Ahmed Ben Bella

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Simpleicons Interface user-outline.svg Ahmed Ben Bella
Ahmed Ben Bella 1997.jpg
President of Algeria (en) Fassara

15 Satumba 1963 - 19 ga Yuni, 1965
Ferhat Abbas (en) Fassara - Houari Boumediene (en) Fassara
Minister of Foreign Affairs of Algeria (en) Fassara

11 ga Afirilu, 1963 - 4 Satumba 1963
Mohamed Khemisti (en) Fassara - Abdelaziz Bouteflika (en) Fassara
Rayuwa
Haihuwa Maghnia (en) Fassara, 25 Disamba 1916
ƙasa Faransa
Aljeriya
Mutuwa Aljir, 11 ga Afirilu, 2012
Karatu
Harsuna Larabci
Sana'a
Sana'a ɗan siyasa da ɗan wasan ƙwallon ƙafa
Hanya
Ƙungiyoyi Shekaru Wasanni da ya/ta buga Ƙwallaye
Olympique Marseille logo.svg  Olympique de Marseille (en) Fassara-
IRB Maghnia (en) Fassara-
 
Muƙami ko ƙwarewa Mai buga tsakiya
Kyaututtuka
Aikin soja
Ya faɗaci Algerian War of Independence (en) Fassara
Yakin Duniya na II
Imani
Addini Mabiya Sunnah
Jam'iyar siyasa National Liberation Front (en) Fassara
Algerian People's Party (en) Fassara
Movement for Democracy in Algeria (en) Fassara
Ahmed BEN BELLA Signature.svg

Ahmed Ben Bella ( Larabci: أحمد بن بلّةAḥmad bin Billah ; (an haife shi a ranar 25 ga watan Disamba shekarar 1916 -ya mutu ranar 11 ga watan Afrilu shekara ta 2012) an Algeria siyasa, gurguzu soja da kuma juyin juya halin Musulunci wanda ya yi aiki a matsayin na farko shugaban kasar Aljeriya daga 1963 zuwa 1965.

Matasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An haifi Ahmed Ben Bella a Maghnia, a tsohuwar sashen Oran, yammacin Algeria ga iyayen Morocco [1] a ranar 25 ga watan Disamba shekarar 1916, [2] a lokacin tsayin mulkin mallaka na Faransa.

Ahmed Ben Bella ɗa ne ga manomi kuma ƙaramin ɗan kasuwa; yana da 'yan'uwa maza biyar da mata biyu. Babban wansa ya mutu daga raunukan da aka samu a Yaƙin Duniya na ,aya, a lokacin da ya yi yaƙi don Faransa; wani dan uwan ya mutu daga rashin lafiya kuma na uku ya ɓace a Faransa a shekara ta 1940, yayin tashin hankali na nasarar Nazi .

Ahmed Ben Bella ya fara karatu a Maghnia, inda ya je makarantar faransanci, ya ci gaba da karatu a garin Tlemcen, inda ya fara sanin wariyar launin fata. Damuwa da musuluntar da malaminsa Bature ya nuna, ya fara nuna adawa da mulkin mallaka da mulkin mallaka kuma ya soki mamayar tasirin al'adun Faransa a kan Aljeriya. A wannan lokacin ya shiga cikin ƙungiyar kishin ƙasa . UFIJSJCJSF GFDGGDFGFGD DGFD DGEFGD DFYHEFY G

Yi aiki tare da Sojojin Faransa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ahmed Ben Bella ya fara ba da kansa don yin aiki a Sojan Faransa a shekarar 1936. Sojojin sun kasance ɗayan fewan hanyoyin ci gaba ga iansan Aljeriya a ƙarƙashin mulkin mallaka kuma shigar da son rai ya zama gama gari. An aika shi zuwa Marseille, ya buga tsakiyar Olympique de Marseille a cikin 1939–1940. Fitowarsa kawai ga kungiyar ta kasance a wasa da FC Antibes a cikin Coupe de France a ranar 29 ga watan Afrilu shekarar 1940 a Cannes, [3] lokacin da ya ci kwallo. [4] Jami'an kulob din sun ba shi matsayin kwararre a kungiyar, amma ya yi watsi da tayin. Ya kuma taka leda a IRB Maghnia .

Ahmed Ben Bella ya sake shiga soja a cikin shekarar 1940, yana mai imanin cewa Sojojin Faransa sun ba da kyakkyawar dama don nuna wariyar launin fata ga 'yan Algeria. Yin gwagwarmaya don Faransa a lokacin Yaƙin Duniya na II, an yi masa ado sau biyu, yana karɓar kyautar Croix de Guerre bayan ya mallaki mukamin anti-jirgin sama yayin mamayewar Nazi a shekarar 1940. An yi watsi da shi bayan faduwar Faransa, amma ya shiga cikin rundunar 'yanci ta Faransa kyauta ta tirailleurs ta Moroccan (dakaru) wadanda ya ga suna aiki tare a duk lokacin yakin Italiya. A Italia an yi masa ado don jaruntaka da aka nuna a yakin Monte Cassino, a lokacin da ya ja wani jami'in da aka raunata zuwa lafiya, yana mai karɓar ragamar bataliyarsa. A saboda wannan, an ciyar da shi zuwa matsayin jami'in ba da izini, kuma ya karɓi mayaƙan Médaille, mafi kyawun kayan ado na Frenchan Freean Faransa, kai tsaye daga Charles de Gaulle . [5]

A ranar 8 ga watan Mayu shekarar 1945, yayin da Faransa ke bikin mika wuya ga Jamus, zanga-zangar da ta bazu ta barke a garin Setif na Aljeriya. Yakin ya tsananta danniya na mulkin mallaka ga 'yan Algeria, wanda ya haifar da martani wanda ya kai ga mutuwar fiye da Turawa 100 da kusan Aljeriawa 1,500, a cewar rahotanni na hukuma. Masu tayar da kayar baya na mulkin mallaka, duk da haka, sun sanya yawan mutanen Algeria da suka mutu kusan 10,000. Fadan da ya faru daga rikicin Setif ya girgiza Ben Bella da abokan aikinsa na Algeria, yayin da suka fahimci cewa Faransa ba za ta amince da ikirarinsu na a yi musu daidai ba duk da hidimomin da suke yi a lokacin yakin.

Kafin samun ‘yanci[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kungiya ta farko game da mulkin Faransa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bayan abubuwan da suka faru a Setif, Ben Bella ya koma Algeria, yana mai siyasa a cikin ƙungiyoyin adawa da gwamnatin Faransa. Mahukuntan Faransa sun tura maharan da nufin kashe shi a gonarsa.[ana buƙatar hujja] A yunkurin da ransa kasa, amma Ben Bella ta farm aka kwace, kuma ya tafi ya shiga buya. Bayan zaben cikin gida na Marcel-Edmond Naegelen, Ben Bella ya gamsu da cewa samun independenceancin demokraɗiyya ta hanyar lumana yaudara ce. Tare da Messali Hadj da jam’iyyarsa, ya kafa Organisation Spéciale (OS), wata ƙungiya ce ta musamman wacce ke da niyyar ɗaukar makami don yaƙi da mulkin mallaka na Faransa da sauri. Wannan rukunin ya zama magabaci na National Front Front . A cikin shekarar 1949, Ahmed Ben Bella ya yi fashin wani banki a Orán don neman kuɗi don ƙungiyar, amma daga ƙarshe an kama shi a shekara ta 1951 kuma aka yanke masa hukuncin ɗaurin shekaru takwas a kurkukun Blida. Ya tsere ba da daɗewa ba, ya yi tafiya zuwa Tunisia sannan kuma zuwa Misira, ya isa Alkahira ta 1952.

A lokacin barkewar yakin Algeria a shekarar 1954,Ahmed Ben Bella ya kasance ne a birnin Alkahira, inda ya zama daya daga cikin membobi tara na Kwamitin Juyin Juya Hali da Aiki wadanda suka shugabanci kungiyar Front de Liberation Nationale (FLN), wacce aka kafa a watan Nuwamba na shekarar. yayin wata ganawa ta sirri da shugabannin Algeria suka yi a Switzerland . Ba da daɗewa ba FLN ta fara tawaye da makamai ga Turawan mulkin mallaka na Faransa, [6] wanda hakan ya haifar da yaƙin gama gari tsakanin Algeria da Faransa.

Yaƙin Aljeriya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ben Bella (a dama) bayan sojojin Faransa sun kama shi.

Ben Bella ya taka muhimmiyar rawa yayin yakin; jagorantar FLN, tsara jigilar kayan ƙetare da tsara dabarun siyasa. Kodayake bai kasance a Aljeriya ba, an ci gaba da ƙoƙari kan rayuwarsa. A shekara ta 1956, ya ƙi karɓar kunshin da aka kawo ta tasi zuwa otel ɗin da ke Alkahira; wani bam ya fashe a cikin motar tasi yayin da yake tafiya, ya kashe direban. A cikin wannan shekarar, yayin da yake cikin otal dinsa a Tripoli, wani Bafaranshe dan bindiga ya shiga dakinsa ya yi harbi, ya ji rauni amma bai kashe shi ba; daga baya masu gadi suka kashe shi yayin da yake gudu, a kan iyakar Libya. A watan Oktoban shekarar 1956, hukumomin sojan Faransa suka kame shi a Algiers, wadanda suka yi fashin jirgin da yake ciki. Ya kasance fursuna har sai yarjejeniyar Evian a 1962, kuma an sake shi a ranar 5 ga watan Yunin. Bayan samun 'yancin kai na kasa, an nada shi Mataimakin Shugaban Algeria a majalisar ministocin Benyoucef Benkhedda. [7] Kamarsa da farko ta haifar da murabus din Alain Savary, wanda ke adawa da manufofin Guy Mollet; a matsayin fursuna a lokacin da ake tsaka da yakin ta'addanci na FLN, ya kasance ba shi da wata illa ta hanyar kasancewa tare da kungiyar.

Lokacin da shugaban kasar Masar Gamal Abdel Nasser ya gayyaci Ben Bella don yin magana a karon farko ga masu sauraron Masar, sai ya fashe da kuka saboda bai iya magana daidai da Larabci ba .[ana buƙatar hujja] Kamar yawa Arab yunkuri na lokaci, ya zai zo don bayyana kansa a matsayin " Nasserist " da kuma raya kusa dangantaka zuwa Misira ko kafin kasa 'yancin kai da aka cimma. Nasser ya ba da tallafi na ɗabi'a, da ɗabi'a da siyasa don harkar Aljeriya ya zama tushen matsalar masarautar siyasa ga Masar, saboda ta taka muhimmiyar rawa a shawarar Faransa na yin yaƙi da shi a lokacin Rikicin Suez na shekarar 1956.

Sakamakon goyon bayan da Pakistan ta baiwa FLN, an bai wa Ben Bella fasfo na diflomasiyya na Pakistan don yin damar tafiyarsa zuwa kasashen waje ta fuskar farautar kasa da kasa da Faransa da kawayensu suka hada kai. Ben Bella ya kuma yi tafiya a kan fasfo na diflomasiyyar Pakistan a lokacin shekarun da ya yi gudun hijira daga Algeria a cikin 1980s.

'Yancin Algeria[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Gwamnatin Ben Bella[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ben Bella tare da Fidel Castro da Che Guevara, Cuba, 1962
Shugaban Egypt Nasser tare da Bourkiba na Tunisia da Ben Bella, 1963

Bayan samun 'yancin kan Aljeriya, da sauri Ahmed Ben Bella ya zama sanannen shugaba. A watan Yunin shekarar 1962, ya kalubalanci shugabancin Firimiya Benyoucef Benkhedda ; wannan ya haifar da rikice-rikice da yawa tsakanin abokan hamayyarsa a cikin FLN, waɗanda yawancin masu goyon bayan Ben Bella ke hanzarta su, musamman a cikin rundunonin soji, wanda babban hafsansa Houari Boumédiènne . A watan Satumba na 1962, Bella ke iko da Aljeriya a cikin duka amma banda suna. An zabe shi firaminista a zaben fidda gwani a ranar 20 ga watan Satumba, wanda Amurka ta amince da shi a ranar 29 ga watan Satumba. An shigar da Aljeriya a matsayin memba na 109 na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya a ranar 8 ga watan Oktoba shekarar 1962.

A matsayin Firayim Minista, Ben Bella ya shirya halatta kamun kayan aiki wanda ma'aikatan Algeria ke aiwatarwa ba tare da bata lokaci ba. A watan Maris 1963, ya zana (tare da masu ba shi shawara) wasu ƙididdigar ƙa'idodi don ƙasƙantar da duk ƙasar mallakar Turai a baya. A cikin kalamansa, "shirin na Tripoli ya kasance wasiƙar da ba ta mutu ba, kuma 'yanci da juyin juya hali ba su da ma'ana, matuƙar ƙasar Aljeriya tana hannun manyan masu mallakar ƙasa". [8] Ya yi amfani da matsayinsa wajen tursasawa amincewa da kundin tsarin mulki da FLN ta zana, da kuma kawayen da ba su dace ba; Mohammed Khider da Ferhat Abbas sun yi murabus daga ofisoshinsu na siyasa a cikin shekarar 1963, ba sa jin dadin yadda ake nuna kama-karya da nunawa a kundin tsarin mulkin Ben Bella, wanda ya tanadi kafa wata jam’iyya daya kuma ta ki yarda da yawan siyasa. [9] Koyaya, wannan aikin bai gabatar da wata matsala ba ga al'ummar Algeria: an amince da kundin tsarin mulki kuma a ranar 15 ga watan Satumbar shekara ta 1963, an zabi Ben Bella a matsayin shugaban ƙasar, ba tare da hamayya ba kuma tare da babban rinjaye.

A lokacin shugabancin sa, Ahmed Ben Bella ya fuskanci kalubale na gina kayayyakin more rayuwa daga mulkin mallaka tun daga tushe; kasar da babu zaman kanta a jihar hadisai da kuma manyan ma'aikata ko da yaushe aka staffed ta Faransa. Duk da kaddara da nuna kyakyawar hanya ta mulki da salon rayuwa maras almubazzaranci (bai zauna a fadar gwamna ba, kuma ya ci gaba da bude kofa tare da 'yan kasar Aljeriya), ayyukan Ben Bella a cikin gwamnati ba koyaushe ya yi daidai da niyyarsa ba. Bayan daidaita kasar, ya shiga jerin shahararrun farko amma a hankali ana tafiyar da sauye-sauyen filaye don amfanin manoma marasa filaye, kuma ya kara komawa zuwa maganganun gurguzu. Manufar sa ta maye, ko kuma gudanar da kansa, an amince da shi ne bayan da manoman Aljeriya suka kwace tsoffin ƙasashen Faransa kuma shugaban Marxist Yugoslavia Josip Broz Tito ne ya ba da shawarar . Ya kuma yi aiki a kan ci gaban kasarsa, gabatar da gyare-gyare, gudanar da kamfe na fahimtar da kasa, da kirkirar masana’antu da dama [10] da yin kira ga zamantakewar tattalin arziki da Balarabawa . [11] Amma, a lokuta da yawa, ya saba da manufofin gwamnati yayin da yake tafiya, kamar yadda yake da Asusun Hadin Kai na kasa, wanda ya roki mutanen Aljeriya da su "mika wuya" su mika kayan ado da takardun kudi.

A cikin alaƙar ƙasa da ƙasa, dole ne ya ci gaba da haɗi tare da tsohon maigidan mulkin mallaka Faransa, kuma ya karɓi taimakon tattalin arziki daga duka Amurka da Soviet Union, yayin da kowannensu ke neman matsar da mulkinsa cikin yanayin ta da adawa da ɗayan. A lokaci guda, Ben Bella so Algeria ya zama shugaban Duniya ta Uku yantar ƙungiyoyi da kuma na Duniya ta Uku kanta. Don karfafa dangantaka da sauran kasashen da suka yi mulkin mallaka da wadanda suka yi mulkin mallaka, Aljeriya ta shiga kungiyar ba-ta-baya a karkashin gwamnatin Ben Bella, kuma ya kulla alaka da shugabannin Afirka kamar Gamal Abdel Nasser, Kwame Nkrumah, Modibo Keita da Sekou Toure don taimakawa kungiyoyin 'yan tawaye a duk fadin Afirka. [12] Ya kuma kulla kyakkyawar alaka da Fidel Castro, Che Guevara da Cuba ; bayan ziyarar sa ta shekarar 1962, Cuba ta aika da tawagar lafiya zuwa Algeria, tare da likitoci da taimakon likita, sannan daga baya ta aika da makamai da sojoji a matsayin taimako yayin Yakin Sand da Maroko . [13] An ba shi lambar yabo ta Jarumi na Tarayyar Soviet a ranar 30 ga watan Afrilu shekarar 1964. [14]

A lokacinsa, Ahmed Ben Bella ya gamu da gwagwarmayar siyasa tare da tsoffin shugabannin FLN, ciki har da Mohammed Khider, Ferhat Abbas, Mohammed Boudiaf da Hocine Aït Ahmed . Ahmed ya kafa kungiyar Front des Force Socialistes ( Socialist Forces Front ) (FFS) don fuskantar Ben Bella, sauran kuma suka shiga bayan kasancewarsu saniyar ware da shugabancin kama-karya na Ben Bella. A cikin 1963, FFS ta yi kira da a yi tawaye da makamai ga gwamnatin. Koyaya, tana da ƙarfi ne kawai a cikin yankin Kabylia, kuma a lokacin bazarar 1964 aka sarrafa tawayen kuma aka kame shugabannin FFS. [15]

Baya ga juriya ta siyasa, Ben Bella ya fuskanci adawa ta addini. Ofungiyar Malamai ta Aljeriya ta yi iƙirarin cewa “Musulunci na ƙasa” da Ben Bella yake so ya cimma ba aiki da ƙimomin Musulmin gaske ba ne, a'a ƙoƙari ne na faranta wa jama'a rai. [16]

An kifar da gwamnatinsa a watan Yunin shekarar 1965 yayin da yake shirin karbar bakuncin taron kasashen Afro da Asiya, a wani juyin mulkin da ba shi da jini wanda ministan tsaronsa Houari Boumédiène ya jagoranta . An tsare shi na tsawon watanni takwas a kurkukun karkashin kasa, sannan tsawon shekaru 14 masu zuwa ya kasance a tsare a tsare.

Bayan an sauke shi a shekara ta 1965, an tsare Ahmed Ben Bella na watanni takwas a kurkuku. Daga nan aka canza shi zuwa wani kauyen villa a Birouta, inda aka sanya shi a cikin tsare gida tsawon shekaru 14. Ya kasance, duk da haka, ya ba da izinin rayuwa ta sirri a can, kuma a cikin 1971 ya auri Zhora Sellami, 'yar jaridar Algeria; mahaifiyar Ben Bella ce ta shirya taron su. Sun zama musulmai masu lura da addini, kuma sun dauki 'yan mata biyu, Mehdia da Nouria. Bayan mutuwar Boumedienne a cikin shekarar 1978, an sauƙaƙa takunkumin da aka sanya a kansa a watan Yunin shekarar 1979, kuma an sake shi a ranar 30 ga watan Oktoba shekarar 1980. Ben Bella ya ɗan zauna a Faransa amma an kore shi a cikin shekara ta 1983. Ya koma Lausanne, Switzerland, kuma ya ƙaddamar da Mouvement zuba la Démocratie en Algérie (MDA), ƙungiya mai sassaucin ra'ayi ta Islama, a cikin 1984. A watan Satumbar shekarar 1990, ya koma Algeria, kuma a shekara ta 1991 ya jagoranci MDA a zagayen farko na zabubbukan majalisar dokokin kasar. An dakatar da MDA a cikin shekarar 1997.

Daga baya rayuwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin shekarar 2003 Ahmed Ben Bella an zabe shi a matsayin shugaban Kamfen na Kasa da Kasa na Zalunci a kan Iraki a Taron Alkahira. Ya bayyana kansa sau da yawa a cikin hirarrakin a matsayin mai kishin Islama na "ɗanɗano da son zaman lafiya." Duk da tsohuwar jam'iyyarsa daya daga baya ya yi kira ga dimokiradiyya a Aljeriya. Ya bayyana dabi'ar tsageranci da ke faruwa a duniyar Musulunci da cewa ya samo asali ne daga mummunar fassarar Musulunci. Duk da takaddama, an girmama shi saboda rawar da ya taka a gwagwarmayar adawa da mulkin mallaka kuma yawancin masanan Larabawa suna ganin shi daya daga cikin 'yan asalin Larabawa na asali na karshe.  ]

Ya kuma kasance shugaban kungiyar Tarayyar Afirka na Masu Hikima, wanda aka ba shi umarnin ya ba Kwamitin Kungiyar ta AU shawara a kan batutuwan da suka shafi rigakafin rikice-rikice, gudanarwa da kuma sasantawa. Sauran membobin kwamitin a lokacin su ne Shugaba Miguel Trovoada (tsohon shugaban São Tomé da Príncipe ), Dr. Salim A. Salim (tsohon Sakatare-Janar na OAU), Dr. Brigalia Bam (Shugaban Hukumar Zabe ta Afirka ta Kudu) ) da Elisabeth Pognon (tsohuwar Shugabar Kotun Tsarin Mulki ta Benin).  ]

Rashin lafiya, mutuwa da jana'izar ƙasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A watan Fabrairun shekara ta 2012, Ahmed Ben Bella ya shiga asibiti don duba lafiyarsa. A lokaci guda, wani rahoto da aka yada cewa ya mutu, amma dangin sa sun karyata hakan.

Ahmed Ben Bella ya mutu a ranar 11 ga watan Afrilu shekarar 2012 a gidansa a Algiers . Kodayake ba a san dalilan mutuwarsa ba, an yi masa maganin rashin lafiya sau biyu a Ain Naadja. Gawarsa tana kwance a jihar a ranar 12 ga watan Afrilu kafin a yi jana’izar a makabartar El Alia a ranar 13 ga watan Afrilu. Algeria ta ayyana kwanaki takwas na zaman makoki .

Shugabannin jihohi da na gwamnatoci sun halarci jana'izar ta Ben Bella[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kasa Take Mai martaba
Flag of Mauritania.svg Muritaniya</img>Flag of Mauritania.svg Muritaniya firayam Minista Moulaye Ould Mohammad Laghdaf
Flag of Morocco.svg Moroko</img>Flag of Morocco.svg Moroko firayam Minista Abdelilah Benkirane
Flag of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic.svg Sahrawi Republic</img>Flag of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic.svg Sahrawi Republic Shugaba Mohammad Abdelaziz
Flag of Tunisia.svg Tunisiya</img>Flag of Tunisia.svg Tunisiya Shugaba Moncef Marzouki

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Suez alwatika

Kara karantawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Aussaresses, General Paul, Yaƙin Casbah: Ta'addanci da Ta'addanci-ta'addanci a Aljeriya, 1955-1957 . New York: Littattafan Enigma, 2010. 978-1-929631-30-8.

Hanyoyin haɗin waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Political offices
Magabata
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President of Algeria Magaji
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Magabata
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Prime Minister of Algeria Vacant

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Lyes Laribi, L'Algérie des généraux, Max Milo, 2007, p.11
  2. Shown as 1916 in some sources, but his father changed his year of birth from 1916 to enable him to leave school early and help him on his farm
  3. Ben Bella, un président buteur s’est éteint…. OM.net.
  4. Olympique de Marseille, saison 1939-1940. Om4ever.com.
  5. Robert Merle, Ahmed Ben Bella, Edició de Materials, 1965
  6. Robert Merle, Ahmed Ben Bella, Edició de Materials, 1965
  7. Ottaway, Professor Marina; Ottaway, David; Ottaway, Marina (15 December 1970). "Algeria: The Politics of a Socialist Revolution". University of California Press – via Google Books.
  8. Jeffrey James Byrne, "Our Own Special Brand of Socialism: Algeria and the Contest of Modernities in the 1960s", in Diplomatic History, Volume 33, Issue 3 June 2009, 433
  9. Evans, Martin; Phillips, John, The anger of the dispossessed, Yale University Press, 2008, 74.
  10. Kang, Mani Singh, "The Legacy of the Revolutionary Algerian Statesman Ahmed Ben Bella (1916 – 2012)”, on The Washington Report on Middle East Affairs, American Educational Trust, Washington, 2012,42.
  11. Evans, Martin; Phillips, John, The anger of the dispossessed, Yale University Press, 2008, 75.
  12. Kang, Mani Singh, "The Legacy of the Revolutionary Algerian Statesman Ahmed Ben Bella (1916 – 2012)”, on The Washington Report on Middle East Affairs, American Educational Trust, Washington, 2012,43.
  13. Gleijeses, Piero, "Cuba’s First Venture in Africa: Algeria, 1961-65", in Journal of Latin American Studies, Cambridge University Press, Vol 28, No. 1, February 1996.
  14. (in Russian)Biography at the website on Heroes of the Soviet Union and Russia
  15. Evans, Martin; Phillips, John, The anger of the dispossessed, Yale University Press, 2008, 76.
  16. Evans, Martin; Phillips, John, The anger of the dispossessed, Yale University Press, 2008, 77.