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Kungiyar Tattalin Arzikin Ƙasar Afirka ta Tsakiya

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Kungiyar Tattalin Arzikin Ƙasar Afirka ta Tsakiya
Bayanai
Gajeren suna CEEAC da ECCAS
Iri international organization (en) Fassara da Regional Economic Communities (en) Fassara
Mulki
Hedkwata Libreville
Tarihi
Ƙirƙira 18 Oktoba 1983
Founded in Libreville
Wanda yake bi Union Douanière et Economique de l'Afrique Centrale (en) Fassara
ceeac-eccas.org

Ƙungiyar Tattalin Arzikin Ƙasar Afirka ta Tsakiya ( ECCAS ; French: Communauté Économique des États de l'Afrique Centrale , CEAC; Spanish , CEAC; Portuguese , CEEAC) Ƙungiyar Tattalin Arziƙi ta Ƙungiyar Tarayyar Afirka don inganta haɗin gwiwar tattalin arziki na yanki a Afirka ta Tsakiya . Tana "na nufin cimma 'yancin cin gashin kai na gamayya, da daukaka matsayin rayuwar al'ummarta da kuma tabbatar da kwanciyar hankali ta fuskar tattalin arziki ta hanyar hadin gwiwa mai jituwa".

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Hukumar Kwastam da Tattalin Arzikin Afirka ta Tsakiya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kungiyar Kwastam da Tattalin Arzikin Afirka ta Tsakiya (ko UDEAC daga sunanta a cikin Faransanci, Union Douanière et Économique de l’Afrique Centrale ), (a cikin Mutanen Espanya: Unión Aduanera y Económica de África Central , UAEAC), (a cikin Portuguese: União Aduaneira e Económica da África Central , UAEAC), wanda yarjejeniyar Brazzaville ta kafa a cikin 1964,[1] sun kafa ƙungiyar kwastan tare da kasuwanci kyauta tsakanin membobi da harajin waje na waje don shigo da kaya daga wasu ƙasashe. Yarjejeniyar ta fara aiki ne a shekara ta 1966 bayan da kasashe biyar na wancan lokaci suka amince da ita - Kamaru, Jamhuriyar Afirka ta Tsakiya, Chadi, Jamhuriyar Congo, da Gabon . Equatorial Guinea ta shiga Tarayyar ne a ranar 19 ga Disamba 1983. UDEAC ta sanya hannu kan wata yarjejeniya don kafa Ƙungiyar Tattalin Arziki da Tattalin Arziki na Afirka ta Tsakiya (CEMAC) don inganta dukkanin tsarin haɗin gwiwar yankuna ta hanyar kafa haɗin gwiwar kuɗi tare da CFA franc na Afirka ta Tsakiya a matsayin kudin gama gari; Cemac ne ya maye gurbinsa a hukumance a watan Yuni 1999 (ta hanyar yarjejeniya daga 1994). A halin yanzu CEMAC tana aiki da ƙungiyar kwastan da ƙungiyar kuɗi. Kasuwar gama gari tana nan, amma har yanzu akwai keɓancewa da yawa ga tsarin kuɗin fito.

Foundation[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A taron kolin da aka yi a watan Disamba na shekarar 1981, shugabannin UDEAC sun amince bisa manufa ta kafa wata al'umma mai fa'ida ta tattalin arziki na kasashen Afirka ta Tsakiya. An kafa ECCAS a ranar 18 ga Oktoba 1983 ta membobin UDEAC, São Tomé da Principe da membobin Ƙungiyar Tattalin Arziƙi na Manyan Tafkuna (CEPGL da aka kafa a 1976 ta DR Congo, Burundi da Rwanda ). Angola ta kasance mai sa ido har zuwa 1999, lokacin da ta zama cikakkiyar mamba.

ECCAS ta fara aiki a cikin 1985, amma ya yi aiki tsawon shekaru da yawa saboda matsalolin kuɗi (rashin biyan kuɗin zama membobin ƙungiyar) da kuma rikici a yankin Manyan Tafkuna . Yakin da aka yi a Jamhuriyar Demokaradiyyar Kwango ya kasance mai raba kan jama'a musamman kasashen Rwanda da Angola. An ayyana ECCAS a matsayin ginshiƙi na Ƙungiyar Tattalin Arzikin Afrika (AEC), amma tuntuɓar juna tsakanin AEC da ECCAS an kafa ta ne kawai a watan Oktoba 1999 saboda rashin aiki na ECCAS tun 1992 (ECCAS ya sanya hannu kan yarjejeniya kan dangantaka tsakanin AEC da yankin ). blcs (RECs) a cikin Oktoba 1999). AEC ta sake tabbatar da mahimmancin ECCAS a matsayin manyan al'ummomin tattalin arziki a Afirka ta Tsakiya a taron share fage na uku na Majalisar Tattalin Arziki da Zamantakewa (ECOSOC) a watan Yuni 1999.

Shugaban kasar Burundi Pierre Buyoya ne ya jagoranci taron a Libreville a ranar 6 ga Fabrairun 1998. Shugabannin kasashe da na gwamnatocin da suka halarci taron sun jajirce wajen tayar da kungiyar. Firaministan Angola ya kuma nuna cewa kasarsa za ta zama cikakkiyar mamba. Taron ya amince da kasafin kudin Faransa miliyan 10 na 1998 kuma ya bukaci sakatariyar ta:

  • Sami taimako daga UNECA don tantance ayyukan gudanar da sakatariya; don tantance gudunmawar da kasashe membobin suka bayar; da tsarin albashi da tsarin albashi na ma’aikatan sakatariya
  • Tara wani taro na musamman na Majalisar Ministoci da wuri-wuri don tantance shawarwarin UNECA; Majalisar ya kamata ta tsara shawarwarin sabon tsarin gudanarwa na sakatariya da kuma sake fasalin gudunmawar da kowace ƙasa memba za ta biya.

Taron ya kuma bukaci kasashen yankin da su lalubo hanyoyin warware matsalolinsu na siyasa cikin lumana. Shugaban ya kuma yi kira ga kasashe mambobin kungiyar da su goyi bayan dage takunkumin da aka sanya wa kasarsa baki daya. A yayin bikin rantsar da shugaban kasar Gabon Bongo a ranar 21 ga watan Janairun 1999, an gudanar da karamin taron shugabannin ECCAS. Shugabannin sun tattauna matsalolin da suka shafi ayyukan ECCAS da kuma samar da mukami na uku na mataimakin Sakatare-Janar, wanda aka sanya wa Angola. Angola ta shiga cikin al'umma a yayin wannan taron.[2]

Abubuwan da suka faru na kwanan nan[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Taron shugabannin kasashe da gwamnatoci karo na 10 ya gudana a Malabo a watan Yunin 2002. Wannan taron kolin ya yanke shawarar aiwatar da wata yarjejeniya kan kafa cibiyar sadarwa ta 'yan majalisar dokokin Afirka ta Tsakiya (REPAC) da kuma amincewa da ka'idojin Majalisar Zaman Lafiya da Tsaro a Afirka ta Tsakiya (COPAX), gami da Hukumar Tsaro da Tsaro (CDS), Rundunar Sojojin Afirka ta Tsakiya (FOMAC) da Tsarin Gargaɗi na Farko na Afirka ta Tsakiya (MARAC). An kuma maraba da Rwanda a hukumance bayan dawowarta a matsayin cikakken memba na ECCAS.

A ranar 24 ga Janairu, 2003, Tarayyar Turai (EU) (EU) (EU) (EU) ta kammala yarjejeniya ta kudi tare da ECCAS da CEmac, wanda ya dace da ECCAS da CEMAC zuwa kungiya daya, tare da ECCAS ta dauki alhakin zaman lafiya da tsaro na yankin ta hanyar yarjejeniyar tsaro ta COPAX. . CEAC ba ɗaya daga cikin ginshiƙan Ƙungiyar Tattalin Arzikin Afirka ba, amma membobinta suna da alaƙa da ita ta Ƙungiyar Tattalin Arzikin Ƙasar Afirka ta Tsakiya. EU tana da ayyukan wanzar da zaman lafiya da yawa a DR Congo : Operation Artemis (Yuni zuwa Satumba 2003), EUPOL Kinshasa (daga Oktoba 2003) da EUSEC DR Congo (daga Mayu 2005).

Taron shugabannin kasashe da gwamnatoci karo na 11 a Brazzaville a cikin watan Janairun 2004 ya yi maraba da yadda yarjejeniyar da ta shafi kafa majalisar zaman lafiya da tsaro a Afirka ta tsakiya (COPAX) ta samu adadin da ake bukata na amincewa da fara aiki. Taron ya kuma amince da kudurin aiwatar da shirin NEPAD a Afirka ta Tsakiya da kuma ayyana daidaiton jinsi.[3]

A ranar 23 ga Satumba, 2009, bisa ga Ƙudurin Shugaban Ƙasa na 2009-26 kuma kamar yadda aka buga a cikin Tarayya Register / Vol. 74, No. 183 (Takardun Shugaban kasa 48363) An sanya ECCAS ta cancanci a ƙarƙashin Dokar Kula da Fitar da Makamai ta Amurka don samar da labaran tsaro da sabis na tsaro. Wannan ya sa ƙungiyar ECCAS da (a zahiri) ƙasashen da ke ƙarƙashin yarjejeniyarsu sun cancanci Shirin Tallace-tallacen Soja na Ƙasashen Waje na Amurka (watau gwamnati ga tallace-tallace da taimako na gwamnati) bisa ga Dokar Kula da Fitar da Makamai da sauran irin taimakon Amurka kamar yadda kwangilar USG ta umarta zuwa Masana'antar Amurka don irin wannan tallafin bisa ga (ITAR) [1] .

A cikin 2007, Rwanda ta yanke shawarar barin ƙungiyar don cire haɗin gwiwa a cikin membobinta a cikin tubalan kasuwanci na yanki kuma ta yadda za ta fi mai da hankali kan kasancewarta a cikin EAC da COMESA.[4] Rwanda ta kasance memba ce ta kafa kungiyar kuma tana cikinta tun 18 ga Oktoba 1981. Daga baya ya koma ECCAS a cikin 2016.[5]

Haɗin kai na tattalin arziki[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ƙungiyar Tattalin Arziki da Kuɗi na Afirka ta Tsakiya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ƙungiyar Tattalin Arziki da Kuɗi na Afirka ta Tsakiya (ko CEMAC daga sunanta a cikin Faransanci : Communauté Économique et Monétaire de l'Afrique Centrale, cikin Mutanen Espanya : Comunidad Económica y Monetaria de África ta Tsakiya, kuma a cikin Portuguese : Comunidade Económica e Monetária da África ta Tsakiya ) kungiya ce ta kasashen Afirka ta Tsakiya wacce Kamaru, Jamhuriyar Afirka ta Tsakiya, Chadi, Jamhuriyar Kongo, Equatorial Guinea da Gabon suka kafa don inganta hadewar tattalin arziki tsakanin kasashen da ke da kudin bai daya, CFA franc . UDEAC ta rattaba hannu kan wata yarjejeniya don kafa CEMAC don inganta dukkan tsarin haɗin gwiwar yankuna ta hanyar kafa haɗin gwiwar kuɗi tare da CFA franc na Afirka ta Tsakiya a matsayin kudin gama gari; Cemac ne ya maye gurbinsa a hukumance a watan Yuni 1999 (ta hanyar yarjejeniya daga 1994). [6]

Manufofin CEMAC sune haɓaka kasuwanci, kafa cibiyar kasuwanci ta gaskiya, da ƙarin haɗin kai tsakanin al'ummomi da ga ƙasashe da yankuna marasa galihu. A cikin 1994, ya yi nasarar gabatar da ƙuntatawa ga ƙididdiga da raguwa a cikin iyaka da adadin kuɗin fito. A halin yanzu, ƙasashen CEmac suna raba tsarin kuɗi na bai ɗaya, tsari, da tsarin shari'a, kuma suna kiyaye jadawalin kuɗin fito gama gari kan shigo da kaya daga ƙasashen da ba na CEMAC ba. A ka'ida, an kawar da jadawalin kuɗin fito kan ciniki tsakanin CEAC, amma an jinkirta aiwatar da wannan cikakken aiki. Motsin jari a cikin CEmac kyauta ne.

Kasancewa cikin al'ummomin yanki
Ƙasa Farashin ECCAS CEMAC SADC EAC
</img> Angola Ee A'a Ee A'a
</img> Burundi Ee A'a A'a Ee
</img> Kamaru Ee Ee A'a A'a
</img> Jamhuriyar Afirka ta Tsakiya Ee Ee A'a A'a
</img> Chadi Ee Ee A'a A'a
</img> Jamhuriyar Demokradiyyar Kongo Ee A'a Ee Ee
</img> Equatorial Guinea Ee Ee A'a A'a
</img> Gabon Ee Ee A'a A'a
</img> Jamhuriyar Kongo Ee Ee A'a A'a
</img> Rwanda Ee A'a A'a Ee
</img> Sao Tomé da Principe Ee A'a A'a A'a

Makasudai[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Babban burin shi ne kafa kasuwar gama-gari ta Afirka ta Tsakiya . A taron shugabannin Malabo da na gwamnatocin da aka yi a shekarar 1999, an gano fannoni hudu da kungiyar ta ba da fifiko:

  • don haɓaka damar wanzar da zaman lafiya, tsaro da kwanciyar hankali - a matsayin muhimman abubuwan da ake buƙata don ci gaban tattalin arziki da zamantakewa
  • don haɓaka haɗin gwiwar jiki, tattalin arziki da kuɗi
  • don haɓaka al'adar haɗin gwiwar ɗan adam
  • don kafa tsarin samar da kuɗi mai cin gashin kansa don ECCAS

Tsarin[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Taron shugabannin kasashe da gwamnatoci
  • Majalisar Ministoci
  • Sakatare Janar (Saratare-Janar daya zaba har tsawon shekaru hudu da mataimakan sakatare-janar guda uku)
  • Kotun Shari'a
  • Hukumar Tuntuba

Yarjejeniya da ladabi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Yarjejeniyar Kafa Ƙungiyar Tattalin Arzikin Ƙasar Afirka ta Tsakiya (ECCAS)
  • Yarjejeniyar Kafa Cibiyar Sadarwar Yan Majalisun ECCAS (REPAC)
  • Yarjejeniyar Taimakawa Juna Tsakanin Membobin Kasashe na ECCAS
  • Yarjejeniyar da ta shafi Ƙaddamar da Yarjejeniyar Tsaron Juna a Afirka ta Tsakiya (COPAX)

Abubuwan da aka haɗa zuwa yarjejeniyar ECCAS[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Yarjejeniya kan Dokokin Asalin don samfuran da za a yi ciniki tsakanin ƙasashe membobi na ECCAS
  • Yarjejeniya kan Matsalolin Ciniki Ba-Tariff ba
  • Yarjejeniya kan Sake fitar da kaya a cikin ECCAS
  • Yarjejeniya kan hanyoyin wucewa da zirga-zirga
  • Yarjejeniya kan haɗin gwiwar kwastam a cikin ECCAS
  • Yarjejeniya kan Asusun Tallafawa don Asarar Kuɗi
  • Yarjejeniya kan 'Yancin motsi da Haƙƙin Kafa 'yan ƙasa na ƙasashe mambobi a cikin ECCAS
  • Yarjejeniya kan Gidan Tsara don ECCAS
  • Yarjejeniya kan Haɗin kai a Ci gaban Noma tsakanin ƙasashe membobin ECCAS
  • Yarjejeniyar Haɗin kai a Ci gaban Masana'antu tsakanin ƙasashe membobin ECCAS
  • Yarjejeniya kan Haɗin kai a cikin Sufuri da Sadarwa tsakanin ƙasashe membobi na ECCAS
  • Yarjejeniya kan Haɗin kai a Kimiyya da Fasaha tsakanin ƙasashe membobin ECCAS
  • Yarjejeniya kan hadin gwiwar Makamashi tsakanin kasashe mambobin ECCAS
  • Yarjejeniyar Haɗin kai a cikin albarkatun ƙasa tsakanin ƙasashe membobi na ECCAS
  • Yarjejeniya kan Haɗin kai don haɓaka albarkatun ɗan adam, ilimi, horo da al'adu tsakanin ƙasashe membobin ECCAS
  • Yarjejeniyar Haɗin kai a Yawon shakatawa tsakanin ƙasashe membobi na ECCAS
  • Yarjejeniya kan Sauƙaƙawa da Daidaita takaddun ciniki da Tsari a cikin ECCAS
  • Yarjejeniya kan Halin Ƙarƙashin Ƙasa, Ƙarƙashin Ƙarƙashin Ƙasa, Tsibiri, Tsibirin Tsibirin da/ko Ƙasashe Masu Cigaba

Ayyukan zaman lafiya da tsaro[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kasashen Afirka ta Tsakiya sun amince da yarjejeniyar hana cin zarafi a karshen taro karo na biyar na kwamitin ba da shawara kan harkokin tsaro na MDD a Afirka ta tsakiya da aka gudanar a birnin Yaoundé na kasar Kamaru. Yarjejeniyar wadda aka kulla a ranar 9 ga watan Satumban shekarar 1994, ta zo ne bayan ganawa ta kwanaki biyar da tattaunawa tsakanin kwararrun soja da ministocin kasashen Kamaru, Jamhuriyar Afirka ta Tsakiya, Jamhuriyar Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon da Sao Tomé da Principe . A taron koli na kwamitin ba da shawara na dindindin na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya kan Tambayoyin Tsaro a Afirka ta Tsakiya wanda ya gudana a Yaoundé a tsakanin 25-26 Fabrairu 1999, kasashe membobin sun yanke shawarar kirkiro wata kungiya don inganta, kiyayewa da karfafa zaman lafiya da tsaro a Afirka ta Tsakiya., wanda za a kira shi Majalisar Zaman Lafiya da Tsaro a Afirka ta Tsakiya (COPAX). Ka'idar COPAX ta fara aiki yanzu.

Ƙungiyoyin fasaha na majalisar COPAX[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Tsarin Gargaɗi na Farko na Afirka ta Tsakiya (MARAC), wanda ke tattarawa da kuma nazarin bayanai don gano farkon ganowa da rigakafin rikice-rikice.
  • Hukumar tsaro da tsaro (CDS), wadda ita ce taron hafsoshin hafsoshin sojojin kasa da manyan kwamandojin 'yan sanda da na Jandarma daga kasashe daban-daban. Aikinsa shi ne tsarawa, tsarawa da ba da shawarwari ga ƙungiyoyin masu yanke shawara na al'umma don fara ayyukan soja idan an buƙata.
  • Rundunar Sojojin Afirka ta Tsakiya (FOMAC), wacce runduna ce mai zaman kanta wacce ta kunshi rundunonin soji daga kasashe mambobi, wadanda manufarsu ita ce cimma manufofin zaman lafiya, tsaro da agajin jin kai.

An amince da oda a tsaye don COPAX, gami da na CDS, MARAC da FOMAC a watan Yuni 2002 a babban taron koli na 10th a Malabo .

A watan Janairun 2000, Gabon ta dauki nauyin atisayen wanzar da zaman lafiya a yankin "Gabon 2000" da nufin kara karfin jihohin ECCAS a fagen wanzar da zaman lafiya da rigakafin rikice-rikice da sarrafa su. Wannan darasi yana wakiltar aikace-aikacen kai tsaye na tsarin RECAMP na Faransa (ƙarfafa ƙarfin wanzar da zaman lafiya na Afirka).

An gudanar da babban taron koli na ECCAS da CEMAC a Libreville a ranar 23 ga Yuni 2000. Ministocin harkokin wajen kasashe 10 na Afirka ta Tsakiya sun yi taro a Jamhuriyar Demokradiyyar Kongo a ranakun 16 da 17 ga watan Agustan 2001 don tattauna batun tsaro a yankinsu da yaki ya daidaita. Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ce ta dauki nauyin taron, kuma Rwanda ce kawai ta ki halarta.

An gudanar da taron hafsoshin hafsoshin tsaro a Brazzaville a watan Oktoban 2003, inda aka yanke shawarar cewa za a samar da wata rundunar kiyaye zaman lafiya mai girman birged domin shiga tsakani a yankunan tsakiyar Afrika da ba su da kwanciyar hankali. Wannan zai iya zama ɗaya daga cikin birged biyar da Tarayyar Afirka ta tsara na rundunar Jiragen Sama na Afirka, birged ɗaya ga kowane yanki ( Arewa, Yamma, Tsakiya, Gabas da Kudancin Afirka ). Taron ya ba da shawarar cewa masu shirye-shiryen soji daga kowace jihohin ECCAS su kafa wata kungiya da za ta tantance bayanan rundunar. Sun kuma ba da shawarar kafa wata cibiyar horar da zaman lafiya ta hadin gwiwa da atisayen soji duk bayan shekaru biyu. Na farko a cikin wadannan shi ne faruwa a Chadi .

MICOPAX[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Manufar tabbatar da zaman lafiya a Jamhuriyar Afirka ta Tsakiya (MICOPAX) wani aiki ne na zaman lafiya a Jamhuriyar Afirka ta Tsakiya karkashin jagorancin ECCAS.[7] Tana da hannu a yakin Bush na Jamhuriyar Afirka ta Tsakiya da rikicin Jamhuriyar Afirka ta Tsakiya na 2012-2013 .

Nassoshi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. "Traité instituant une Union douanière et économique de l'Afrique centrale" (PDF) (in Faransanci). CEMAC. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 June 2013. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
  2. NEPAD, The Africa Platform on Development Effectiveness, http://www.africa-platform.org/fr/perspectives-africaines/communautes-economiques-regionales/communaute-economique-des-etats-dafrique Archived 2018-12-02 at the Wayback Machine, Retrieved 2 january 2018
  3. "Federal Register, Volume 74 Issue 183 (Wednesday, September 23, 2009)".
  4. "SADC, COMESA and the EAC: Conflicting regional and trade agendas". Institute for Global Dialogue. October 2008. Archived from the original on 1 January 2017. Retrieved 7 May 2011.
  5. "Rwanda back to Central Africa bloc, 10 years on". 2016-08-20. Retrieved 2018-03-19.
  6. CEMAC Treaty (in French)
  7. "MICOPAX". EuropeAid – European Commission. 2012-05-15. Archived from the original on 2013-05-11.