Muhammadu Bello

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(an turo daga Muhammed Bello)
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Muhammadu Bello
Muhammadu Bello 02.png
Title Sarkin Musulmi
Personal
Haihuwa 3 November 1781
Mutuwa 25 October 1837
Addini Islam[1]
Iyaye
Senior posting
Gada daga Usman dan Fodio
Magaji Abu Bakr Atiku, Dan uwa

Muhammed Bello (Larabci: محمد بلو) Shine sarki na biyu. Sarkin Musulmi[2] yayi mulki daga shekarar 1817 har zuwa shekarar 1837. Yakasance marubucin tarihi, wake, da Ilimin addinin Musulunci. Dan Usman dan Fodio ne kuma mai masa hidima, wanda shine ya kafa Daular Sokoto kuma shine Sultan (Sarkin Musulmi) na farko. Lokacin mulkin sa, ya karfafa da'awar yada Musulunci a dukkanin yanku nan Kasar Hausa, da tsarin karantar da mata da maza, da kuma kafa kotunan Musulunci, Ya rasu a watan October 25, shekarar 1837, kanin sa Abu Bakr Atiku ne ya gaje shi, daga nan sai dan sa mai suna Ali Babba bin Bello ya gaji sarautar a gurin Abu Bakr Atiku.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An haifi Muhammed Bello ne ga matar Usman dan Fodio ta huɗu, wacce aka fi sani da Hauwa ko Inna Garka, a shekarar 1781 [3] Kaman sauran 'yan uwansa, yana cikin karatun da mahaifinsa ya jagoranta a Degel har zuwa lokacin da aka fitar da dangi da wasu mabiyan. a cikin shekarar 1804. A shekarar 1809, Bello ne ya dauki nauyin kafuwar Sakkwato wanda zai zama babban birni ga mahaifinsa ya ci kasashen Hausa a yakin Fulani (1804-1810). [3]

Yawancin 'yan uwansa sun sadaukar da mahimmin lokaci don ƙoƙarin karatu kuma sun shahara sosai game da wannan. Fitattun daga cikinsu sune 'yar uwarsa Nana Asma'u, mawaƙi kuma malami, [4] da Abu Bakr Atiku, wanda zai gaje shi a matsayin Sultan. [5]

Sarauta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bayan yakin Fulanin, Kalifancin Sakkwato na ɗaya daga cikin manya-manyan jihohi a Afirka kuma ya ƙunshi ɗimbin yawan Fulani da Hausawa . Usman dan Fodio yayi kokarin danne tsarin Hausa sosai, gami da shugabanci na gargajiya, ilimi, da yare. [6] Usman ya yi ritaya daga shugabancin jihar a shekarar 1815 kuma ya sanya Muhammed Bello a kan wasu masarautu na yamma da Daular Khulafa. Bello ya Jagoranci wannan Masarautar ne daga garin Wurno kusa da Sokoto.

Bayan Mutuwar Dan-Fodio, an jefa Kalifanci cikin rudani lokacin da magoya bayan Bello suka zagaye tare da rufe kofofin Sakkwato, suna hana sauran fitattun masu gwagwarmaya zuwa ofishin Halifa (ciki har da kawun Bello Abdullahi Ibn Fodio) shiga garin. Halifancin daga karshe ya rabu zuwa bangarori hudu na cin gashin kai wanda bangarorin kawun Bello ne kawai ke mulki; Ya kamata Abdullahi Ibn Fodio ya gane kuma ya yi wa Bello mubaya'a[ana buƙatar hujja] .

Sultan Bello ya fuskanci kalubale na farko daga shugabannin da ba su yarda da shi ba da kuma sarakunan Fulani da na Hausawa. Ya bambanta da mahaifinsa, gwamnatinsa ta fi yarda da tsarin kasar Hausa da yawa wadanda suka kasance a gabanin halifancin. [7] [8] Ga jama'ar Fulanin, wadanda suka kasance makiyaya ne kafin wannan lokaci, Bello ya karfafa sasantawa ta dindindin game da kaddarar da aka tsara tare da makarantu, masallatai, kagarai, da sauran gine-gine. [9] Kodayake wannan yunƙurin ya kawo ƙarshen adawar da yawa, amma wasu jagororin ɓarna kamar 'Abd al-Salam da Dan Tunku sun ci gaba da haifar da adawa ga mulkin nasa da wuri. Dan Tunku ya ci gaba da kasancewa babban mai adawa a matsayin shugaban masarautar Kazaure . Duk da cewa Dan Tunku ya yi yaki tare da mahaifinsa a yakin Fulani, lokacin da Bello ya nada Ibrahim Dado Sarkin Kano a 1819, Dan Tunku ya shirya dakaru masu adawa a juyin juya hali. Bello ya taimaki Ibrahim Dado wajen fatattakar sojojin Dan Tunku da kuma gina manyan katanga a duk yankin da Dan Tunku ya jawo ikonsa. [9]

Bayan kawo karshen wasu adawa na farko, Sultan ya mayar da hankali kan karfafa gwamnatinsa a duk fadin masarautar tare da manyan gine-gine, sasantawa, da tsarin adalci na bai daya. [10] Wani mahimmin al'amari da ya fadada daga mahaifinsa ya fadada ilimin maza da mata sosai. 'Yar uwarsa, Nana Asma'u, ta zama muhimmiyar hanyar fadada ilimi ga mata ta zama muhimmiyar malama kuma mai cudanya da matan karkara don karfafa ilimi. [11]

A lokacin mulkin Muhammad Bello, El Hadj Umar Tall, wanda ya kafa daular Toucouleur nan gaba, ya zauna a Sakkwato bayan dawowarsa daga Makka a shekarar 1822. Sarkin Musulmi Muhammad Bello ya yi tasiri a kan Umar Tall sosai kamar yadda ya bayyana ta hanyar yabo da Tall ya yi wa Sarkin a cikin rubuce-rubucen nasa. [12] Don tabbatar da kawance na dindindin, Sultan Bello ya aurar da daya daga cikin ‘yarsa ga Haj Umar [13] wanda ya ci gaba da zama a Sokoto a matsayin alkali (qadi), kuma a matsayin babban kwamanda a rundunar sojan kasa har zuwa mutuwar Muhammadu Bello.

Ziyara[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hugh Clapperton ya ziyarci kotun Muhammadu Bello a shekarar 1824, kuma ya yi rubuce-rubuce da yawa game da karamci da hankali na Sarkin Musulmi. Clapperton ya gamsu sosai da rubuce-rubucen da Bello yake da shi da kuma cikakken iliminsa game da binciken Burtaniya a Indiya. [14] A 1826, Clapperton ya dawo ziyarar ta biyu, amma Bello bai barshi ya tsallaka iyaka ba saboda yaki da Daular Bornu kuma Clapperton yayi rashin lafiya ya mutu. [14]

A shekarar1836, masarautar Gobir ta yi wa mulkin Sakkwato tawaye. Sultan Muhammed Bello ya tattara rundunarsa ya murkushe ta a ranar 9 ga Maris 1836 a Yaƙin Gawakuke . [15]

Yayin da yake mulki, ya ci gaba da manyan abubuwan neman ilimi, akasari tarihi da shayari. Infaku'l Maisuri ( Hakkin Hakimai) galibi ana ɗaukarsa tabbataccen tarihin yaƙe-yaƙe na Fulani da daular mahaifinsa. [16] Ya yi rubuce-rubuce ɗaruruwan tarihi kan tarihi, karatun addinin Musulunci, da kuma waƙoƙi a lokacin rayuwarsa. [17]

Mutuwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ya mutu ne sanadiyyar dabi'a, yana da shekara 58, 25 ga watan Oktoba, shekarar 1837 a Wurno [18] kuma dan uwansa Abu Bakr Atiku ne ya gaje shi a matsayin Sultan. [19]

Magabata
Usman dan Fodio
Sarkin Musulmi Na biyu
1815–1837
Magaji
Abu Bakr Atiku

Hadin waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bibiliyo[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • ·Warfare in the Sokoto Caliphate : historical and sociological perspectivesISBN0-521-21069-0OCLC2371710
  • ·The Sokoto Caliphate : history and legacies, 1804-2004. Bobboyi, H., Yakubu, Mahmood. (1st ed ed.). Kaduna, Nigeria: Arewa House. 2006. ISBN 978-135-166-7. OCLC 156890366.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. ISLAMIC CULTURE - AN ENGLISH QUARTERLY: "And say: My Lord! Increase me in knowledge – Qur’an" Archived 2016-03-04 at the Wayback Machine Vol. LIV No.4 - OCTOBER 1980
  2. cite book|author=Wilks,Ivor. Wangara, Akan, and Portuguese in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries|editor1-last=Bakewell|editor1-first=Peter|title=Mines of Silver and Gold in the Americas|date=1997|publisher=Variorum, Ashgate Publishing Limited|location=Aldershot|pages=17
  3. 3.0 3.1 Boyd, Jean (1986). Mahdi Adamu (ed.). Pastoralists of the West African Savanna. Manchester, UK: International African Institute.
  4. John H. Hanson (2012). Elias Kifon (ed.). The Wiley-Blackwell Companion to African Religion. West Sussex: Blackwell. pp. 365–376.
  5. Mikaberidze, Alexander (2011). Conflict and Conquest in the Islamic World. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.
  6. Mikaberidze, Alexander (2011). Conflict and Conquest in the Islamic World. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.
  7. Empty citation (help)
  8. Boyd, Jean (1986). Mahdi Adamu (ed.). Pastoralists of the West African Savanna. Manchester, UK: International African Institute.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Empty citation (help)
  10. Mikaberidze, Alexander (2011). Conflict and Conquest in the Islamic World. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.
  11. Boyd, Jean (2005). Encyclopedia of Women & Islamic Cultures. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill.
  12. Empty citation (help)
  13. Roberts, Richard L (1987). Warriors, Merchants, and Slaves. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. ISBN 9780804766135.
  14. 14.0 14.1 Kemper, Steven (2012). A Labyrinth of Kingdoms: 10,000 Miles Through Islamic Africa. New York: W.W. Norton.
  15. Last, Murray (1967). The Sokoto Caliphate. New York: Humanities Press. pp. 74–5.
  16. Empty citation (help)
  17. Mikaberidze, Alexander (2011). Conflict and Conquest in the Islamic World. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.
  18. John Renard, ed. (2009). Tales of God's Friends: Islamic Hagiography in Translation. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. External link in |title= (help)
  19. Mikaberidze, Alexander (2011). Conflict and Conquest in the Islamic World. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.


Sarakunan Sokoto
Usman Dan Fodiyo | Muhammadu Bello | Abubakar Atiku | Ali Babba bin Bello | Ahmadu Atiku | Aliyu Ƙaramin | Ahmadu Rufai | Abubakar II Atiku na Raba | Mu'azu | Umaru bin Ali | Abderrahman dan Abi Bakar | Muhammadu Attahiru I | Muhammadu Attahiru II | Muhammadu dan Muhammadu | Hassan dan Mu'azu Ahmadu | Siddiq Abubakar III | Ibrahim Dasuki | Muhammadu Maccido | Sa'adu Abubakar