Mutanen Itsekiri

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Itsekiri People
Itsekiri traditional marriage in Nigeria.jpg
Jimlar yawan jama'a
c. circa 3.2 million
Harsuna
Addini
Traditional religion 2%

Itsekiri (wanda kuma ake kira Isekiri, iJekri, Itsekri, Ishekiri, ko Itsekhiri ) ɗayan rukunin Yarbawa ne na yankin Niger Delta na Najeriya, Jihar Delta . [1] Mutanen Itsekiri a yanzu suna da sama da mutane miliyan 3 kuma galibi suna rayuwa a cikin gundumomin ƙananan hukumomin Warri South, Warri North da Warri South West da ke jihar Delta a gabar Tekun Atlantika na Najeriya . Za a iya samun mahimman al'ummomin Itsekiris a wasu sassa na jihohin Edo da Ondo da kuma a wasu biranen Nijeriya da dama da suka haɗa da Lagos, Sapele, Benin City, Port Harcourt da Abuja . Mutane da yawa daga zuriyar Itsekiri suma suna zaune a ƙasar Ingila, Amurka da Kanada. The Itsekiris suna da kusanci sosai da Yarbawa na Kudu maso Yammacin Najeriya kuma mafi yawanci ga mutanen Urhobo (musamman Okpe) da mutanen Edo.

Itsekiri a al'adance suna kiran ƙasarsu kamar Masarautar Warri ko 'Iwerre' a matsayin suna mai dacewa - wanda ke da alaƙa da yankin da gundumomin ƙananan hukumomin Warri uku suka mamaye. Yankin babbar cibiya ce ta danyen mai da iskar gas da kuma tace mai a garin Warri (garin da ke da ƙabilu da yawa) shi ne tushen masana'antu da kasuwanci na yankin Jihar Delta.

Halin ɗabi'a[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Itekiri mutane ne masu asali da asalin ƙabilu waɗanda suke magana da wani yare wanda yake da nasaba sosai da Yarbawa na kudu maso yammacin Najeriya da kuma Igala na tsakiyar Najeriya [2] amma kuma wanda ya ari wasu al'adu daga mutanen Edo na garin Benin, idan aka ba da sarauta da Daular Benin ta taɓa aiwatarwa a kan yankin, yaren Fotigal a cikin maganganun kasuwanci, kamar yadda Itsekiri su ne mutanen farko a Najeriya da suka kulla hulɗa da Turawan Fotigal waɗanda ke binciken gabar Afirka ta Yamma, da ma kwanan nan, Ingilishi. Kodayake yana da nasaba da ilimin harshe da ƙabilun Yarbawa da Igala, amma, ta hanyar ƙarni na cudanyar zamani na Itsekiris suna da asalin asalin kabilu. Suna da kusanci sosai da kananan kungiyoyin Kudu-maso-Gabas da Kudu-Kudu-Kudu na Kudu-Kudu - Ijebu, Akure, Ikale, Ilaje Ondo da Owo ), amma Edo, Urhobo, Ijaw a yau mabiya addinin kirista ne (Furotesta da Roman Katolika) ta hanyar addini .

Don haka kasancewar an sami ƙarni shida na al'adun gargajiya kai tsaye ga Kiristancin Yammaci da sauran tasirin Afirka, harshe da al'adun Itsekiri na zamani sun samu nasarar rikiɗewa zuwa wasu al'adu da yawa waɗanda suka rinjayi ci gabanta. Hakanan saboda yawan hadadden kwayar halittar yawancin Itsekiris a cikin ƙarni da yawa, mutane da yawa da ke nuna kansu a matsayin Itsekiri yawanci zai zama hadadden haɗuwa da kowane ɗayan da aka ambata a sama da ƙabilu. Don haka zamani Itsekiris na iya kasancewa shine kawai ƙabilar kudancin Najeriya wanda ya kusan zama cikakke iri-iri (gauraye) a cikin yanayin halittar su. Gabaɗaya babu wani bambancin yare a cikin harshen Itsekiri shima ya zama na musamman ga yankin kuma mai yiwuwa sakamakon sakamakon haɗin kan mutanen Itsekiri da wuri zuwa ƙaramar ƙasa mai matsakaiciyar ƙasa daga ƙarni na 15 zuwa gaba.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A karni na 15, mutanen Itsekiris na farko sun karbi wani basarake Ginuwa (wanda ake kira "Iginuwa" a cikin Harshen Bini) daga Masarautar Benin a matsayin masarauta, kuma cikin sauri ya hade cikin daula a karkashin mulkinsa. [3] A al'adance masunta da 'yan kasuwa, Itsekiri suna daga cikin na farko a yankin da suka yi hulɗa da ' yan kasuwar Fotigal. [4] Waɗannan ma'amala a cikin ƙarni na 16 sun jagoranci Itsekiri ya zama da farko Roman Katolika .

Masarautar Itsekiri ta ci gaba har zuwa yau, tare da nadin Ogiame Ikenwoli a ranar 12 ga Disamba a 2015. Babban birnin Itsekiri shine Ode-Itsekiri (wanda ake kira "babban warri" ko "Ale iwerre"), duk da cewa babban gidan masarautar yana cikin garin Warri wanda shine birni mafi girma a yankin kuma gida ne ga sauran al'ummomi daban-daban ciki har da Urhobos, Ijaws, Isoko, da sauran ƙungiyoyin Najeriya da na ƙasashen waje da ke aiki a masana'antar mai da gas.

Itsekiri a yau[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Itsekiri, kodayake yan tsiraru a cikin Najeriya, ana ɗaukar su a matsayin masu ilimi sosai[ana buƙatar hujja] da kuma ƙabilu masu wadata[ana buƙatar hujja] tare da yawan karatu da rubutu[ana buƙatar hujja] da kuma al'adun gargajiya masu ɗumbin yawa.[ana buƙatar hujja] The Itsekiris suna da ɗayan tsoffin tarihin ilimin yamma a Afirka ta Yamma ,[ana buƙatar hujja] kuma an lura dasu don samar da ɗayan tsofaffin ɗaliban jami'a - Olu na Masarautar Warri, Olu Atuwatse I, Dom Domingo ɗalibin da ya kammala karatun digiri na ƙarni na 17 na Jami'ar Coimbra a Fotigal. A yau, ana iya samun Itsekiris da yawa suna aiki a cikin ƙwarewar[ana buƙatar hujja] musamman magani,[ana buƙatar hujja] doka[ana buƙatar hujja] da kuma ilimin ilimin[ana buƙatar hujja] da kuma kasuwanci,[ana buƙatar hujja] ciniki[ana buƙatar hujja] da kuma masana'antu[ana buƙatar hujja] kuma suna daga cikin jagororin da suka jagoranci ci gaban sana'oi a Nijeriya a lokacin farkon-zuwa-tsakiyar ƙarni na 20.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Al'adu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Itekiri a al'adance ya kasance a cikin al'ummar da ke karkashin mulkin masarauta (Olu) da kuma majalisar sarakuna [5] waɗanda suka kafa sarauta ko masu mulki. Kungiyar ta Itsekiri da kanta an tsara ta tare da layin wani aji na sama wanda ya kunshi dangin sarauta da masu fada aji - 'Oloyes da Olareajas' wadannan an fi samosu ne daga gidajen masu martaba wadanda suka hada da Gidajen Sarauta da Gidajen Olgbotsere (Firayim Minista ko mai yin sarki ) da Iyatsere (ministan tsaro). Matsakaici ko Omajaja haifaffen Itsekiris ne ko burghers. A sakamakon tsarin bautar da cinikin bayi akwai rukuni na uku 'Oton-Eru' ko waɗanda suka fito daga rukunin bawan da kakanninsu suka zo daga wani wuri kuma suka zauna a cikin Itsekiriland a matsayin masu ba da izini ko bawan bayi. [6] A cikin al'ummar Itsekiri ta zamani ajin bawa baya kasancewa kasancewar duk ana ɗaukar su 'yan-' yanci.

A al'adance, mazaje 'yan kabilar Itsekiri suna sanya wata babbar riga mai dogon hannu wacce ake kira Kemeje, su sanya rigar George a kugu, sannan su sanya hular hular gashin da ke makale da shi. Matan suna sanya rigar ruwa kuma suna ɗaura George wrapper a kugu. Suna sanya kayan kwalliyar kai kala-kala waɗanda aka fi sani da Nes (gyale) ko murjani. Hakanan an san Itsekiris saboda ƙwarewar kamun kifi na gargajiya, waƙoƙi masu daɗi, raye-raye na gargajiya masu ban sha'awa da masquerades masu kayatarwa da gwanin jirgin ruwa. [7]

Addini[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kafin bayyanar Kiristanci a ƙarni na 16, kamar sauran ƙungiyoyin Afirka da yawa, Itsekiri sunfi bin wani nau'in addini wanda aka sani da Ebura-tsitse (wanda ya danganci bautar kakanni) wanda ya shiga cikin al'adun gargajiya na Itsekiri na zamani. . Da zarar ya zama babban sanannen tsarin Kiristanci na yamma a cikin Itsekiriland tsawon ƙarni,[ana buƙatar hujja] yan tsirarun mutanen Itsekiris ne Roman Katolika a yau yayin da yawancin su Furotesta ne musamman Baptist da Anglican .

Yaren Itsekiri[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

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Geographic distribution
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Duk da cewa asalin halittar ta Itsekiri wani haɗaɗɗen cakuɗa ne na kabilu da kabilu daban-daban da suka zauna a yankin su, yaren Itsekiri yana da alaƙa sosai da Ilaje da sauran yarukan Yarbawa na kudu maso gabas da Igala . [8] Hakanan yaren Bini, Fotigal da Ingilishi sun yi tasiri sosai saboda ƙarni na hulɗa da mutane daga waɗannan ƙasashen. Koyaya, ya kasance babban reshe na gidan Yoruboid [9] na harsuna har ma da adana kayan tarihi ko ɓataccen lalatattun yaren Yarbanci saboda keɓancewar da yake yi a yankin Neja-Delta inda ta ci gaba daga babban rukunan yarukan Yarbanci.

Ba kamar kusan dukkanin mahimman Harsunan Nijeriya ba, yaren Itsekiri ba shi da yarurruka kuma ana magana dashi gaba ɗaya ba tare da bambancin magana ba banda amfani da 'ch' na yau da kullun 'ts' (sh) a cikin lafazin wasu mutane Itsekiris, mis Chekiri maimakon daidaitaccen Shekiri amma waɗannan halaye ne na furucin mutum maimakon bambancin yare. Wannan na iya zama abin alaƙa da bambancin yare na baya. Harshen Ingilishi yana ci gaba da yin tasiri mai ƙarfi a kan harshen Itsekiri duka a cikin tasirin ci gaban sa da kuma yaduwar shi a matsayin yare na farko tsakanin amongan zamani. Harshen Yarbanci na zamani (iri-iri da ake magana da shi a Legas) yana da alama yana tasirin harshen Itsekiri wani ɓangare saboda kamanceceniya tsakanin harsunan biyu da kuma sauƙin karɓar kalmomin Yarbanci na yarbanci ta yawancin jama'ar Itsekiri da ke zaune a biranen Yammacin Najeriya. Yanzu haka ana koyar da Itsekiri a makarantun cikin gida har zuwa matakin digiri na jami'a a Najeriya.

Akwai wasu al'ummomin Itsekiri masu ikon cin gashin kansu kamar su Ugborodo, koko, Omadino da Obodo wadanda tarihinsu ya gabaci kafa karni na 15 a masarautar Warri . Al’umar Ugborodo suna ikirarin cewa asalinsu daga Ijebu wata babbar karamar Yarbawa ce

Sananne mutane[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Ikenwoli Godfrey Emiko (Olu na Masarautar Warri)
  • Nanna Olomu (hamshakin mai kuɗi kuma gwamnan kogin Benin, ya jagoranci yakin na Itsekiri na adawa da mulkin mallakar Birtaniyya)
  • Festus Okotie-Eboh (dan siyasa, ministan kudin Najeriya na farko)
  • Arthur Perst (Ministan Sadarwa na farko a Najeriya, Alkalin Babbar Kotu kuma Babban Kwamishina a Burtaniya)
  • Alfred Rewane (ɗan kasuwa kuma mai kuɗi na NADECO)
  • Sunday Tuoyo (Birgediya-Janar na Najeriya kuma gwamnan soja na Jihar Ondo)
  • Misan Sagay (marubucin allo)
  • Emmanuel Uduaghan (ɗan siyasa, gwamnan jihar Delta)
  • Omawumi Megbele (mawaƙi)
  • Oritse Femi (makadi)
  • Florence Omagbemi - Kocin ƙungiyar kwallon ƙafa ta mata U20 mata kuma tsohuwar ‘yar wasa a kungiyar Super Falcons.
  • Fasto Ayo Oritsejafor (shugaban ƙungiyar kiristocin Najeriya)
  • Grace Alele-Williams (Farfesa a fannin Lissafi, marubuciya kuma mace ta farko da ta zama mataimakiyar shugabar jami’ar Nijeriya).
  • Alexander Boyo (Farfesan Magunguna wanda ya kafa mahaifin cututtukan asibiti)
  • Amaju Pinnick (shugaban hukumar kwallon kafa ta Najeriya)
  • Tuedon Morgan (dan tseren gudun fanfalakin Najeriya - Guinness ta duniya 2)
  • Sam Oritsetimeyin Omatseye (Mawallafin Nijeriya kuma mawallafi)
  • Dudu Omagbemi (dan wasan kwallon kafa Mikkelin Pallioiliajat)
  • Oritsejolomi Thomas (wanda ya kafa babbar kwalejin koyon aikin likita ta Legas, mataimakin shugaban jami’ar Ibadan)
  • Leslie Harriman (wakilin Majalisar Dinkin Duniya na dindindin a Najeriya kuma shugaban kwamitin musamman na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya kan yaki da wariyar launin fata a cikin 1970s)
  • Allison Ayida (mai ba da shawara kan tattalin arziki, marubuciya kuma babbar sakatariya a Ma’aikatar Tattalin Arziki ta Tarayya)
  • Julie Coker (Miss Western Nigeria, mai watsa labarai, kuma 'yar jarida)
  • Tee Mac Omatshola Iseli (mai kaɗa sarewa da kiɗan gargajiya)

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

 

Hanyoyin haɗin waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. [1]
  2. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/61232/Benue-Congo-languages/214891/Defoid?anchor=ref708824
  3. Merchant prince of the Niger delta, Prof Obaro Ikime, Heinemann Educational 1968
  4. journal of the Anthropological Institute, Old Series Vol. XXVIII by Messrs. R.K. Granville and F.N. Roth
  5. Prof P.C. Lloyd Ethnographic Survey of Africa, Western Africa, Part XIII (1957)
  6. A History of Itsekiri, William A Moore
  7. Merchant Prince of the Niger Delta by Prof Obaro Ikime, Heinemann 1968
  8. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/61232/Benue-Congo-languages/214891/Defoid?anchor=ref708824
  9. Ethnologue Languages of the World Sixteenth edition 2009