Ƙur'aniyya

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Ƙur'aniyya
Classification

Ƙur'aniyya ( Larabci: القرآنية‎  ; al-Ƙur'āniyya, har ila yau "rubutun Alƙur'ani") [1] ƙunshi ra'ayoyi cewa shari'ar Musulunci da jagora ya kamata su dogara ne kawai da Kur'ani, don haka gaba ɗaya ko wani ɓangare na adawa da ikon addini, amintacce, da / ko amincin littattafan hadisi . Masu ilimin Kur'ani sun yi imani da cewa saƙon Allah a cikin Alƙur'ani bayyananne ne kuma cikakke ne yadda yake, saboda Alƙur'ani ya faɗi haka, don haka ana iya fahimtarsa ba tare da ambaton hadisin, wanda suka yi imanin ƙirƙirarsa akayi ba. [2]

A cikin sha'anin imani, da fikihu, da shari'a, masu karatun Kur'ani sun banbanta da ahl al-Hadith wato masu bin Hadisi, ta yadda wadanda suka gabata suna ganin Hadisi ban da Alqurani a matsayin ikon zartar da hukuncin Musulunci a cikin sha'anin shari'a da akida. Kowace mazhabar Musulunci da ke yada hadisi, tana da nata tsarin na hadisi wanda musulminsu suka dogara da shi, amma sauran mazhabobin hadisi suka ki amincewa da shi, yayin da Kur'ani suka ki amincewa da dukkanin hadisai daban-daban kuma ba su da nasu.

Alƙur'ani yana kama da ƙungiyoyi a cikin sauran addinan Ibrahim kamar na Karaite a yahudanci da kuma tunanin Sola na addinin kirista na Furotesta.

Asalin Kalma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mabiya Kur'ani da Musulunci ana kira a matsayin "Ƙur'aniyyun" ( Larabci: قرآنيّون‎, romanized: Qurāniyyūn wani lokacin kuma ana kiransu da Ƴan Ƙala Ƙato) amma kuma a matsayin "masu neman kawo canji" ko "Musulmai masu ci gaba" ta wasu nau'ikan musulmai, kodayake galibi suna musun waɗannan sunaye. Kada masu rikodin Qur'ani su rikice da Ahle-e-Quran ("Mutanen Alƙur'ani"), wanda ƙungiya ce da Abdullah Chakralawi ya kafa. Hakanan masu karatun Kur'ani suna iya kiran kansu kawai "Musulmai" ko "Masu sallamawa".

Rukunan[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Masu ilimin Kur'ani sun yi imani da cewa Kur'ani shine tushen tushen dokar addini da jagoranci a cikin Islama kuma sun ƙi ikon tushen tushe a waje da Alƙur'ani kamar Hadisi da Sunna . Kuma, suna ambaton ayoyin Alqur'ani kamar su 6:38, 45: 6 da 6: 112-116, sun yi imani da cewa Alqur'ani bayyananne ne, cikakke ne, kuma ana iya fahimtarsa sosai ba tare da komawa ga hadisi da sunna ba. Saboda haka, suna amfani da shi kansa Alqurani wajen fassara kur’ani: [3]

". .Tsassun zahiri da cikakke game da rubutun ta mahangar zamani da amfani da tafsirin al-qur'an bi al-qur'an (bayanin Alkur'ani tare da Alkur'ani) da fikihu. qa'idar al-asl fi al-kalam al-haqiqah (babbar magana ce ta zahiri), ba tare da yin watsi da yadda Alkur'ani ya yi amfani da shi ta hanyar mahanga na tarihi da al'ada ba. " [4]

Wannan Hanyar tafsirin Alqur'ani ne daban-daban daga hanyar falala a kansu daga mafi Sunni da 'yan Shi'a, da aka sani da tafsirin bi-al-ma'thur (tafsirin Alqur'ani tare da ruwayoyin, watau, hadisi). Ya bambanta da masu ilimin Kur'ani, 'yan Sunni ba su yi imani da cewa Alƙur'anin yana da cikakken bayani ba. Sun yi imani da cewa, "Kur'ani yana buƙatar Sunna fiye da yadda Sunna ke buƙatar Alkur'ani ( inna l-Quran ahwaju ila l-sunna mina l-sunna ila l-Quran )". [5] Wannan bambance-bambancen tafarkin ya haifar da saɓani sosai tsakanin masu ilimin Kur'ani da Sunna da Shi'a a cikin sha'anin ilimin addini da shari'a.

Misali, a karnin da suka biyo bayan mutuwar Muhammadu, Musulmin da suka ƙi yarda da hadisai ba su yi imani da Naskh ba . [6] Kufa ya yarda da hadisi da masanin Kufan Dirar ibn Amr ya yi ne ya sa shi ƙin yarda da imani da Al-Masih ad-Dajjal, Uƙubar Kabari, da Shafa'ah a ƙarni na 8. [7] Kuma da Masar masanin Muhammad Abu Zayd ta kin amincewa da hadisi tushen sharhin kai shi su da su kãfirta da imani da Isra da Mi'raj a farkon ƙarni na 20th. A cikin tafsirinsa na mai hankali wanda aka buga a 1930, Al-hidaya wa-l-'rfan fi tafsir al-Qur'an bi-l-Qur'an (Jagora da Umarni a Wajan Tafsirin Alkur'ani da Alkur'ani), wanda yana amfani da Alƙur'ani da kansa wajen fassara Alƙur'ani, ya yi iƙirarin cewa aya ta 17: 1 ishara ce ga Hegira ba Isra'i da Mi'raj ba. [8]

Syed Ahmad Khan ya bayar da hujjar cewa, yayin da Alkurani ya kasance yana da ma'amala da jama'a, dogaro da hadisi ya takaita damar da kur'ani ke da ita zuwa wani yanayin al'adu da tarihi. [9]

Matsayin da Kur'ani ke bijirewa ikon Hadisi da Sunna sun banbanta, amma kungiyoyin da suka fi karfi sun soki ikon Hadisin sosai kuma sun ki yarda da shi saboda dalilai da yawa. Mafi ra'ayin mutane shine kasancewar Kur'ani wadanda suke cewa ba a ambaci Hadisi a cikin Alqurani a matsayin tushen ilimin addinin Musulunci da aiki da shi, ba a rubuce shi a rubuce ba har sai karni ɗaya da mutuwar Muhammad, kuma suna dauke da kurakurai na ciki da saɓani. .

Ga Musulmin Sunni, " sunnah ", watau sunnar (hanyar) annabi, ɗayan manyan hanyoyi biyu ne na shari'ar Musulunci, kuma yayin da Alƙur'ani ke da ayoyi yana umurtar Musulmi da yin biyayya ga Annabi, Kur'ani bai taɓa magana ba " sunnah "dangane da Muhammadu ko wasu annabawa. Kalmar sunnah ta bayyana sau da yawa, gami da jumlar "sunnar Allah" (hanyar Allah), amma ba "sunnar al-nabi" ba (hanyar annabi) - kalmar da masu bin hadisi suke amfani da ita. [10]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Farkon Musulunci[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Alqur'ani daga karni na 7 wanda aka rubuta akan vellum .

Ƙur'ani sun faɗi abubuwan da suka yi imani da su tun zamanin Muhammadu, wanda ya hana rubuta hadisai don hana hadisai su rikice da Alƙur'ani. [11] [12] Ɗaya daga cikin sahabban Muhammadu kuma magaji Umar, shi ma ya hana rubuta hadisi tare da rusa tarin abubuwan da ake da su a lokacin yana halifa . A lokacin da Umar ya naɗa gwamna a Kufa, sai ya ce masa: "Za ku zo wurin mutanen wani gari wanda buɗa Alkur'ani a gare su kamar sautin ƙudan zuma ne. Saboda haka, kada ku shagaltar da su da Hadisai, kuma ta haka ne ku shiga su. Kuje Kur'ani ku bar labarin daga manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi)! " .

Matsakaicin Kur'ani a cikin rayuwar addini ta Kufanawa waɗanda Umar ya bayyana suna canzawa da sauri, duk da haka. A 'yan shekarun da suka gabata daga baya, wata wasiƙa da aka aika zuwa ga Ummayad kalifa Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan game da Kufans: "Su yi watsi da hukuncin da Ubangijinsu, kuma ya dauki rabuwa domin su addini, kuma suka yi da'awar cewa sun samu ilimi, wanin daga Alkur'ani. . . Sun yi imani da littafin da ba daga wurin Allah ba, wanda aka rubuta ta hannun mutane; sai suka jingina shi ga Manzon Allah. ” [13]

A cikin shekaru masu zuwa, haramun da ake yi wa rubutu da bin hadisai ya koma baya har shugaban Ummayad Umar II ya ba da umarnin tattara Hadisi a hukumance. Abu Bakr bn Muhammad bin Hazm da Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri, suna daga cikin waɗanda suka rubuta Hadisai bisa umarnin Umar na II.

Duk da Trend zuwa hadisai, da tambayoyin da su dalĩli ci gaba a lokacin da Abbasiyawa daular da kuma wanzu a lokacin da Al-Shafi'i, a lokacin da wani rukuni da aka sani da "Ahlul-Kalam" jãyayya da cewa annabci misali na Muhammad "da aka samu a bin Alqurani shi kadai ", maimakon Hadisi. [14] [15] Daga baya, irin wannan rukuni, Ahl al-Tawḥīd wa l-dAdl, "mutanen tauhidi da adalci", waɗanda abokan hamayyarsu suka fi sani da Mu'tazilaiti, suma sun kalli watsa mafi yawan Hadisai a matsayin abin da bai isa abin dogaro ba. [16] Mafi yawan Hadisan, a cewarsu, zato ne kawai, zato, kuma bidi'a ce, alhali littafin Allah cikakke ne kuma cikakke, kuma ba ya buƙatar Hadisin ya kara ko ya cika shi.

Akwai manyan malamai da suka ki hadisi kamar Dirar bn Amr. Ya rubuta wani littafi mai suna The musu a cikin Hadisi . Koyaya, canjin ya canza daga karnonin da suka gabata ta yadda za a ce Dirar da ashab al-hadisi sun buge ta kuma dole ta kasance cikin buya har zuwa mutuwarsa. [17] Kamar Dirar ibn Amr, malamin nan Abu Bakr al-Asamm shima bashi da amfani sosai ga hadisai. [18]

A lokacin daular Abassid, mawaƙi, masanin tauhidi, kuma masanin shari’a, Ibrahim an-Nazzam ya ƙi ikon hadisi kamar yadda Abu Hurayra ya ruwaito. [19] Shahararren dalibinsa, Al-Jahiz, ya kasance mai sukar wadanda suka bi irin wannan Hadisin, yana mai cewa su al-nabita ("abin raini"). Wani zamani na An-Nazzam, Al-Shafi'i, ya yi ƙoƙari ya ƙaryata hujjojin waɗanda suka ƙi waɗannan Hadisai kuma ya kafa ikonsu a cikin littafinsa Kitab Jima'a l-'Ilm . Kuma Ibn Qutaybah yayi ƙoƙarin ƙaryata hujjojin An-Nazzam akan waɗannan Hadisan na Abu Hurayra a cikin littafinsa <i id="mwvQ">Ta'wil Mukhtalif al-Hadith</i> .

Ƙarni na 19th[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A Kudancin Asiya a cikin ƙarni na 19, ƙungiyar Ahle ta Kur'ani ta ƙirƙiro wani ɓangare don mayar da martani ga Ahle Hadith wanda suke ganin suna fifita Hadisi sosai. Da yawa daga mabiya Al-Qur'ani daga Asiya ta Kudu sun kasance masu bin Ahle Hadith a da amma sun ga ba za su iya karbar wasu hadisai ba. Abdullah Chakralawi, Khwaja Ahmad Din Amritsari, Chiragh Ali, da Aslam Jairajpuri suna daga cikin mutanen da suka gabatar da imanin Kur'ani a Indiya a lokacin.

20th karni[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A Misra a farkon karni na 20, ra'ayoyin masu ilimin Kur'ani irin su Muhammad Tawfiq Sidqi ya tashi daga ra'ayoyin masu kawo canji na Muhammad Abduh, musamman kin amincewa da taklid da kuma fifita Alqurani. [20] Muhammad Tawfiq Sidqi na Misira "ya yi riko da cewa babu wani abu daga cikin Hadis da aka rubuta har sai bayan isasshen lokaci ya ba da damar kutsawa cikin al'adun wauta ko gurbatattun al'adu." Muhammad Tawfiq Sidqi ya rubuta kasida mai taken Al-Islam Huwa ul-Qur'an Wahdahu ('Musulunci shi kadai ne Alkur'ani) wanda ya bayyana a mujallar Masar ta Al-Manar, wacce ke nuna cewa Kur'ani ya isa shiriya: "menene wajibine ga mutum baya wuce littafin Allah. Idan da wani abu banda Kur'ani ya zama dole ga addini, "Sidqi ya lura," da annabi ya yi umurni da a yi rajistarsa a rubuce, kuma da Allah ya tabbatar da kiyaye shi [21]

Kamar wasu takwarorinsu na Misira kamar su Muhammad Abu Zayd da Ahmed Subhy Mansour, wasu daga cikin masana masu kawo sauyi a Iran wadanda suka dauki akidun Kur'ani sun fito ne daga manyan makarantun gargajiya. Shaykh Hadi Najmabadi, Mirza Rida Quli Shari'at-Sanglaji, Mohammad Sadeqi Tehrani, da Ayatollah Borqei sun yi karatu a jami'o'in Shi'a na gargajiya a Najaf da Qom . Koyaya, sun yi imani da cewa wasu imani da ayyukan da aka koyar a waɗannan jami'o'in, kamar girmama Imamzadeh da imani da Raj'a, ba su da ma'ana kuma camfi ne kuma ba su da asali a cikin Alqurani. [22] Kuma maimakon su fassara Alqurani ta hanyar tabarau na hadisi, sai suka fassara Kur'ani da Alqurani ( tafsir al-qur'an bi al-qur'an ). Wadtannan imani na kawo canji sun haifar da suka daga malaman shia na gargajiya kamar Ayatollah Khomeini, wanda ya yi kokarin karyata sukar da Sanglaji da sauran masu ra'ayin kawo sauyi suka yi a cikin littafinsa Kashf al-Asrar . Hakanan akida-ta imani ta yada tsakanin musulmai marasa karfi kamar Ba'amurken Ba'amurken, Ali Behzadnia, wanda ya zama Mataimakin Ministan Lafiya da Jin Dadi kuma muƙaddashin Ministan Ilimi jim kadan bayan Juyin Juya Halin Iran . Ya soki gwamnati a Iran da cewa ba ta bin tsarin demokradiyya kuma ba ta sabawa "Musulunci na Alkur'ani". [23]

Zamanin zamani[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hoton da ke nuna rassa na Sunniyanci, Shi'a, Ibada, Al-Qur'ani, Musulmai marasa bin mazhaba, Ahmadiyya da Sufanci .

A cikin ƙarni na 21, akidun Alkur'ani sun yadu a kasashe daban-daban. Koyaya, a cikin ƙasashe waɗanda suka haɗa wasu fannoni na dokar Sunni, mabiya sun gamu da adawa. Misali, wani malamin masarautar Saudiyya, Hassan Farhan al-Maliki, an kame shi sau da yawa saboda karfafa kawo sauyi a siyasance da kuma komawa zuwa ga Kur'ani. Saudi Arabiya ta fara gurfanar da mai binciken a gaban Kotun Musamman ta Laifuka a Riyadh, wacce aka kafa ta musamman a watan Janairun 2009 don kula da shari'o'in "ta'addanci da tsaron kasa." A shekarar 2019, masu gabatar da ƙara, waɗanda ke da alaka kai tsaye da sarkin na Saudiyya, sun gabatar da zarge-zarge kusan gaba ɗaya da suka shafi ra'ayoyin Maliki kuma ya bukaci kotun ta yanke masa hukunci bisa "fassarar tsattsauran ra'ayi" game da Islama. Sauran masanan Saudiyya, kamar Abdul Rahman al-Ahdal, suna ci gaba da ba da fatawa kan watsi da hadisi da komawa zuwa ga Alqurani. Kuma a Misira da Sudan, an kame masu bin kur’ani saboda imaninsu.

Marigayi masanin Siriya , Muhammad Shahrur, ya yi iƙirarin cewa hadisai ba su da wata fa'ida ta addini kuma ya kamata Alƙur'ani ya zama musulmai madogara.

Yaɗuwar imanin Al-Qur'ani a Rasha ya jawo fushin kafuwar ahlussunna. Majalisar Muftis ta Rasha ta bayar da fatawa kan Al-Kur'ani da waɗanda ta ce shugabanninsu ne a Rasha. Koyaya, daya daga cikin da'awayan jagororin Kur'ani da aka ambata a cikin fatawar, masanin Falsafa dan katsar Rasha Taufik Ibragim, ya nuna cewa imaninsa sun fi dacewa da al'adar Jadid, kodayake akwai dan wani abu tsakanin kungiyoyin biyu a Rasha.

A Turkiyya, masu karatun kur'ani sun mayar da martani a kan kafofin sada zumunta kan sukar da Diyanet ta yi a kan imaninsu na Kur'ani.

A Afirka ta Kudu, wani malamin Islamiyya mai ilimin Oxford, Taj Hargey, ya kafa Buɗaɗɗen Masallaci. Kamar yadda sunan ya nuna, Hargey ya yi niyya ga masallacin ya kasance a bude ga al'adun jama'a wanda al'adar gargajiya da masallatan Sunni da Shi'a suke gujewa, kamar mata. Hargey ya bayyana ka'idojin masallacin da cewa, "mai kula da alkur'ani, daidaiton jinsi, ba mazhaba, mai al'adu da kuma mai zaman kansa".

Fitattun ƙungiyoyi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ahle Qur'ani[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

File:Ahl al qur'an.jpg
Rubutun larabci wanda yake karanta ahl al-Kur'ani, ma'ana masu riko ko mutanen Kur'ani

Ahle Quran ƙungiya ce da Abdullah Chakralawi ya kafa, wanda ya bayyana Alqurani a matsayin "ahsan Hadith", ma'ana mafi ingancin hadisi kuma saboda haka yayi da'awar cewa baya bukatar kari. [24] Yunkurinsa ya dogara ne kacokam kan surori da ayoyin Alqurani. Matsayin Chakralawi shi ne cewa Kur'ani kansa shi ne mafi kyawun tushen al'adar kuma ana iya bin sa ta musamman. A cewar Chakralawi, Muhammadu zai iya karbar nau'i daya ne na wahayi ( wahy ), kuma shi ne Kur'ani. Yayi jayayya cewa Al-Qur'ani shine kawai rikodin hikimar Allah, shine kawai tushen koyarwar Muhammadu, kuma yana fifita dukkanin hadisin, wanda yazo daga baya.

Izgi Amal[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Wannan ƙungiya ce ta Kur'ani a Kazakhstan wacce za a iya fassara sunan ta Cyrillic, "Ізгі амал" zuwa rubutun Latin a matsayin İzgi amal . Tana da membobi kimanin 70 zuwa 80. Shugabanta, Aslbek Musin, ɗa ne ga tsohon Shugaban Majalisar, Aslan Musin .

Ƙala ato[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kala Kato ƙungiya ce ta Kur'ani wacce mabiyanta ke zaune galibi arewacin Nijeriya, tare da wasu mabiyan da ke zaune a Nijar. [25] Ƙala Ƙato na nufin “mutum ya ce” a cikin harshen Hausa, dangane da maganganu, ko hadisai, waɗanda aka jingina su ga Muhammadu. Kala Kato ya yarda da Alqurani ne kawai a matsayin mai iko kuma ya yi imani da cewa duk abin da ba Kala Allah ba, wanda ke nufin abin da "Allah ya ce" a harshen Hausa, shi ne Kala Kato.

Quranungiyar Alƙur'ani ta Malesiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kassim Ahmad ne ya kafa kungiyar Alkur'ani ta Malesiya. Yunkurin yana rikye da muƙamai da yawa da suka banbanta shi daga Sunni da Shi'a kamar kin matsayin mata a matsayin kasancewar surar surah; saboda haka nuna annashuwa a kan kiyaye hijabi, wanda a cewar Kur'ani ba ya cikin Al-Kur'ani.

Al-Qur'ani mai kula da sunnati[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ƙungiyar Sunnati ta Kur'ani ƙungiya ce ta Kur'ani a Indiya. Wannan ƙungiyar ta kasance a bayan mace ta farko da ta jagoranci addu'o'in tarawar jinsi a Indiya. [26] Yana kula da ofishi da hedkwata a cikin Kerala. Akwai gungun jama'a masu yawa na Kur'ani a cikin Kerala. Daya daga cikin shugabanninta, Jamida Beevi, ya kuma yi magana a kan dokar talaq sau uku ta Indiya wacce galibi ta dogara ne da Dokar Aikace-aikacen Dokar Musulmai ta Musamman (Shariat) ta Sunni, 1937. Shahararren magabaci ga theungiyar natan Sunni a Indiya ya kasance daga ra'ayoyin da Ahmed Khan ya gabatar a ƙarni na 19.

Masu sallamawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Masu gabatarwa ƙungiya ce da Ba'amurke- Rashad Khalifa ya fara a Amurka. Wannan tafiyar ta yada kalmar: Alqurani, da dukkan Alqur'ani, kuma ba komai bane face Alqur'ani. Sun yi imani da cewa Al-Qur'ani yana da tsarin lissafi dangane da lamba goma sha tara. Wasu sun ƙi amincewa da waɗannan imani kuma, a cikin 1990, wani wanda ke da alaƙa da ƙungiyar Sunni Jamaat ul-Fuqra ya kashe Khalifa. Daga cikin waɗanda ra'ayin Khalifa ya yi tasiri a kansu sun hada da Edip Yuksel, Ahmad Rashad, da Alkalin Babbar Kotun Najeriya, Isa Othman.

Tolu-e-Islam[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ghulam Ahmed Pervez ne ya fara yunƙurin. [27] Ghulam Ahmed Pervez bai ki dukkan hadisan ba; sai dai kawai ya yarda da hadisai wadanda "sun dace da Al-Qur'ani ko kuma ba sa tozarta halayen Annabi ko sahabbansa ". Organizationungiyar ta wallafa da rarraba littattafai, ƙasidu, da rikodin koyarwar Pervez. Tolu-e-Islam ba ya cikin wata jam’iyyar siyasa, haka kuma ba ta wata kungiyar addini ko mazhaba .

Süleymaniye Vakfı[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Abdülaziz Bayındır, farfesa a fannin ilimin tauhidi na kasar Turkiyya ne ya fara yunƙurin. Kungiyar ta fito fili ta kalubalanci Daraktan Harkokin Addini na Turkiyya (Diyanet) . Suna rike da mukamai daban daban da Ahlul Sunni na Turkawa, kamar yadda suke kin kusan dukkanin hadisai, suna masu cewa ba sa inganta, kuma basu da ikon addini. Bayanin kungiyar ya karanta "Dangane da karairayin al'ada, za mu ci gaba da bayar da fatawa ta hanyar amfani da Alqurani kawai".

Fitattun Alqurani[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Caner Taslaman (an haife shi a shekara ta 1968), masanin ilimin Baturke, masanin Alƙur'ani kuma marubuci wanda aka san shi da ayyukansa a kan The Big Bang theory da tsarin kimiyya na Alƙur'ani.
  • Kassim Ahmad (1933–2017) wani malamin Malaysia, marubuci, mawaƙi kuma malami wanda aka san shi da ƙin yarda da ikon hadisi. Shine ya assasa kungiyar Qur'ani ta Malesiya. An kama shi saboda "yana da ra'ayin gurguzu" a cikin 1976 kuma an sake shi a 1981. A lokacin mutuwarsa, yana aiki da fassarar Malay na Alqurani.
  • Gamal al-Banna (1920–2013) marubucin Misira ne, kuma ɗan ƙungiyar kwadago. Shi ne kane ga Hassan al-Banna, wanda ya kafa kungiyar 'Yan Uwa Musulmi
  • Mustafa İslamoğlu (an haife shi a shekara ta 1960), masanin ilimin tauhidi ɗan Turkawa, mawaƙi, marubuci. An soki shi a Turkiyya kuma an yi masa barazanar kisa saboda ra'ayinsa wanda ya inganta al'adun da ke sama da al'ada da kuma musun ikon wani hadisi, wanda ya ga an ƙirƙira shi.
  • Rashad Khalifa (1935–1990), wani Ba’amurke Ba’amurke masanin ilmin kimiyyar halittu kuma mai gyara addinin Islama. A cikin littafinsa Alqur'ani, Hadisi da Musulunci da kuma fassarar Alqur'ani da Ingilishi, Khalifa ya yi hujja da cewa Alqurani shi kaɗai ne tushen imani da aiki da addinin Islama. 'Yan gargajiya sun kashe shi a ranar 31 ga Janairu, 1990.
  • Hassan al-Maliki (an haife shi a shekara ta 1970), ɗan ƙasar Saudi Arabiya marubuci, mai bincike, masanin tarihin Islama da malamin addinin Islama wanda masarautar Saudiyya ta gurfanar da shi a gaban kotu saboda abin da suke ikirarin ra'ayinsa ne na addinin Musulunci. An bayyana ra'ayoyin Al-Maliki a matsayin na Kur'ani, [28] matsakaici, mai haƙuri, kuma mai adawa da akidar ta fi karfi da takifanci.
  • Irshad Manji (an haife shi a shekara ta 1968) malamin Kanada ne kuma marubuci.
  • Ahmed Subhy Mansour (an haife shi a shekara ta 1949), wani malamin addinin Musulunci Ba’amurke Ba’amurke. Ya kafa wata karamar kungiyar masu karatun kur'ani, amma an kore shi daga Masar kuma yanzu yana zaune a Amurka a matsayin dan gudun hijirar siyasa.
  • Chekannur Maulavi (an haife shi a shekara ta 1936; ya ɓace ran 29 ga Yuli 1993), wani malamin addinin Islama mai ci gaba wanda ya rayu a Edappal a gundumar Malappuram na Kerala, Indiya. An san shi da fassarar da ba ta dace ba game da Musulunci wanda ya dogara da Kur'ani kawai. Ya ɓace a ranar 29 ga Yulin 1993 a cikin yanayi mai ban mamaki kuma yanzu ana jin ya mutu.
  • Yaşar Nuri Öztürk (1951-2016), malamin jami’ar Turkiyya malamin addinin Musulunci, lauya, marubuci kuma tsohon memba a majalisar dokokin Turkiyya . Ya gabatar da taruka da yawa game da tunanin Musulunci, 'yan adamtaka da' yancin ɗan adam a Turkiyya, Amurka, Turai, Gabas ta Tsakiya da Balkans. A cikin 1999 mambobin wata kungiyar masu tsattsauran ra'ayi da ake kira Great Eastern Islamic Raiders 'Front (wacce ake kira İBDA-C a harshen Turkawa), sun yi ikirarin cewa sun shirya wani yunkurin kisan kai da bai taba faruwa ba. Öztürk ya mutu a cikin 2016, saboda ciwon kansa na ciki.
  • Ahmad Rashad (an haife shi a shekara ta 1949), ɗan wasan motsa jiki na Amurka (galibi yana tare da NBC Sports ) kuma tsohon ƙwararren ɗan wasan ƙwallon ƙafa. Ahmad Rashad ya karanci harshen larabci da Alqur'ani tare da malaminsa, marigayi Rashad Khalifa.
  • Mohamed Talbi (1921–2017), masanin tarihin Tunusiya kuma farfesa. Shine ya kirikiro ƙungiyar "International Internationale des Musulmans Coraniques" (AIMC), ko kuma ƙungiyar musulman kur'ani ta duniya.
  • Edip Yüksel (an haife shi a shekara ta 1957), Ba'amurke Ba'amurke falsafa, lauya, mai ba da fatawa game da Kur'ani, marubuci na Takwas: Sa hannun Allah a cikin Yanayi da Littattafai, Manifesto for Reform Islamic da kuma marubucin marubucin Alƙur'ani: A Reformist Translation . Ya koyar da falsafa da dabaru a Kwalejin Jama'a ta Pima da koyar da da'a da likitanci da kwasa-kwasan dokokin aikata laifi a Kwalejin Brown Mackie .
  • [Note 1]

Kara karantawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Aisha Y. Musa, Hadisi a matsayin Nassi: Tattaunawa akan Ikon Hadisan Annabta a Musulunci, New York: Palgrave, 2008. ISBN 0-230-60535-4 .
  • Ali Usman Qasmi, Tambaya ga Ikon da Ya gabata: Matsayin Ahl al-Kur'ani a cikin Punjab, Jami'ar Jami'ar Oxford, 2012. ISBN 0-195-47348-5 .
  • Daniel Brown, Tarihin Tunawa da Tunani a Tunanin Islama na Zamani, Jami'ar Jami'ar Cambridge, 1996. ISBN 0-521-65394-0 .
  1. Brown, Rethinking tradition in modern Islamic thought, 1996: p.38-42
  2. al-Manar 12(1911): 693-99; cited in Juynboll, Authenticity, 30; cited in D.W. Brown, Rethinking tradition in modern Islamic thought, 1996: p.120
  3. Jens Zimmermann, Hermeneutics: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford University Press, 2015, pg. 90
  4. Mahmoud Ayoub, Contemporary Approaches to the Qur'an and Sunnah, International Institute of Islamic Thought (IIIT), 2012, pg. 27
  5. Jane Dammen McAuliffe, Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an, Vol. 5, Brill, 2006, pg. 165
  6. Daniel W. Brown, Rethinking Tradition in Modern Islamic Thought, Cambridge University Press, 1996, pp. 16–17
  7. Josef Van Ess, Theology and Society in the Second and Third Centuries of the Hijra. Volume 3, Brill, 2018, pp. 56–58
  8. J. J. G. Jansen, The Interpretation of the Koran in Modern Egypt, E.J. Brill, 1980, pp. 87–89
  9. Brown, Rethinking tradition in modern Islamic thought, 1996: p.65
  10. Brown, Rethinking tradition in modern Islamic thought, 1996: p.8
  11. https://islamfuture.files.wordpress.com/2009/12/usool-al-hadeeth-the-methodology-of-hadith-evaluation.pdf
  12. Aisha Y. Musa, Hadith as Scripture: Discussions on the Authority of Prophetic Traditions in Islam, Palgrave Macmillan, 2008, pp.25-29
  13. Aisha Y. Musa, Hadith as Scripture: Discussions on the Authority of Prophetic Traditions in Islam, Palgrave Macmillan, 2008, pp. 37-38
  14. Brown, Rethinking tradition in modern Islamic thought, 1996: p.15-16
  15. excerpted from Abdur Rab, ibid, pp. 199–200.
  16. Sabine Schmidtke, The Oxford Handbook of Islamic Theology, Oxford University Press, 2016, pp. 264-265
  17. Josef Van Ess, Theology and Society in the Second and Third Centuries of the Hijra. Volume 3, Brill, 2018, pp. 35-37 and 55-57
  18. Josef Van Ess, Theology and Society in the Second and Third Centuries of the Hijra. Volume 2, Brill, 2017, pg. 461
  19. [1]
  20. Rein Fernhout, Canonical Texts. Bearers of Absolute Authority. Bible, Koran, Veda, Tipitaka: A Phenomenological Study, Brill Rodopi, 1994, pp. 218-219
  21. Musa, Aisha Y., Hadith as Scripture: Discussions on the Authority of Prophetic Traditions in Islam, Palgrave Macmillan, New York, 2008, p.6.
  22. Said Amir Arjomand, Authority and Political Culture in Shi'ism, State University of New York Press, 1998, pp. 160-161 and 166-167
  23. Edip Yuksel, Critical Thinkers for Islamic Reform: A Collection of Articles from Contemporary Thinkers on Islam, Brainbow Press, 2009, pp. 188-189
  24. Aḥmad (1967), pp.120–121.
  25. International Religious Freedom Report 2009, state.gov, Accessed February 10, 2019
  26. Ziya Us Salam, 'I follow the Quran', frontline.thehindu.com, Accessed February 10, 2019
  27. Aisha Y. Musa, Hadith As Scripture: Discussions on the Authority of Prophetic Traditions in Islam, Palgrave MacMillan, 2008, pg. 86
  28. https://quranstruelight.com/some-history/misconceptions


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