Omar al-Mukhtar

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Simpleicons Interface user-outline.svg Omar al-Mukhtar
Omar Mukhtar 13.jpg
Rayuwa
Haihuwa Cyrenaica (en) Fassara, 20 ga Augusta, 1858
ƙasa Libya
Mutuwa Libya, 16 Satumba 1931
Makwanci Suluq (en) Fassara
Q31069643 Fassara
Yanayin mutuwa kisan kai (rataya)
Sana'a
Sana'a Shehu, Mai kare Haƙƙin kai da Mayaƙi
Imani
Addini Mabiya Sunnah
Omar al-Mukhtar's Signature2.png

Omar al-Mukhtar Muhammad bin Farhat al-Manifī (Larabci: عُمَر الْمُخْتَار مُحَمَّد بِن فَرْحَات الْمَنِفِي an haife shi a ranar 20 ga watan Agustan shekarar 1858 - 16 ga Satumba 1931), wanda ake kira Zakin Hamada, wanda aka sani tsakanin Turawan mulkin mallaka a matsayin Matari na Mnifa, shi ne jagoran gwagwarmaya na asali a Cyrenaica ( Gabashin Libya a yau) a ƙarƙashin Senussid, a kan Italiyanci mulkin mallaka na Libya . Babban malami ya juya zuwa janar, Omar shima fitaccen ɗan gwagwarmaya ne na ƙungiyar Senussi, kuma ana masa kallon jarumin ƙasar Libya kuma alama ce ta tsayin daka a duniyar Larabawa da Musulunci . Farawa a cikin 1911, ya shirya kuma, kusan shekaru ashirin, ya jagoranci gwagwarmayar Libya akan daular mulkin mallaka na Italia a lokacin Bala'in Libya . Bayan an yi ƙoƙari da yawa, Sojojin Italiya sun sami nasarar kama Al-Mukhtar kusa da Solonta kuma sun rataye shi a cikin Shekaran 1931.

Rayuwar farko[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

'Omar Al-Mukhtar an haife shi ne a cikan shekarar 1858 a wani gida a garin Zanzur kusa da Tobruk, a yankin Ottoman Cyrenaica, na 'yan Senussi (waɗanda ake gani kamar Ashrafs na Libya ) ɗan dangin Larabawa ne kamar Sarki ko Sarki Idris es Senussi, daga ƙarshe ya zama shugaba ko shugaban dangi. Tun yana yaro Omar ya rasa mahaifinsa tun da wuri, kuma ya yi ƙuruciyarsa a cikin talauci, wani babban malami ya karɓe shi, kuma ya kasance abokai ga ɗan gidan Hussein Ghariani, Sharif al Geriani. Kawun nasa ya kasance shugaban addini-na siyasa a Cyrenaica, kuma ya yi karatunsa na farko a masallacin yankin, kafin ya ci gaba da karatunsa na shekara takwas a jami'ar Senussi da ke Jaghbub, [1] birni mai tsarki na Senussi Tariqa, Ya zama sananne. masani kan Al-Qur'ani kuma limami, wanda ya hada kai da sirrin Senussi, shi ma ya samu kyakkyawar sanarwa game da tsarin zamantakewar al'ummarsa, tunda aka zabe shi don sasanta rikice-rikicen tsakanin kabilu.

Mukhtar ya kulla kyakkyawar alaka da ƙungiyar Senussid a tsawon shekarun da yacika Jaghbub, a shekarar 1895, Al-Mahdi Senoussi ya yi tafiya tare da shi kudu zuwa Kufra, a wani lokaci kuma ya kara kudu zuwa Karo da ke Chadi, inda aka nada shi a matsayin shehun Zawiyat Ayn Kalk, lokacin da Daular Faransa ta kutsa kai cikin Chadi a shekarar 1899 sai aka tura shi cikin wasu 'Yan Senussites don taimakawa kare Chadi daga Turawan Faransa, kamar yadda Senussi ya dauki fadadarsu mai hadari ne saboda ayyukansu na mishan a Afirka ta Tsakiya da Yammacin Afirka. A cikin 1902, an tuno da Omar a arewa bayan mutuwar Al-Mahdi, sabon shugaban Senussi Ahmed Sharif as-Senussi ya nada shi a matsayin Shehun Malaman Zawiyat Laqsur a Arewacin Cyrenaica.

Mamayar Italiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mamayar Italiya .

A watan Oktoba 1911, a lokacin Yaƙin-Turkawa, Regia Marina (Royal Navy na Italiya) ƙarƙashin jagorancin Admiral Luigi Faravelli sun isa gabar Libya, sannan yankin da ke ƙarƙashin ikon Ottoman . Babban hafsan ya bukaci gwamnatin Ottoman da rundunonin soja su ba da yankinsu ga Italiyanci ko kuma su halaka birnin Tripoli da Benghazi nan take . 'Yan Ottoman da kawayensu na Libya sun koma karkara maimakon mika wuya, kuma' yan Italiya din sun yi ruwan bama-bamai a biranen har na tsawon kwanaki uku, sannan suka yi shelar 'yan Tripoli din da cewa' sun sadaukar kuma sun hada kansu da Italia '. [2] Wannan shine farkon jerin yaƙe-yaƙe tsakanin sojojin mulkin mallaka na Italiya da na Libya masu adawa da makamai a Cyrenaica . [3]

Yaƙin basasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Omar Mukhtar ya dauki hoto tare da mayakan Senussi na Libya.

Mukhtar malamin koyar da Alkur'ani ne kuma ya kware a dabaru da dabarun yakin sahara . Ya san labarin ƙasa sosai kuma ya yi amfani da wannan ilimin don cin nasara a yaƙe-yaƙe da Italiya, waɗanda ba su saba da yaƙin hamada ba. Mukhtar ya ci gaba da jagorantar kananan kungiyoyin sa, wadanda ke fadakarwa sosai wajen kai hare-hare kan Turawan, bayan haka kuma za su koma cikin jeji. Sojojin Mukhtar sun yi amfani da gwaninta wajen kai hari a kan rundunonin sojoji, suka yiwa sojoji kwanton bauna, suka datse hanyoyin isar da sako da sadarwa. Regio Esercito (Sojan Sojan Italiya) ya kasance yana cike da mamaki da kunya game da dabarun yaƙinsa. [4]

A yankin tsaunuka na Jebel Akhdar ("Karayen Tsaunuka") a shekarar 1924, gwamnan Italia Ernesto Bombelli ya kirkiro da wata kungiyar 'yan tawaye wacce ta haifar da mummunan koma baya ga sojojin' yan tawayen a watan Afrilun 1925. Daga nan Mukhtar ya gyara dabarun nasa cikin sauri kuma ya iya dogaro da ci gaba da taimako daga Masar . A watan Maris, 1927, duk da mamayar Giarabub daga watan Fabrairun 1926 da kuma ƙara tsananta mulki a ƙarƙashin Gwamna Attilio Teruzzi, Mukhtar ya ba sojojin Italiya mamaki a Raheiba . Tsakanin 1927 da 1928, Mukhtar ya sake tsara ayyukan sojojin Senus, wadanda 'yan Italia ke ci gaba da farautar su. Koda Janar Teruzzi ya fahimci halaye irin na Omar na "tsayin daka da karfin iko."  Marshal Pietro Badoglio, Gwamnan Libya daga watan Janairun 1929, bayan tattaunawar da aka yi ta sasantawa da Mukhtar (waɗanda Italiyan ta bayyana a matsayin cikakkiyar sallamarsa) kwatankwacin yarjejeniyar Ital-Senusite da ta gabata. A karshen Oktoba, 1929, Mukhtar ya yi tir da sulhu kuma ya sake kafa hadin kai a tsakanin sojojin Libya, yana shirya kansa don fuskantar babban rikici da Janar Rodolfo Graziani, kwamandan sojojin Italiya daga Maris 1930. Wani mummunan farmaki a cikin Yuni a kan sojojin Mukhtar ya gaza, Graziani, bisa cikakkiyar yarjejeniya da Badoglio, Emilio De Bono (Ministan Kasashe), da Benito Mussolini, sun fara wani shiri na karya Mujāhideen na Libya: Za a sauya mazaunan Jebel Akhdar 100,000. zuwa sansanonin da ke bakin teku, kuma za a rufe iyakar Libiya da Masar daga gabar da ke Giarabub, ta hana duk wani taimako na kasashen waje ga mayaka tare da hana su tallafi daga ‘yan asalin kasar. Wadannan matakan, wanda Graziani ya fara a farkon 1931, ya ci nasara a kan tsaurin Senusid. An hana 'yan tawayen taimako da karfafawa, da leken asirin, jirgin saman Italiya ya buge, kuma sojojin Italiya suka bi sawunsu a ƙasa tare da masu ba da sanarwar na gida da masu haɗin gwiwa. Mukhtar ya ci gaba da gwagwarmaya duk da ƙarin wahala da haɗari, amma a ranar 11 ga Satumbar 1931, an yi masa kwanton bauna kusa da Slonta .[Ana bukatan hujja]

Babban abokin gaba na Mukhtar, Janar din kastar Italiya Rodolfo Graziani, ya ba da bayanin shugaban Sanatan wanda ba shi da rashi girmamawa: An baiwa Omar hankali da saurin fahimta; ya kasance masani a cikin lamuran addini, kuma ya bayyana halayyar kuzari da hanzari, rashin son kai da sassauci; kyakkyawan, ya zauna sosai addini da matalauta, ko da yake ya kasance daya daga cikin alama mafi muhimmanci ta Senusis. " [5]

Kamawa da aiwatarwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Omar Mukhtar yana shiga dakin kotu.

Gwagwarmayar Mukhtar na kusan shekaru ashirin ta zo ƙarshe a ranar 11 ga Satumbar 1931, lokacin da aka ji masa rauni a yaƙi a kusa da Slonta, sannan sojojin Italiya suka kama shi. A ranar 16 ga Satumban 1931, bisa umarnin kotun Italiya tare da fatan Italia cewa juriya ta Libya za ta mutu tare da shi, an rataye Mukhtar a gaban mabiyansa a fursuna Suluq na sansanin yaki yana da shekaru 73 a duniya.

Girmamawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Fadan Omar Mukhtar a Caracas, Venezuela .
  • An kafa Jami'ar Omar Al-Mukhtar ne a 1961.
  • Tun daga 1971, fuskar Mukhtar ta bayyana a takardar Libya ta cinikin dinari goma.
  • An nuna shekarunsa na ƙarshe a fim ɗin Lion of the Desert (1981), tare da Anthony Quinn, Oliver Reed, da Irene Papas . Hakan ya ta'allaka ne akan gwagwarmayar da Mukhtar yayi da sojojin Rodolfo Graziani .
  • Wata sanarwa da mutumin da aka yi amfani da ita a fim din ya kame harsuna da kunnuwa miliyoyin Musulmai, نحن قوم لا نستسلم ، ننتصر أو نموت‎ . . . '' Mu mutane ne da ba za mu mika wuya ba, mu ci nasara ko mu mutu. ''
  • A shekarar 2009, shugaban Libya Muammar Gaddafi ya sanya hoton Mukhtar a hannun wadanda ake tsare da shi a kirjinsa a lokacin da yake ziyarar aiki a Rome, sannan ya taho da tsohon dan Mukhtar a yayin ziyarar.
  • Tare da yakin basasar Libya da ya fara a ranar 17 ga Fabrairu 2011, Omar Mukhtar ya sake zama wata alama ta hadin kai, Libya mai 'yanci kuma an zana hotonsa a kan tutoci da fastoci daban-daban na' yancin Libiya. Dakarun 'yan tawaye sun sanya wa daya daga cikin bataliyar su sunan "brigade na Omar Mukhtar" a bayan sa. [6]
  • An sanyawa wani masallaci sunan Mukhtar a Tampa, Florida, Amurka, wanda aka fi sani da Masjid Omar Al Mokhtar.
  • An sanya wa tituna sunan Mukhtar a cikin:
    • Kuwait City, Kuwait (titin Omar Al-Mukhtar)
    • Garin Gaza ( Titin Omar Mukhtar )
    • Alkahira, Misira (Titin Omar Al Mukhtar)
    • Yankin Yammacin Bay na Doha, Qatar (Omar Al Mukhtar Street)
    • Bizerte, Tunisia
    • Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (Hanyar Omar Al Mukhtar)
    • Irbid, Jordan
    • Tangier, Maroko (Avenue Omar Mokhtar)

Hotuna[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Rodolfo Graziani, "Cirenaica Pacificata" pg.269 (Benamer translation)
  2. Bruce Vandervort, p. 261
  3. Encyclopedia of World Biography on Omar al-Mukhtar, BookRags.com
  4. Libya profile - Timeline, BBC News Africa, 1 November 2011
  5. Rodolfo Graziani, "Cirenaica Pacificata" pg.265
  6. "Kwafin ajiya". Archived from the original on 2011-08-01. Retrieved 2021-02-02.

Hanyoyin haɗin waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]