Labarin kasa na Nijeriya

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Wikidata.svgLabarin kasa na Nijeriya
geography of geographic location (en) Fassara
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na geography of Africa (en) Fassara
Ƙasa Najeriya
Facet of (en) Fassara Najeriya
Wuri
 10°N 8°E / 10°N 8°E / 10; 8
Location of Nigeria

Najeriya kasa ce dake Yammacin Afrika. Nijeriya ta hada iyaka da Jamhuriyar Benin daga yamma, Chadi da Kamaru daga gabas, da kuma Nijar daga Arewacin kasar. Har wayau ta hada yanki da kasa me zaman kanta kuma Kasar mulkin Amurka wato Ambazonia a kudu maso yammacin kasar. Gabar tekun ta yana kwance a Gulf na Guinea daga kudu kuma


Najeriya na daga cikin yankuna masu zafi, inda yanayi ba shi da yanayi kuma yana da danshi sosai. Najeriyar na fama da yanayin yanayi sau hudu; waɗannan nau'ikan yanayi sau da yawa ana tsara su daga kudu zuwa arewa.

Yanayi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ranar ruwa a Kudu maso Gabashin Najeriya.

Ana samun yanayin damina a lokacin zafi, wanda kungiyar Köppen ta sanya shi a matsayin "Am", a yankin kudancin kasar. Wannan yanayin yana tasiri ne daga damina wacce ta samo asali daga Kudancin Tekun Atlantika, wanda iskar gas ta MT ta shigo da shi cikin kasar, iska mai dumi-dumi zuwa-kasa. Dumi da danshi mai danshi yana bashi kwarin guiwar hawan sama da samar da ruwan sama mai yawan gaske, wanda yake tattare da gurbataccen tururin ruwa cikin iska mai saurin tashi. Yanayin damina mai zafi yana da karamin zangon zafin jiki. Sannan jeren yanayin zafin kusan kusan tsayayyen shekara; Misali, Warri a yankin kudancin Najeriya ya sami akalla 28 °C (82.4 °F) don watan mafi zafi yayin da mafi ƙarancin zafin sa yake 26 °C (78.8 °F) a cikin watan mafi tsananin sanyi.

Yankin kudancin Najeriya yana fuskantar ruwan sama mai yawan gaske. Wadannan guguwa galibi suna isar da sako ne a yanayi saboda kusancin yankin da bel din kwatar kwata . Ruwan sama na shekara da ake samu a wannan yankin yana da ƙarfi sosai. Yankin Neja Delta yana karbar sama da 4,000 millimetres (157.5 in) na ruwan sama kowace shekara. Sauran kudu maso gabas suna karɓar tsakanin 2,000 zuwa 3,000 millimetres (118.1 in) na ruwan sama a shekara. Yankin kudu na Najeriya na fuskantar babban ruwan sama maxima wanda ke da hawan tsawan ruwan sama guda biyu, tare da dan gajeren lokacin rani da kuma lokacin rani mai tsayi yana faduwa tsakanin da bayan kowane kololuwa. Lokacin damina na farko yana farawa ne a cikin watan Maris kuma yana zuwa ƙarshen Yuli tare da ganiya a watan Yuni, wannan lokacin damina yana biye da ɗan gajeren hutu a watan Agusta wanda aka sani da hutun Agusta wanda shine gajeren lokacin rani da zai ɗauki makonni biyu zuwa uku a Agusta. Wannan hutun ya karye ta ɗan gajeren lokacin damina wanda zai fara a farkon farkon Satumba kuma zai kasance har zuwa tsakiyar Oktoba tare da lokacin ƙawancen ƙarshen Satumba. Arshen gajeren lokacin damina a cikin Oktoba yana bin dogon lokacin rani. Wannan lokacin yana farawa daga ƙarshen Oktoba kuma yana nan har zuwa farkon Maris tare da ƙarancin yanayin bushe tsakanin farkon Disamba da ƙarshen Fabrairu.

Yanayin savanna na wurare masu zafi (Aw) ko kuma yanayin damina da yanayi na rani na da fadi a yanki kuma ya mamaye mafi yawan yamma zuwa tsakiyar Najeriya, inda yake da tasiri sosai a yankin. Wannan yanayin yana sama da mafi yawan ƙasar kuma ana nuna shi ta hanyar keɓaɓɓun ruwan sama da lokacin rani tare da ƙwanƙolin lokaci guda da aka sani da iyakar bazara. Yanayin zafi ya haura 18 °C (64 °F) a duk shekara. Abuja, babban birnin Najeriya da aka samu a tsakiyar Najeriya, yana da yawan zafin jiki na 18.45 °C (65.21 °F) zuwa 36.9 °C (98.4 °F) da kuma ruwan sama kusan shekara 1,500 millimetres (59.1 in) tare da ruwan sama guda maxima a watan Satumba. [1] Lokacin rani na faruwa ne daga Disamba zuwa Maris kuma yana da zafi da bushewarr ganye da itace tare da iska mai suna Harmattan, wani yanayin iska mai cike da nahiyoyi (CT) wanda ke dauke da ƙura daga Sahara, yana ci gaba a wannan lokacin.

Dangane da Yankin Haɗin Kai tsakanin Yankin da ke juyawa zuwa arewacin Afirka ta Yamma daga Kudancin Hemisphere a watan Afrilu, ruwan sama mai karfi da ke zuwa daga gajimare mai saurin isowa galibi a cikin hanyar layin kankara wanda aka fi sani da gabashin gabas da aka samar musamman sakamakon hulɗar mutanen biyu manyan iska a Najeriya wadanda aka fi sani da na wurare masu zafi na teku (kudu maso yamma) da kuma na yankuna na yankuna (arewa maso gabas), yana farawa ne a tsakiyar Najeriya yayin damuna suna isowa a watan Yuli, suna zuwa da danshi mai zafi, girgije mai nauyi da kuma ruwan sama mai karfi wanda zai kai har zuwa watan Satumba. lokacin da damina ke fara komawa kudu zuwa kudancin Najeriya. Jimillar ruwan sama a tsakiyar Najeriya ya bambanta daga 1,100 millimetres (43.3 in) a cikin filayen ƙasa zuwa sama da 2,000 millimetres (78.7 in) tare da rakiyar kudu maso yamma na Jos Plateau .

Yanayi mai tsananin zafi (BSh) ya fi yawa a yankuna masu yanayi na Sahel a arewacin Najeriya. Jimlar ruwan sama na shekara-shekara ba su da yawa. Lokacin damina a yankin arewacin Najeriya na tsawan watanni uku zuwa hudu (Yuni – Satumba). Sauran shekara yana da zafi da bushe tare da yanayin zafi mai hawa sama da 40 °C (104.0 °F) . Potiskum, jihar Yobe a arewa maso gabashin Najeriya ya kasance mafi ƙarancin yanayin zafi na Nijeriya wanda 2.8 °C (37.0 °F) .

Ana samun yanayin na Alphine a tsaunuka ko yanayin tsaunuka ko yanayin tsaunuka a yankuna masu tsaunuka a Najeriya. Hawan tsaunuka masu tsaunuka masu tsayi a Najeriya, sun fi 1,520 metres (4,987 ft) sama da matakin teku. Saboda wuri a cikin yankuna masu zafi, wannan tsayi ya isa sosai don isa layin yanayi mai yanayi a cikin yankuna masu zafi ta yadda zai baiwa tsaunuka, tsaunuka da yankuna masu tuddai waɗanda ke tsaye sama da wannan tsayi, yanayi mai sanyi mai sanyi.

Ruwan sama[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ruwan sama a yankin gabar tekun Neja Delta na da karfi sosai kamar da bakin kwarya a saboda kusancinsa da Delta dake kusa da equator. Yawan ruwan sama na shekara-shekara ya bambanta daga 2,400 zuwa milimita 4,000.

Biranen Neja Delta da ruwan sama da suke samu duk shekara a milimita:

  • Warri - 2,730 mm
  • Forcados (garin bakin teku a yankin Niger Delta) - 4,870 mm
  • Fatakwal - 2,400 mm
  • Calabar (birni na bakin teku) - 3,070 mm (birni mafi ƙarancin ruwa sama da mutane sama da miliyan a Najeriya)
  • Bonny (kudu da Fatakwal) - 4,200 mm

Ire-Iren Guguwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tropical. Maritime air mass[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tropical maritime air mass; (MT) wato iskar guguwa me zafi wanda ke tasowa daga teku, shine ke da alhakin lokacin damina a Najeriya. Wannan iska tana farawa ne a watan Fabrairu a yankin kudancin Najeriya yayin da yake daukar tsawon lokaci kafin iskar ta mamaye dukkan kasar, har ta isa arewacin Najeriya a watan Yuni. Kasancewar ta sakamakon komawar arewa na Harmattan. Komawa daga arewa na yawan iska mai dauke da iska (CT) yana faruwa ne sanadiyyar canjin arewa daga can arewa daga canjin filaye na canjin kudu a yankin kudu zuwa yankin daji na cancer a arewacin arewa . Wannan jujjuyawar yana farawa ne daga watan Fabrairu kuma yana ƙarewa a watan Yuni, lokacin da rana ta cika sama a yankin na cancer. A wannan wannan hijirar ta arewa da rana sakamakon duniya tana karkata tare da fadinta, rana tana ratsa mahada (kusan Maris), tana tafiya a yammacin Afirka. Yammacin Afirka yana zuwa kai tsaye ƙarƙashin rana a wannan lokacin. Duk Afirka ta Yamma tana cikin zafin gaske sakamakon karuwar insolation . Yanayin zafin jiki na iya hawa sama da 35 °C (95.0 °F) akan Afirka ta Yamma a wannan lokacin. Yanayin zafi a arewacin Najeriya zai kai 48 °C (118.4 °F) a birane kamar Maiduguri .

Yanayi me tsananin zafi haɗe da karin hasken rana ya haifar da yanki na mai takura a Afirka ta Yamma da Najeriya tsakanin Maris zuwa Mayu. Yawan iska mai zafi daga Sahara ya raunana saboda zafin yanayin ƙasa. Wannan turawar zafi daga baya yana sanya yanayi ya fadada ya zama mai haske. Yawan iska ya rasa karfi a cikin watan Fabrairu a yankin kudancin Najeriya zuwa Yuni a arewacin Najeriya kuma ya fara ja da baya tare da tashin iska ta hanyar isar da iska a cikin wannan iska, wanda ke kara raunana ikon iska a Yammacin Afirka. Yawan iska daga ƙarshe ya ja baya daga yawancin Najeriya a cikin watan Afrilu zuwa Mayu. Hasken rana yana shiga cikin yanayin Najeriya fiye da yadda yake yi lokacin Harmattan, wanda ya ƙunshi ƙura da hayaƙi. Dumama yankin Yammacin Afirka yana haifar da yanki mai matsin lamba akan Yammacin Afirka. Wannan karamin yankin matsi yana taimakawa ci gaban iskar ruwan teku mai zafi daga kudancin Tekun Atlantika.

Hawan ruwan teku mai zafi yana da dumi, danshi mai iska mai iska . Hanyoyin canzawa suna gudana a cikin iska duk lokacin da aka sami rashin kwanciyar hankali a cikin iska sakamakon dan kadan zuwa wani karin magana mai karfi a yankuna masu tsaunuka kamar Obudu Plateau ko kuma dumama kasar wanda zai iya haifar da samuwar girgijen cumulonimbus wanda ke haifar da hadari. a cikin yanayin iska. A lokacin mamayar iskar ruwan teku mai zafi, safiya suna haske da rana, zafin rana na ƙasa a cikin safiya da maraice yana sanya hanyoyin ruwa, waɗannan raƙuman ruwa suna tashi tsaye, ana girgije cumulonimbus, kuma ana iya yin ruwan sama mai karfi da rana .

Iskar Afirka dake tasowa daga Gabas ya kasance wani babban mai ba da gudummawar ruwan sama a lokacin watannin bazara daga watan Mayu zuwa Satumba. Yanayin wannan kalaman ya canza a kusan digiri 15 arewa latitude. Raƙuman ruwa da suka ratsa kudu da wannan latitiude suna ɗauke da danshi kuma suna haifar da isarwar da take kaiwa ga gajimare Matsayin Najeriya a wani yanki mai dausayi daga kudu maso gabas mai digiri 15 a sararin samaniya yana haifar da yanayin damina mai danshi, musamman a lokutan damuna.

iska mai zafi dake tasowa daga Sahara[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Haɗin iska mai zafi, wanda ake kira da suna Harmattan, iska ce da ta samo asali daga Arewacin Afirka wanda ya ratsa Sahara zuwa Afirka ta Yamma. Wannan tarin iska ya mamaye yanayin Najeriya a lokaci na rani daga Disamba zuwa Maris. Haɗin iska mai zafi na ƙasa yana da ƙura kuma yana haifar da hazo a cikin yanayin lokacin da ya mamaye. Hazo yana faruwa ne sakamakon ƙurar da ke cikin iskar da ke iyakance ganuwa da kuma toshe yawancin hasken rana daga isa zuwa duniya. Hakanan isasshen iska ne wanda aka kafa akan ƙasa a wani yanki kusa da ekweita. Yawan iska gaba daya bashi da hazo tunda yana samuwa a cikin Sahara, yana samar da turbaya maimakon danshi. Guguwat iska yana haifar da ƙarancin gani wato "hazo" wanda ke kawo cikas ga sufuri, amma kasancewar sa yana kawo ɗan sauƙi ga manoma tun da ƙarancin ƙanshi da ke cikin iska yana saurin bushe amfanin gonar su.

Yanayin Jiki (zafi/sanyi)[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Lokacin yanayin Najeriya da bambancin zafin yanayi ana tantance su ne ta hanyar ruwan sama tare da lokacin damina da kuma rani kasancewar sune manyan yanayi a Najeriya. Lokacin damina na Najeriya yana kawo yanayi mai sanyaya a cikin kasar sakamakon karin girgije wanda yake aiki a matsayin toshewar hasken rana na yankuna masu zafi ta hanyar toshe mafi yawan hasken rana a lokacin damina; wannan kuma yana sanya ƙasar sanyi, kuma iskokin da ke sama da ƙasa suna da sanyi saboda haka suna sanya yanayin sanyi a lokacin damina. Amma da yamma a lokacin damina na iya zama da zafi da danshi. A lokacin damina akwai damshi, kuma yawan ruwan sama yawanci yana da yawa.

Lokacin rani na Najeriya lokaci ne na dan karancin gajimare a yankin kudancin Najeriya zuwa kusan babu wani girgije da ke rufe yankin arewacin Najeriya. Rana tana haskakawa ta hanyar yanayi tare da samun cikas kadan daga sararin samaniya wanda ke sanya lokacin rani a Najeriya lokacin yanayi na dumi. A tsakiyar lokacin rani a watan Disamba, ƙurar da Harmattan ta shigo da ita tana toshe fitilun rana, wanda ke rage zafin rana. Amma tare da janyewar wannan iska a tsakanin Maris zuwa Afrilu biyo bayan shigowar lokacin damina, yanayin zafi na iya zuwa 44 °C (111.2 °F) a wasu sassan Najeriya.

Yanayin yanayi mai sanyi a tsakiyar tsaunukan tsakiyar Najeriya sama 1,200 metres (3,937 ft) a saman tekun, wato Jos Plateau . Yanayin zafi a tsaunin Jos yakai tsakanin 16 ° C zuwa 25 ° C waɗanda suke da sanyi duk shekara. Yanayin yanayi na yanayi na faruwa a tsaunukan da ke kan iyakar Najeriya da Kamaru, a gabashin Najeriya. Tsawon tsaunuka a cikin wannan yankin suna samun matsakaicin tsayi fiye da 1,524 metres (5,000 ft) ga wasu tsaye sama 2,000 metres (6,562 ft) sama da matakin teku. Yanayi a waɗannan tsaunuka yana da yanayin Temperate wato matsakaici a zafi da kuma sanyi duk shekara. Manyan tsaunuka a wannan yankin sune Obudu Plateau sama da 1,584 metres (5,197 ft), Mambilla Plateau sama da 1,524 metres (5,000 ft) da kuma Mt. Chappal Waddi sama da 2,000 metres (6,562 ft)

Tsarin kasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Topography na Najeriya

Najeriya tana mafi daukaka a tsarin kasa akan sauran yankuna masu ratse kamar yankin Nijar da kuma Benue River kwaruruka, wanda a cikin juna da kuma samar da wani "y" siffa mahaɗar tsakãninsu a Lokoja . Filaye sun tashi zuwa arewacin kwari. Don da kudu maso yamma da Nijar akwai "mai karko" Highland, kuma zuwa kudu maso gabas da Benue duwãtsu, kuma duwãtsu aka samu duk hanyar zuwa iyakar kasar da Kamaru. Ana samun filayen bakin teku a duka kudu maso yamma da kudu maso gabas.

Neja Delta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yankin Neja Delta yana nan a kudancin Najeriya. Yana daya daga cikin manyan rafuka masu sifa mai ban sha'awa a duniya. Yankin kogin Neja Delta yanki ne na bakin gulbi wanda yake iyaka da tekun Atlantika. A gulbin mangrove ake vegetated tidal flats kafa ta a reticulate juna na juna meandering creeks da aikin gandu na Nijar River. Kusan kashi 70% na danyen mai da iskar gas daga Najeriya ne.

Kayan lambu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Taswirar ciyayi ta Najeriya.

Najeriya tana da nau'ikan tsirrai iri uku: gandun daji (inda akwai murfin itace mai mahimmanci), savannahs (ƙananan bishiyoyi masu banƙyama, tare da ciyawa da furanni da ke tsakanin bishiyoyi), da ƙasar montane (mafi ƙarancin sananne kuma galibi ana samunsa a tsaunukan da ke kusa da iyakar Kamaru . Dukansu yankin daji da yankin savannah sun kasu kashi uku.

Wasu daga cikin yankunan dazukan kufu Some of the forest zone's most southerly portion, especially around the Niger River and Cross River deltas, is mangrove swamp. North of this is fresh water swamp, containing different vegetation from the salt water mangrove swamps, and north of that is rain forest.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. http://iahs.info/redbooks/a281/iahs_281_277.pdf