Vladimir Horowitz

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Simpleicons Interface user-outline.svg Vladimir Horowitz
Vladimir Horowitz 1986.jpg
Rayuwa
Cikakken suna Владимир Самойлович Горовиц
Haihuwa Kiev, 18 Satumba 1903 (Julian)
ƙasa Tarayyar Amurka
Russian Empire (en) Fassara
Kungiyar Sobiyet
Mutuwa New York, 5 Nuwamba, 1989
Makwanci monumental cemetery of Milan (en) Fassara
Yanayin mutuwa Sababi na ainihi (Ciwon zuciya)
Ƴan uwa
Abokiyar zama Wanda Toscanini (en) Fassara
Ahali Regina Horowitz (en) Fassara
Karatu
Makaranta Petro Tchaikovsky National Music Academy of Ukraine (en) Fassara
Harsuna Turanci
Malamai Felix Blumenfeld (en) Fassara
Sergey Tarnovsky (en) Fassara
Vladimir Pukhalsky (en) Fassara
Ɗalibai
Sana'a
Sana'a pianist (en) Fassara da mai rubuta kiɗa
Kyaututtuka
Artistic movement western classical music (en) Fassara
Kayan kida piano (en) Fassara
Jadawalin Kiɗa RCA Records, Inc. (en) Fassara
IMDb nm0395332
Horowitz Signature.png
Vladimir Horowitz, kwanan wata ba a sani ba
signature written in ink in a flowing script

Vladimir Samoylovich Horowitz[1] (October 1 [  – Nuwamba 5, 1989) [2] ɗan Ukrainian Ba'amurke ne na gargajiya na pianist kuma mawaki. Yana ɗaya daga cikin manyan ƴan wasan piano na kowane lokaci, [3] an san shi da fasaha na virtuoso, launin sautin, da kuma jin daɗin da ya haifar da wasansa. [4]

Rayuwa da farkon aiki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Takaddar haihuwar Vladimir Horowitz

An haifi Vladimir Horowitz a Kyiv, a lokacin tana karkashin wani yanki na daular Russia. Akwai da'awar cewa Horowitz an haife shi ne a Berdychiv (wani birni kusa da Zhytomyr a Ukraine), amma takardar shaidar haihuwarsa ta nuna babu shakka cewa Kyiv ita ce mahaifarsa.

Horowitz shi ne auta a cikin yara hudu na Samuil Horowitz da Sophia Bodik, waɗanda ake tsammani Yahudawa ne. Samuil ya kasance ƙwararren injiniyan lantarki kuma ya bada gudunmawa ga masana'antun Jamus. Kakan Horowitz Joachim ɗan kasuwa ne (kuma mai goyon bayan fasaha), na ƙungiyar 1st Guild, wanda ya keɓe shi daga zama a Pale of Settlement . An haifi Horowitz ne a shekara ta 1903, amma domin ya nuna cewa bai cika matashin yin aikin soja ba don kada ya yi kasadar lahani a hannunsa, mahaifinsa ya cire shekarun dansa na shekara guda da ikirarin cewa an haife shi a shekara ta 1904. Kwanan watan 1904 ya bayyana a cikin ayyukan tunani da yawa a lokacin rayuwar pianist.

Kawun Horowitz Alexander almajiri ne kuma aminin Alexander Scriabin . [5] Lokacin da Horowitz ya kasance 10, an shirya shi don buga wa Scriabin, wanda ya gaya wa iyayensa cewa yana da hazaka da fasaha sosai. [6]

Horowitz ya sami matsayin koyar da piano tun yana ƙarami, da farko daga mahaifiyarsa, wadda ita kanta ƴan wasan piano ce. A 1912 ya shiga Kyiv Conservatory, inda Vladimir Puchalsky, Sergei Tarnowsky, da Felix Blumenfeld suka koyar da shi. Karatun solo na farko shine a Kharkiv a cikin 1920.

Ba da dadewa ba Horowitz ya fara rangadin kasar Russia, inda ake biya shi da burodi, man shanu da cakulan maimakon kudi, saboda matsalar tattalin arziki da yakin basasa ya haifar. [7] A lokacin lokacin 1922–23, ya yi kide-kide 23 na shirye-shirye daban-daban goma sha daya a cikin Petrograd kadai. [7] Duk da nasarar da ya samu a farko a matsayin dan wasan pian, Horowitz ya ci gaba da cewa yana so ya zama mawaki kuma ya gudanar da aikinsa a matsayin dan wasan pian kawai don taimaka wa danginsa, wadanda suka yi asarar dukiyoyinsu a juyin juya halin Rasha .

A cikin Disamba 1925, Horowitz ya yi hijira zuwa Yamma, da alama don yin karatu tare da Artur Schnabel a Berlin amma a asirce ya yi niyyar ba zai dawo ba. Dan wasan piano mai shekaru 22 ya cusa dalar Amurka da fam na Burtaniya a cikin takalminsa don samun kudin gudanar da kide kide da wake-wakar sa na farko. [8]

Sana'a a Yammacin dunniya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Horowitz a 1931

A ranar 18 ga Disamba, 1925, Horowitz ya fara bayyanar a wajen ƙasarsa, a Berlin. Daga baya ya taka leda a Paris, London da New York City . Hukumomin Soviet sun zaɓi Horowitz don wakiltar Ukraine a gasar Chopin Piano ta kasa da kasa ta 1927 a Poland, amma ya yanke shawarar zama a Yammacin Turai don haka bai shiga ba.

Horowitz ya fara halarta a Amurka a ranar 12 ga Janairu, 1928, a Hall Hall Carnegie. Ya buga wasan kwaikwayo na Tchaikovsky 's Piano Concerto No. 1 a ƙarƙashin jagorancin Sir Thomas Beecham, wanda shi ma ya fara halarta a Amurka. Horowitz daga baya ya ce shi da Beecham suna da ra'ayoyi daban-daban game da lokaci kuma Beecham yana gudanar da maki "daga ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya kuma bai sani ba" yanki. [9] Kwatankwacin Horowitz da masu sauraronsa abu ne mai ban mamaki. Olin Downes, rubuce-rubuce ga The New York Times, ya kasance mai mahimmanci game da yakin da ake yi tsakanin jagoran da soloist, amma ya ba da Horowitz tare da kyakkyawan sautin waƙa a cikin motsi na biyu da kuma fasaha mai mahimmanci a cikin wasan karshe, yana kiran wasansa "guguwar iska da aka saki. daga steppes". [10] A cikin wannan wasan kwaikwayo na farko, Horowitz ya nuna alamar iyawa don faranta wa masu sauraron sa rai, ikon da ya kiyaye don dukan aikinsa. Downes ya rubuta cewa: "An kwashe shekaru da yawa tun lokacin da mai wasan pian ya haifar da irin wannan fushi tare da masu sauraro a wannan birni." A cikin bita na karatun solo na Horowitz, Downes ya kwatanta wasan pianist yana nuna "mafi yawan idan ba duka halayen babban mai fassara bane." [11] A cikin 1933, ya taka leda a karon farko tare da shugaba Arturo Toscanini a cikin wasan kwaikwayo na Beethoven's Piano Concerto No. 5 . Horowitz da Toscanini sun ci gaba da yin wasa tare sau da yawa, a kan mataki da kuma rikodin. Horowitz ya zauna a Amurka a cikin 1939 kuma ya zama ɗan Amurka a 1944. [12] Ya fara fitowar sa ta talabijin a cikin wani kade-kade da aka kade a Hall din Carnegie a ranar 1 ga Fabrairu, 1968, kuma CBS ya watsa a duk fadin kasar a ranar 22 ga Satumba na waccan shekarar.

Duk da liyafar da aka hada masa, Horowitz ya ƙara samun rashin tabbas game da iyawarsa matsayin ɗan wasan pian. A lokuta da dama, dole ne a tura mai wasan piano zuwa mataki. [7] Ya janye daga wasan kwaikwayon jama'a daga 1936 zuwa 1938, 1953 zuwa 1965, 1969 zuwa 1974, da 1983 zuwa 1985.

Rikodi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

See also: Vladimir Horowitz discography

 

Sauti na waje
audio icon</img> Kuna iya jin Vladimir Horowitz yana yin Johannes Brahms "Piano Concerto No. 2 in B-flat Major" tare da Arturo Toscanini yana gudanar da Orchestra na Symphony NBC a 1940. nan

A cikin 1926, Horowitz ya yi wasan piano da yawa a ɗakin studio na Welte-Mignon a Freiburg, Jamus. An yi rikodinsa na farko a Amurka don Kamfanin Injin Magana na Victor a 1928. Rikodin farko na Horowitz na Turai, wanda aka yi a cikin 1930 ta Muryar Jagoransa, RCA Victor na London wanda ke da alaƙa, ya kasance na Rachmaninoff 's Piano Concerto No. 3 tare da Albert Coates da Orchestra na Symphony na London, rikodin farko na duniya na wannan yanki. Ta hanyar 1936, Horowitz ya ci gaba da yin rikodi a Burtaniya don HMV na repertoire na solo piano, gami da asusunsa na 1932 na Liszt's Sonata a cikin ƙaramin B. Tun daga 1940, aikin rikodin Horowitz ya sake mayar da hankali ga RCA Victor a Amurka. A wannan shekarar, ya rubuta Brahms Piano Concerto No. 2, kuma a cikin 1941, Tchaikovsky Piano Concerto No. 1, duka tare da NBC Symphony Orchestra karkashin Toscanini. A 1959, RCA Victor bayar da live 1943 wasan kwaikwayo na Tchaikovsky concerto tare da Horowitz da Toscanini; gabaɗaya ana ɗauka cewa ya fi rikodin rikodi na 1941, kuma an zaɓi shi don Grammy Hall of Fame. A lokacin da yayi ritaya na biyu na Horowitz, wanda ya fara a cikin 1953, ya yi jerin rikodi a cikin gidansa na birnin New York, gami da LPs na Scriabin da Clementi . Rikodin sitiriyo na farko na Horowitz, wanda aka yi a cikin 1959, an sadaukar da shi ga Beethoven piano sonatas.

A cikin shekara ta 1962, Horowitz ya fara yin rikodin rikodin rikodin Columbia . Shahararrun sanannun su ne wasan kwaikwayo na dawowar sa na 1965 a Hall Hall Carnegie da kuma rikodin 1968 daga na musamman na talabijin, Vladimir Horowitz: Concert a Hall Carnegie, wanda CBS ya yi ta talabijin. Horowitz ya ci gaba da yin rikodin studio, gami da rikodin 1969 na Schumann's Kreisleriana, wanda aka ba shi Prix Mondial du Disk.

A cikin shekara ta 1975, Horowitz ya koma RCA kuma ya yi rikodin rikodi har zuwa 1983. Ya sanya hannu tare da Deutsche Grammophon a cikin 1985, kuma ya yi ɗakin studio da rikodin raye-raye har zuwa 1989, gami da rikodinsa kawai na Mozart's Piano Concerto No. 23 . An yi fina-finai na gaskiya guda huɗu waɗanda ke nuna Horowitz a wannan lokacin, gami da watsa shirye-shiryen talabijin na karatunsa na Afrilu 20, 1986 na Moscow. Rikodinsa na ƙarshe, na Sony Classical (tsohuwar Columbia), an kammala shi kwanaki huɗu kafin mutuwarsa kuma ya ƙunshi rubutun da bai taɓa yin rikodin a baya ba.

An fitar da duk wakokin Horowitz akan ƙaramin faifain CD, wasu lokuta da yawa. A cikin shekarun da suka biyo bayan mutuwar Horowitz, an fitar da CD ɗin da ke ɗauke da wasannin da ba a fitar da su a baya. Waɗannan sun haɗa da zaɓuka daga littattafan Carnegie Hall da aka rubuta a asirce don Horowitz daga 1945 zuwa 1951.

Dalibai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Horowitz ya koyar da dalibai bakwai tsakanin 1937 da 1962: Nico Kaufmann (1937), Byron Janis (1944-1948), Gary Graffman (1953-1955), Coleman Blumfield (1956-1958), Ronald Turini (1957-1963), Alexander Fiorillo (1960-1962) da Ivan Davis (1961-1962). [13] Janis ya bayyana dangantakarsa da Horowitz a lokacin a matsayin ɗan maye, kuma yakan yi tafiya tare da Horowitz da matarsa a lokacin yawon shakatawa. An gayyaci Davis don zama ɗaya daga cikin ɗaliban Horowitz bayan ya sami kira daga gare shi kwana ɗaya bayan ya ci gasar Franz Liszt. [14] A lokacin, Davis yana da kwangila tare da Columbia Records da yawon shakatawa na kasa da aka shirya. [14] Horowitz yayi ikirarin cewa ya koyar da dalibai uku ne kawai a wannan lokacin. “Yawancin matasa sun ce su almajiran Horowitz ne, amma uku ne kawai: Janis, Turini, waɗanda na kawo su fagen wasan, da kuma Graffman. Idan wani ya yi iƙirarin, ba gaskiya ba ne. Ina da wadanda suka yi min wasa tsawon wata hudu. Sau ɗaya a mako. Na daina aiki da su saboda ba su ci gaba ba.” [15] A cewar masanin tarihin Glenn Plaskin: "Gaskiyar cewa Horowitz ya yi watsi da yawancin ɗalibansa kuma ya ɓata gaskiyar game da lokutan nazarin su yana faɗi wani abu game da yanayin halinsa na kuskure a lokacin". [15] Horowitz ya koma horarwa a cikin 1980s, yayi aiki tare da Murray Perahia, wanda ya riga ya sami ingantaccen aiki, da Eduardus Halim .

Rayuwa ta sirri[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Horowitz a shekarar 1986

Template:Rquote A cikin 1933, a bikin farar hula, Horowitz ya auri Wanda Toscanini, 'yar Arturo Toscanini . Ko da yake Horowitz Bayahude ne kuma Wanda ya kasance Roman Katolika, wannan ba batu ba ne, domin babu ɗayansu da ya kasance masu lura da addini. Domin Wanda bai san Rashanci ba kuma Horowitz ya san ɗan Italiyanci kaɗan, harshensu na farko shine Faransanci . Horowitz ya kasance kusa da matarsa, wanda yana ɗaya daga cikin 'yan kaɗan daga wanda Horowitz zai yarda da zargi game da wasansa, kuma ta zauna tare da Horowitz lokacin da ya ki barin gidan a lokacin da yake ciki . Suna da ɗa ɗaya, Sonia Toscanini Horowitz (1934-1975). Ta samu mummunan rauni a wani hatsarin babur a shekarar 1957 amma ta tsira. Ta rasu a shekara ta 1975. Ba a tantance ko mutuwarta a Geneva ba, sakamakon yawan shan kwayoyi, ya kasance bisa kuskure ko kuma ta kashe kanta . [2]

Duk da aurensa, an sami jita-jita na cewa yana liwadi. [7] Arthur Rubinstein ya ce game da Horowitz cewa "[e] kowa ya san shi kuma ya yarda da shi a matsayin ɗan luwadi." [16] David Dubal ya rubuta cewa a cikin shekarun da ya yi tare da Horowitz, babu wata shaida da ke nuna cewa likitan octogenarian yana yin jima'i, amma "babu shakka yana da sha'awar jikin namiji kuma yana da wuya a yi jima'i a tsawon rayuwarsa." [17] Dubal yana jin cewa Horowitz ya ƙaddamar da ƙaƙƙarfan sha'awar jima'i a cikin wani yanayi mai ƙarfi na batsa da aka yi magana a cikin wasansa. [18] Horowitz, wanda ya musanta cewa shi ɗan luwadi ne, [19] ya taɓa yin barkwanci, “[t] a nan akwai ƴan wasan pian iri uku: ƴan pian na Yahudawa, ƴan pian ɗin ɗan luwadi, da miyagu pianists.

A cikin wata kasida ta mujallar The New York Times a watan Satumba na 2013, Kenneth Leedom, mataimaki na Horowitz na tsawon shekaru biyar kafin 1955, ya yi iƙirarin kasancewa masoyin Horowitz a asirce: "Mun sami rayuwa mai ban mamaki tare. . . Mutum ne mai wahala, ko kadan. Yana da fushi a cikinsa wanda ba shi da imani. Yawan abincin da na jefa a kasa ko a cinyata. Ya d'auko mayafin ya ciro daga teburin, duk abincin ya tashi. Ya yi fushi, da yawa. Amma sai ya nutsu da dadi. Mai dadi sosai, abin so. Kuma hakika ya ƙaunace ni.”

A cikin 1940s, Horowitz ya fara ganin likitan kwakwalwa don ƙoƙarin canza yanayin jima'i. A cikin 1960s da kuma a cikin 1970s, mai wasan pianist ya sami magani na electroshock don damuwa .

A cikin 1982, Horowitz ya fara amfani da magungunan da aka ba da izinin sha; akwai rahotannin cewa shima yana shan barasa. [2] Wasan nasa ya sami raguwar fahimta a wannan lokacin, [2] tare da wasan kwaikwayonsa na 1983 a Amurka da Japan wanda ya lalace ta hanyar ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya da asarar sarrafa jiki. Wani mai sukar Jafananci ya kwatanta Horowitz da "tabbatacciyar gilashin fure mai fashe." Ya daina wasa a bainar jama'a tsawon shekaru biyu.

Shekarun baya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Horowitz, tare da rakiyar matarsa Wanda Toscanini, ya karbi lambar yabo ta Shugaban kasa na 'Yanci daga Shugaba Ronald Reagan da Uwargidan Shugaban Kasa Nancy Reagan (suna gabatar masa)

A cikin 1985, Horowitz, baya shan magani ko shan barasa, ya koma yin aiki da wakokin. bayyanarsa na farko bayan ritaya ba a kan mataki ba, amma a cikin fim din fim Vladimir Horowitz: Ƙarshen Romantic . A yawancin wasan kwaikwayonsa na baya, ɗan wasan pian octogenarian ya maye gurbin finesse da launi don bravura, kodayake har yanzu yana da ikon yin fa'idar fasaha.[ana buƙatar hujja]Yawancin masu sukar, ciki har da Harold C. Schonberg , sun ji cewa wasan kwaikwayon na 1985 da rikodi sun kasance mafi kyawun shekarunsa na baya.[ana buƙatar hujja]

A 1986, Horowitz ya sanar da cewa zai koma Tarayyar Soviet a karo na farko tun 1925 don ba da recitals a Moscow da kuma Leningrad . A cikin sabon yanayi na sadarwa da fahimtar juna tsakanin USSR da Amurka, ana ganin waɗannan kide-kide a matsayin al'amuran siyasa, da kuma kida, mahimmanci. Yawancin tikitin wasan kwaikwayo na Moscow an kebe su ne don manyan Soviet kuma kaɗan ne aka sayar wa jama'a. Wannan ya haifar da da yawa daga cikin ɗaliban Conservatory na Moscow sun yi karo da wasan kide-kide, [20] wanda ke saurare ga masu kallon karatun talabijin na duniya. An fitar da wasan kwaikwayo na Moscow akan ƙaramin faifai mai suna Horowitz a Moscow, wanda ya yi sarauta a saman ginshiƙi na kiɗan gargajiya na Billboard sama da shekara guda. Hakanan an sake shi akan VHS kuma, a ƙarshe, DVD. Har ila yau, an ga taron kide-kide a kan Buga na Musamman na Labaran CBS Sunday Morning tare da rahoton Charles Kuralt daga Moscow.

Bayan wasannin kide-kide na Russia, Horowitz ya zagaya biranen Turai da dama, ciki har da Berlin, Amsterdam, da kuma London. A watan Yuni, Horowitz ya fanshi kansa ga Jafananci tare da wasan kwaikwayo guda uku da suka samu karbuwa a Tokyo. Daga baya a waccan shekarar an ba shi lambar yabo ta Shugaban Kasa na 'Yanci, babbar girmamawa ta farar hula da Amurka ta ba Shugaba Ronald Reagan .

Yawon shakatawa na karshe na Horowitz ya faru a Turai a cikin bazaran shekarar 1987. An sake yin rikodin bidiyo na karatun jama'a, Horowitz a Vienna, a cikin 1991. Karatunsa na ƙarshe, a Musikhalle Hamburg, Jamus, ya faru a ranar 21 ga Yuni, 1987. An yi rikodin wasan kwaikwayo, amma ba a sake shi ba sai 2008. [21] Ya ci gaba da yin rikodi har tsawon rayuwarsa.

Vladimir Horowitz ya mutu a ranar 5 ga watan Nuwamba, 1989, a birnin New York na ciwon zuciya, yana da shekaru 86. An binne shi a cikin kabarin dangin Toscanini a Cimitero Monumentale, Milan, Italiya.

Repertoire, fasaha da salon wasan kwaikwayon[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Horowitz a cikin 1986 a Concertgebouw a Amsterdam

Horowitz sananne ne don wasan kwaikwayonsa na Romantic piano repertoire. Mutane da yawa [22] sunyi la'akari da rikodin farko na Horowitz na Liszt Sonata a cikin ƙananan B a cikin 1932 don zama madaidaicin karatun wannan yanki, ko da bayan fiye da shekaru 75 da fiye da 100 wasanni da wasu pianists suka yi. [23] Sauran guda tare da abin da yake da alaƙa da su shine Scriabin's Étude a cikin ƙananan ƙananan ƙananan, Chopin's Ballade No. 1, da kuma yawancin Rachmaninoff miniatures, ciki har da Polka de WR . An yaba wa Horowitz saboda rikodin da ya yi na Rachmaninoff Piano Concerto No. 3, da kuma wasan da ya yi kafin Rachmaninoff ya ba wa mawaƙa, wanda ya ce "ya haɗiye shi gaba ɗaya. Yana da ƙarfin hali, ƙarfi, jajircewa”. Horowitz kuma an san shi da wasan kwaikwayonsa na natsuwa, ayyuka masu kusanci, ciki har da Schumann's Kinderszenen, Scarlatti's keyboard sonatas, keyboard sonatas ta Clementi da Mozart da Haydn sonatas da yawa. Rikodin nasa na Scarlatti da Clementi suna da daraja musamman, kuma ana yaba masa da cewa ya taimaka wajen farfado da sha'awar mawaƙan biyu, waɗanda ba a cika yin rubuce-rubucen ayyukansu ba a farkon rabin farkon ƙarni na 20.

A lokacin yakin duniya na biyu, Horowitz ya lashe kade-kaden wakokin Rasha na zamani, inda ya baiwa wakokin Amurkan na farko a Prokofiev's Piano Sonatas No. 6, 7 da 8 (wanda ake kira "War Sonatas") da Kabalevsky 's Piano Sonatas No. 2 da 3. Horowitz kuma ya ƙaddamar da Piano Sonata da na Samuel Barber .

An san shi da nau'ikan wakokin sa na yawancin Liszt's Hungarian Rhapsodies. An yi rikodin Rhapsody na biyu a cikin 1953, a lokacin bikin cika shekaru 25 na Horowitz a Carnegie Hall, kuma ya ce shi ne mafi wahala a cikin shirye-shiryensa. [2] Rubuce-rubucen bayanin kula na Horowitz sun haɗa da bambancin abubuwan da ya rubuta akan jigo daga Carmen da The Stars and Stripes Forever by John Philip Sousa . Ƙarshen ya zama abin da aka fi so tare da masu sauraro, waɗanda za su yi tsammanin aikin sa a matsayin ƙaddamarwa. Rubuce-rubucen a gefe, Horowitz baya adawa da canza rubutun abubuwan da aka tsara don inganta abin da ya ɗauka "rubutun da ba a so" ko kuma rashin tsari ba. A cikin 1940, tare da yardar mawaƙa, Horowitz ya ƙirƙiri bugun wasan nasa na Rachmaninoff's Piano Sonata na biyu daga sigar 1913 na asali da 1931 da aka bita, waɗanda 'yan wasan pian ciki har da Ruth Laredo da Hélène Grimaud suka yi amfani da su. Ya sake rubuta Hotunan Mussorgsky sosai a wani nunin don sa aikin ya fi tasiri a kan cewa Mussorgsky ba ɗan pian ba ne kuma bai fahimci yuwuwar kayan aikin ba. Horowitz kuma ya canza gajerun wurare a wasu ayyuka, kamar maye gurbin octaves masu haɗaka don ma'aunin chromatic a Chopin's Scherzo a cikin ƙananan B. Wannan ya bambanta da yawancin ƴan wasan pian na zamanin bayan–ƙarni na 19, waɗanda suka ɗauki sacrosanct rubutun mawaƙa. Mawaƙa masu rai waɗanda ayyukansu Horowitz ya buga (a tsakanin su Rachmaninoff, Prokofiev, da Poulenc ) koyaushe suna yaba ayyukan Horowitz na aikinsu ko da lokacin da ya ɗauki 'yanci tare da maki.

Tafsirin Horowitz ya samu karbuwa daga masu sauraron kade-kade, amma ba wasu masu suka ba. Virgil Thomson ya ci gaba da sukar Horowitz a matsayin "masanin murdiya da ƙari" a cikin sharhinsa da ke bayyana a cikin New York Herald Tribune . Horowitz ya yi iƙirarin ɗaukar kalaman Thomson a matsayin abin yabawa, yana mai cewa Michelangelo da El Greco su ma “masu iya karkacewa ne”. A cikin bugu na 1980 na Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians, Michael Steinberg ya rubuta cewa Horowitz "ya kwatanta cewa kyautar kayan aiki mai ban mamaki ba ta da garanti game da fahimtar kiɗa." Harold C. Schonberg, mai sukar kiɗa na New York Times, ya ce masu sharhi irin su Thomson da Steinberg ba su da masaniya game da ayyukan wasan kwaikwayo na ƙarni na 19 waɗanda ke sanar da tsarin kiɗan Horowitz. Yawancin ’yan pian (irin su Martha Argerich da Maurizio Pollini ) suna riƙe Horowitz da daraja sosai, da kuma ɗan wasan pian Friedrich Gulda suna kiran Horowitz a matsayin “over-Allah na piano”.

Salon Horowitz yakan ƙunshi bambance-bambance na masu ɗorewa, tare da ɗumbin nau'ikan fortissimos guda biyu suna biye da pianissimos kwatsam. Ya sami damar samar da ƙarar sauti mai ban mamaki daga piano ba tare da samar da sauti mai tsauri ba. Ya fitar da kewayon launi na tonal na musamman, kuma taut, madaidaicin harin ya kasance sananne har ma a cikin fassararsa na ɓangarorin da ba sa buƙatar fasaha kamar Chopin Mazurkas . An san shi da fasahar octave ; zai iya kunna madaidaicin sashe a cikin octaves da sauri da sauri. Lokacin da dan wasan pian Tedd Joselson ya tambaye shi yadda ya yi octaves, Horowitz ya ba da zanga-zanga kuma Joselson ya ruwaito, "Ya aikata su kamar yadda aka koya mana duka." [2] Harvey Sachs mai sukar kiɗa da tarihin rayuwa ya ƙaddamar da cewa Horowitz na iya kasancewa "mai cin gajiyar - kuma watakila ma wanda aka azabtar - na tsarin kulawa na tsakiya mai ban mamaki da kuma madaidaicin hankali ga launin sauti." [24] Oscar Levant, a cikin littafinsa The Memoirs of an Amnesiac, ya rubuta cewa octaves na Horowitz sun kasance "masu haske, daidai kuma sun kasance kamar harsashi." Ya tambayi Horowitz "ko ya tura su gaba ko ya dauke su tare da shi a yawon shakatawa."

Matsayin Horowitz ya kasance sabon abu domin dabino sau da yawa yana ƙasa da matakin saman maɓalli. Yana yawan buga kida da yatsu madaidaici, kuma dan yatsan hannun dama yakan dunkule har sai an buga rubutu; ga Harold C. Schonberg, "kamar yajin kurma ne." [2] Don duk jin daɗin wasansa, Horowitz da kyar ya ɗaga hannuwansa sama sama da allo na piano . Byron Janis, daya daga cikin daliban Horowitz, ya ce Horowitz ya yi kokarin koya masa wannan dabarar amma hakan bai yi masa aiki ba. Jikin Horowitz ba ya motsi, kuma ba kasafai fuskarsa ke nuna wani abu ba face tsananin maida hankali.

Horowitz ya fi son yin wasannin sa a ranakun Lahadi, saboda yana jin masu sauraro sun fi hutawa kuma sun fi mai da hankali fiye da maraice na ranar mako.

Kyaututtuka da karramawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kyautar Grammy don Mafi Kyawun Ayyukan Al'ada - Soloist Instrumental ko Soloists (tare da ko ba tare da ƙungiyar makaɗa ba)

  • 1968 Horowitz in Concert: Haydn, Schumann, Scriabin, Debussy, Mozart, Chopin (Columbia 45572)
  • 1969 Horowitz akan Talabijin: Chopin, Scriabin, Scarlatti, Horowitz (Columbia 7106)
  • 1987 Horowitz: Rikodin Studio, New York 1985 (Deutsche Grammophon 419217)

Kyautar Grammy don Mafi kyawun Ayyukan Soloist(s) Instrumental (tare da ƙungiyar makaɗa)

  • 1979 Ƙwallon Jubilee na Zinariya, Rachmaninoff: Piano Concerto No. 3 (RCA CLR1 2633)
  • 1989 Horowitz Yana Kunna Mozart: Piano Concerto No. 23 (Deutsche Grammophon 423287)

Kyautar Grammy don Mafi kyawun Ayyukan Soloist Instrumental (ba tare da ƙungiyar makaɗa ba)

  • 1963 Rikodin Columbia ya gabatar da Vladimir Horowitz
  • 1964 Sautin Horowitz
  • 1965 Vladimir Horowitz ya buga Beethoven, Debussy, Chopin
  • 1966 Horowitz a zauren Carnegie - Komawar Tarihi
  • 1972 Horowitz yana wasa Rachmaninoff (Etudes-Tableaux Piano Music; Sonatas) (Columbia M-30464)
  • 1973 Horowitz Plays Chopin (Columbia M-30643)
  • 1974 Horowitz Plays Scriabin (Columbia M-31620)
  • 1977 The Horowitz Concerts 1975/76 (RCA ARL1-1766)
  • 1979 The Horowitz Concerts 1977/78 (RCA ARL1-2548)
  • 1980 The Horowitz Concerts 1978/79 (RCA ARL1-3433)
  • 1982 The Horowitz Concerts 1979/80 (RCA ARL1-3775)
  • 1988 Horowitz a Moscow (Deutsche Grammophon 419499)
  • 1991 Rikodi na Ƙarshe (Sony SK 45818)
  • 1993 Horowitz Abubuwan Da Aka Gano: Chopin, Liszt, Scarlatti, Scriabin, Clementi (Sony 48093)

Kyautar Grammy don Kyautattun Album Na Gargajiya :

  • 1963 Rikodin Columbia ya gabatar da Vladimir Horowitz
  • 1966 Horowitz a Hall Carnegie: Komawar Tarihi
  • 1972 Horowitz Yana kunna Rachmaninoff (Etudes-Tableaux Piano Music; Sonatas)
  • 1978 Concert na Ƙarni tare da Leonard Bernstein (mai gudanarwa), New York Philharmonic, Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau, Vladimir Horowitz, Yehudi Menuhin, Mstislav Rostropovich, Isaac Stern, Lyndon Woodside
  • 1987 Horowitz: Rikodin Studio, New York 1985 (Deutsche Grammophon 419217)
  • 1988 Horowitz a Moscow (Deutsche Grammophon 419499)

Kyautar Nasarar Rayuwar Grammy, 1990

Prix Mondial du Disque

  • 1970 Kreisleriana

Kyaututtuka daban-daban

  • 1972 - Memba mai girma na Royal Academy of Music (London)
  • 1982 - Kyautar Gidauniyar Wolf don Kiɗa
  • 1985 - Commandeur de la Légion d'honneur daga Gwamnatin Faransa
  • 1985 - Order of Merit na Jamhuriyar Italiya
  • 1986 – Lambar Yanci na Shugabancin Amurka
  • 1988 - Jerin Ƙungiyoyin Bow Tie na Ƙasa na 10 Mafi Kyawun Bow Tie Wearers na 1988 [25]
  • 2012 - Gidan Fame na Gramophone

Bayanan kula[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

 

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. /ˈhɒrəvɪts/; Russian: Владимир Самойлович Горовиц; Yiddish: וולאַדימיר סאַמוילאָוויטש האָראָוויץ
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 Schonberg, 1992
  3. Time. Michael Walsh, The Greatest Pianist of All?, July 21, 2008. Retrieved on June 3, 2009.
  4. Dubal, 1989
  5. Scriabin, a Biography Faubion Bowers, p. 82
  6. A Little Nightmusic, Samuel Chotzinoff, p. 36 Harper & Row, 1964
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 Plaskin, 1983, pp. 52, 56, 338–37, 353.
  8. Horowitz interview with Charles Kuralt, CBS News Sunday Morning
  9. Videotaped interview, 1982, intemission feature from London recital
  10. Olin Downes, New York Times, January 13, 1928
  11. Olin Downes, New York Times, February 21, 1928
  12. Vladimir Horowitz on Encyclopedia.com, accessed 15 January 2010
  13. Plaskin, Glenn (1983) p. 10 "interviews with all six of Horowitz's students: Gary Graffman, Byron Janis, Ivan Davis, Ronald Turini, Coleman Blumfield, and Alexander Fiorillo"
  14. 14.0 14.1 Plaskin, Glenn (1983) p. 305 "...he also won the Franz Liszt Competition and received a surprise phone call from Horowitz the day after the announcement. ...with 60 concerts planned for his first cross-country tour and a CBS record contract, Davis intrigued Horowitz."
  15. 15.0 15.1 Plaskin, Glenn (1983) p. 300 "Many young people say they have been pupils of Horowitz, but there were only three. Janis, Turini, who I brought to the stage, and Graffman. If someone else claims it, it's not true. I had some who played for me for four months. Once a week. I stopped work with them, because they did not progress." "The fact that Horowitz disavowed most of his students and blurred the facts regarding their periods of study says something about the erratic nature of his personality during that period."
  16. Plaskin, 1983, p. 162
  17. Dubal, 1991, p. 16. "During the years I knew him, there were no signs of any sex life and very little talk on the subject. I personally doubt that he was capable of loving a man emotionally, but there was no doubt he was powerfully attracted to the male body and was most likely often sexually frustrated throughout his life."
  18. Dubal, 1991, pp. 16–17.
  19. Dubal, 1991, p. 251.
  20. Charles Kuralt liner notes for Horowitz in Moscow CD
  21. James Leonard, Horowitz in Hamburg: The Last Concert, [Review], AllMusic. (n.d.) (Retrieved 2021-03-06.)
  22. See, e.g., Joachim Kaiser and Klaus Bennert, Grosse Pianisten in Unserer Zeit (1997)
  23. "This colossal account of Liszt's great, arching tone-poem for piano...has never really been surpassed for technical authority." The Sunday Times, 3 January 2010
  24. Harvey Sachs, "Virtuoso", Thames and Hudson, 1982
  25. Anthony Tommasini, Horowitz at 85: Still Playing Free, The New York Times, Sunday, September 25, 1988

Littattafai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hanyoyin haɗi na waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

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