tsawon tsaunuka na tsakiya, da tsaunin Neiba da wasu kwaruruka a yankunan Arewa da Kudu.

Larduna[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An raba Jamhuriyar Dominican zuwa larduna 31. Babban birnin kasar Santo Domingo de Guzmán yana cikin Distrito National wanda yake kamar lardin kuma ya zaɓi Sanata ɗaya.

Taswirar lardunan Jamhuriyar Dominican.
  1. Azuwa
  2. Baoruco
  3. Barahona
  4. Dajabón
  5. Duarte
  6. Elias Piña
  7. El Seibo
  8. Espaillat
  9. Hato Mayor
  10. Independence
  11. La Altagracia
  12. La Romana
  13. La Vega
  14. María Trinidad Sánchez
  15. Monseñor Nouel
  16. Monte Cristi
  1. Monte Plata
  2. Pedernales
  3. Peravia
  4. Puerto Plata
  5. Hermanas Mirabal
  6. Samana
  7. Sánchez Ramírez
  8. San Cristóbal
  9. San José de Ocoa
  10. San Juan
  11. San Pedro de Macoris
  12. Santiago
  13. Santiago Rodríguez
  14. Santo Domingo
  15. Valverde



    </br> D. N. - Distrito Nacional

Tattalin Arziki[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Jamhuriyar Dominican tana da tattalin arzikin gauraye wanda ya dogara ne akan aikin noma, ayyuka (ciki har da yawon shaƙatawa da kuɗi ), kasuwanci da kuɗin da aka aiko daga Dominican da yawa waɗanda ke zaune a wasu ƙasashe ( Amurka, Turai ). Ayyukan noma (yafi yawan rake, tare da ƙananan kofi, cacao, da taba) shine babban aikin tattalin arziki amma yanzu ya kasance a matsayi na uku bayan yawon shakatawa da masana'antu a zonas francas (" yankuna masu kyauta "inda masana'antu ba sa biyan haraji kuma duk ana aikawa da samarwa zuwa wasu ƙasashe).

Haƙar ma'adanai na da matuƙar mahimmanci a harkar tattalin arzikin ƙasar.

Jamhuriyar Dominican na fama da talauci, inda kashi 83.3% na al'ummar kasar ke rayuwa kasa da layin talauci a shekarar 2012. Rarraba dukiyar ba ta daidaita: 10% mafi arziki suna samun kusan kashi 40% na kuɗaɗen shiga na ƙasa.

Al'adu[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Al'adun Jamhuriyar Dominican, kamar sauran ƙasashen Karibiyan haɗuwa ne na al'adun Taíno, Afirka da Turai (yafi Mutanen Espanya ).

Babu al'adun Taíno da yawa a cikin al'adun Dominican na zamani; wurare da yawa suna ajiye sunayensu Taíno: Dajabón, Bánica, Haina, Yaque, Samaná, da dai sauransu. Hakanan abubuwa da yawa, tsirrai da dabbobi suna da asalin Taíno kuma an haɗa sunayensu cikin wasu harsuna; misali: canoa ( kwalekwale, ƙaramin jirgin ruwa ), hamaca ( hammock, gado mai sauƙi), maíz ( masara, masara ), yuca ( rogo, wanda ya fito daga kalmar Taíno casabe, irin burodin rogo da ake ci a cikin Caribbean), da batata ( dankali mai dadi ).

Wannan cakuda al'adu daban-daban ya haifar da al'ada da aka sani da Creole (a cikin Mutanen Espanya: Criolla ), gama gari ga duk ƙasashe a cikin Caribbean, Louisiana da wasu sassa na Kudancin Amirka da Amurka ta Tsakiya .

Harsuna[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A Jamhuriyar Dominican, Mutanen Espanya ne kawai ake magana, duk da haka; akwai manyan harsuna 3 waɗanda kuma ake magana da su kamar Haitian Creole, Samana English, da kuma Yaren Yarbawa na Yammacin Afirka da aka fi sani da Lucumi da 'yan kaɗan ke magana. Akwai yare na gida ko patois wanda duk Dominicans ke magana - duba Dominican Spanish Creole . A cikin al'ummar Dominican Sinawa (wanda ya ƙunshi kusan mutane 60 000) tsofaffin ƙarni na ci gaba da magana cikin Sinanci na Mandarin da Sinanci na Cantonese .

Addinai[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Addinin hukuma shine Roman Katolika amma akwai ƴancin yin addini. Ƙungiyoyin Furotesta suna da mahimmanci, suna wakiltar kusan kashi 15% na yawan jama'a. Kowace shekara ana gudanar da manyan bukukuwa da ake kira fiestas patronales. Biki ne na Katolika don girmama tsarkakan Maɗaukaki na garuruwa da ƙauyuka; al'adar Mutanen Espanya ce a haɗa kowane gari tare da waliyyi na Katolika. Bukukuwan sun haɗa da hidimar coci, faretin tituna, ayyukan kashe gobara, gasar raye-raye da sauran ayyukan. Dominican Voodoo ko Santeria kuma ana yin su da yawa da kuma Dominican Palo, addinin Dominika Kongo, da sauransu.[8]

Al'adun Afirka suna da tasiri mafi ƙarfi a cikin al'adun Dominican, musamman a cikin harshe, addini, abinci, da kiɗa.

Hotuna[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Nassoshi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. "CIA – The World Factbook – Dominican Republic". Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Archived from the original on February 13, 2016. Retrieved June 4, 2007.
  2. Franco, César A. "La guerra de la Restauración Dominicana, el 16 de agosto de 1863" [The Dominican Restoration War, 16 August 1863] (PDF) (in Sifaniyanci). dgii.gov.do. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 24, 2015.
  3. Guerrero, Johnny (August 16, 2011). "La Restauración de la República como referente histórico" [The Restoration of the Republic as an historical reference] (in Sifaniyanci). El Día. Retrieved August 23, 2016.
  4. Sagas, Ernesto. "An Apparent Contradiction? Popular Perceptions of Haiti and the Foreign Policy of the Dominican Republic". Lehman College (Presented at the Sixth Annual Conference of the Haitian Studies Association, Boston, MA). Retrieved December 30, 2014.
  5. "Dominican Republic history". IExplore. Archived from the original on June 22, 2002. Retrieved January 21, 2010.
  6. "CIA Factbook: Dominican Republic". CIA Factbook. Archived from the original on 2016-02-13. Retrieved 2007-09-17.
  7. "Legalsystem". TheDominicanRepublic.net. Archived from the original on May 17, 2000. Retrieved January 21, 2010.
  8. "Dominican Republic". EvertCulture. Retrieved January 21, 2010.