Nana Asma'u

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StarIconGold.png Mukala mai kyau
Simpleicons Interface user-outline.svg Nana Asma'u
Nana Asma'u Calligraphy 03.png
Rayuwa
Haihuwa Daular Sokoto, 1793
ƙasa Najeriya
Mutuwa Daular Sokoto, 1864
Yan'uwa
Mahaifi Usman Dan Fodiyo
Karatu
Harsuna Turanci
Pidgin na Najeriya
Sana'a
Sana'a Mai Falsafa, maiwaƙe, marubuci da Masu kirkira
Imani
Addini Musulunci

Nana Asma’u (Nana Asmaʼu bint Shehu Usman dan Fodiyo , Larabci: نانا أسماء بنت عثمان فودي‎; haihuwa 1793–1864) an haifeta ne shekara ta 1793, a garin Degel da yanzu take a Sokoto, shekaru goma sha daya kafin fara Jihadin mahaifinta, Shehu Usman Dan Fodio, ta kasance sarauniya, makaranciya kuma mai rera waƙoƙi, Ba ita kadai aka Haifa ba, Nana Asma’u ‘yan biyu ce, abokin tagwaitakarta sunansa Hasan. Ita mahaifinta ya zabi ya sanya mata Asma’u ne, saboda sunan Asma bint Abi Bakr, ‘ya a wajen Sayyadina Abubakar (Allah Ya kara yarda da su)[1]

Farkon rayuwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Nana Asma’u ta girma a hannun matan mahaifinta, Aisha da Hauwa (Mahaifiyar dan uwanta Muhammadu Bello, bayan rasuwar mahaifiyarta a shekarar 1795. Wato tarihi ya nuna, shekarunta biyu kenan a duniya, mahaifiyarta ta rasu.Nana Asma’u ta auri Usman Gidado a shekarar 1807. Sun tashi daga Degel sun koma Sokoto a shekarar 1809, bayan gina garin da dan’uwanta Muhammad Bello ya yi. A shekarar 1810 ne, Allah Ya albarkaci Nana Asma’u da haihuwar danta na farko, mai suna AbdulKadir. Bayan shi, Nana Asma’u ta haifi ‘ya’ya uku, Kamar mahaifinta.

Ilimi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Nana Asma’u jajirtacciya ce, mai ilimi Addinin Musulunci, kuma mahaddaciyar Alkur’ani mai girma. Kamar yadda tarihi ya nuna, Nana Asma’u da ‘yan’uwanta Myram da Fatima, da kuma iyayenta Aisha da Hawwa (Matan Shehu Usman Fodiyo), sun bayar da gagarumar gudummuwa wajen yadawa da ciyar da addini Musulunci gaba ta hanyar rubuta wakoki da wa’azi ga mata. Haka nan, fitacciya marubuciya ce kwarai da gaske, a fannin da ya shafi hukunce-hukuncen addinin Musulunci da shari’a da sauransu. Nana Asma'u t kasan ce tana jin yare hudu, Hausa, Fulani, Larabci da kuma yaran Tuareg.[2] A fannin ilimin harshen Larabci, Nana Asma’u ba baya ba ce, don kuwa tana da shi sosai. Ba a fagen Ilimi Nana Asma’u kadai ta tsaya ba; a fagen Jarunta ma, ba a bar ta a baya ba, domin kuwa ta halarci yake-yake da dama da mahaifinta ya yi, wannan ne ma ya sa.Bayan rasuwar mahaifinta, Shehu Usman Ɗan Fodio da Nana Asma’u da Bello sun taka rawar gani wajen samar da ilimi akan mata. Nana Asma’u tana tara mata tana karantar dasu addini.[3]

Mulki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Nana Asma’u ta zama mataimakiya ta musamman ga dan’uwanta sabon Kalifa, Muhammad Bello. Kuma a wannan gwamnati, tana daga cikin masu rubuta takardu da ake aikawa sauran Sarakunan garuruwan Musulmai.[4] A kokarinta da kishinta na ganin cewa, mata sun zama mutane, Nana Asma’u ta mayar da hankali matuka-gaya wajen ilimantar da mata.

Bunkasa harkokin mata[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Wannan ya sa, a wajejen shekarar 1830, ta kirkiri wata kwarya-kwaryar gidauniyar Malaman Musulunci Mata, da aka kira da ‘Jajis’ suka rika shiga gida-gida suna karantar da ‘yan’uwansu mata addinin Musulunci; musamman Alkur’ani mai girma, littattafan Tauhidi da Fikhu, da sauransu. Wannan aiki ya taimaki rayuwar mata kwarai wajen sanin addinin Musulunci. A hankali, Nana Asma’u ta fadada aikin, har zuwa wasu yankunan.[5][6] Nana Asma’u ta yi aikace-aikace da dama da tarihi ba zai iya mantawa da ita ba, wannan ya sa, aka samu Kungiyoyin Mata da dama, da Makarantu da Dakunan Tarukan Musulunci, ana sanya musu sunanta; musamman a Arewacin Nigeria, da wasu Kasashen Musulmi a Africa.[7]

Litattafan ta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Wasu daga cikin manyan ayyukanta, sun hada da:

  • Rubuta Alkur’ani Mai Girma
  • Fassara Alkur’ani Mai Girma
s/n Filatanci Hausa Larabci
1 Mantore Aranɗe Alhinin mutuwar Halima. Mursalat Al-Sha’ar
2 Sannore Giɗaɗo Wa’azi Tanbih Al-ghafilin
3 Hulni-nɗe Kiran Ahmada. Tabshir Al-Ikhwan
4 Ɓegore Murna kan Nasarar Yaƙi Qasida Min Asma’u[8]
5 Gawakuke Ma’unɗe

Waƙe[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Wannan ya sa, galibin rubuce-rubucenta na wakoki, ta yi su ne, cikin harshen Larabci, sai Fulatanci da harshen Hausa da kuma harshen Tuareg (wani harshe ne da wasu kabilu da ke zaune a Niger da Mali da Algeria da Libya da Burkina Faso, ke amfani da shi). ta rubuta wata waka mai suna ‘Wakar Gewaye’ don bayyana irin abubuwan da ta gani da idanunta.[9][10][11]

Mutuwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Nana Asma’u ta rasu a shekarar 1864 (amma wani tarihin ya nuna a shekarar 1863) dai-dai da 1280 A.H.

Bibiliyo[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Bobboyi, H., Yakubu, Mahmood.The Sokoto Caliphate : history and legacies, 1804-2004. (1st ed ed.). Kaduna, Nigeria: Arewa House. 2006. ISBN 978-135-166-7. OCLC 156890366.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. http://www.historynaked.com/nana-asmau/
  2. https://muslimheritage.com/ode-to-nana-asmau-voice-and-spirit/
  3. Bobboyi, H., Yakubu, Mahmud.(2006). The Sokoto Caliphate: history and legacies, 1804-2004, 1st Ed.374
  4. Jean Boyd and Murray Last quote the Algerian scholar Ismael Hamet writing for a French audience in 1898, lamenting the "Ligues Feministes d'Europe" did not know of Nana Asma'u's legacy. See "The Role of Women as 'Agents Religieux' in Sokoto", p. 283.
  5. David Westerlund wrote: "She continued to be a source of inspiration to the present day." Mary Wren Bivins, Telling Stories, Making Histories: Women, Words, and Islam in Nineteenth-Century Hausaland and the Sokoto Caliphate. London: Heinemann, 2007.
  6. Beverly B. Mack, "Book Reviews", African Studies Review, Volume 33, Issue 2, September 1990, pp. 219–220.
  7. Excerpt from Mack, Beverly B., and Jean Boyd, One Woman’s Jihad: Nana Asma’u, Scholar and Scribe. Includes two translated poems of Nana Asma'u
  8. Bobboyi, H., Yakubu, Mahmood. (2006). The Sokoto Caliphate : history and legacies, 1804-2004.p.391-292 (1st ed ed.). Kaduna, Nigeria: Arewa House. 2006. ISBN 978-135-166-7. OCLC 156890366
  9. https://www.thecable.ng/sokotos-religious-moderation-rich-lesson-troubled-world
  10. Boyd, Jean (1989). The Caliph's Sister: Nana Asma'u 1793–1865: Teacher, Poet and Islamic Leader. London: Frank Cass & Co. Ltd. ISBN 0-7146-4067-0.
  11. Boyd, Jean (1989). The Caliph's Sister: Nana Asma'u 1793–1865: Teacher, Poet and Islamic Leader. London: Frank Cass & Co. Ltd. ISBN 0-7146-4067-0.