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Rikicin Jos, 2010

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Rikicin Jos, 2010
ethnic riot (en) Fassara da riot (en) Fassara
Bayanai
Ƙasa Najeriya
Wuri
Map
 9°54′N 8°54′E / 9.9°N 8.9°E / 9.9; 8.9

Rikicin Jos na shekara ta 2010, rikici ne da ya faru a tsakanin ƙabilar Musulmi da Kirista a ciki da kewayen birnin Jos dake a tsakiyar Najeriya. Jos babban birnin jihar Filato ne, Jos na tsakiyar Najeriya a taswirar ƙasar, hakan ya sa birnin ya raba tsakanin arewacin Najeriya da akasarinsu musulmai ne, da kuma kudancin ƙasar waɗanda galibin su Kiristoci ne.[1] Tun daga shekara ta 2001, yankin yana fama da tashe-tashen hankula da dalilai da yawa suka haddasa.[2] Majiyoyin yaɗa labarai da dama sun bayyana rikicin a matsayin " tashin hankali na addini ",[3][4] ko da yake wasu sun bayyana bambancin ƙabilanci da na tattalin arziki a matsayin tushen tashin hankalin.[2]

Rikicin farko na shekarar 2010 ya fara ne a ranar 17 ga watan, Janairu a Jos, kuma ya bazu zuwa al'ummomin da ke kewaye. An ƙona gidaje da coci-coci da masallatai da ababen hawa, a ƙalla an kwashe kwanaki huɗu ana fafatawa.[5] Aƙalla mutane 326, da kuma watakila sama da dubu, aka kashe a yayin tarazomar.[6]

Ɗaruruwan mutane ne suka mutu a wani sabon rikici da ya ɓarke, a watan Maris na 2010.[7] An kashe Kiristoci da yawa aka jefar da su cikin rijiya.[8]

Wannan dai shi ne babban lamari na uku da ya afku a birnin na Jos, cikin shekaru goma. An kashe kimanin mutane dubu ɗaya a tarzoma a shekara ta 2001, kuma aƙalla 700 ne suka mutu a tashin hankalin da ya biyo baya a shekara ta 2008.[9]

Dubawa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Janairu[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Rahotanni sun bambanta. A cewar kwamishinan ƴan sandan jihar an fara artabu ne bayan da wasu matasa musulmi suka ƙona wata cocin Katolika da ke cike maƙil da masu ibada.[10] Wata jaridar ƙasar ta rawaito cewa maharan sun furta kalmar " Allahu Akhbar " kafin su ƙona majami'u da gidaje.[11] Wasu jagororin al’ummar yankin sun ce an fara ne da gardama kan sake gina wani gidan musulmi a unguwar da galibin mabiya addinin kirista suka ruguje a tarzomar watan Nuwamba 2008.[12] Ana zargin matasan Musulmi da Kirista da fara kitsa tashin hankalin.[13] An sanya dokar hana fita ta sa'o'i 24 a birnin a ranar 17 ga Janairu, 2010.[14]

A ranar 19 ga watan Janairu, rikicin ya bazu zuwa kananan garuruwa da ƙauyuka da ke kudancin Jos. Wasu gungun mutane ɗauke da makamai waɗanda galibinsu Kiristoci ne ƴan ƙabilar Berom, sun kai wa Musulmi hari da suka haɗa da Hausa-Fulani, inda suka kashe su ko kuma suka kore su tare da ƙona gidajensu da masallatai da dukiyoyinsu.[6] An yi kisan gilla mafi muni a ranar 19 ga watan Janairu a yankin Kuru Karama, inda aka kashe mutane 174 da suka haɗa da mata 36 da ƙananan yara 56.[6] Rahoton hotunan tauraron ɗan adam da ƙungiyar kare hakkin bil'adama ta Human Rights Watch ta fitar ya nuna an lalata gine-gine a Kuru Karama.[15]

BBC ta ruwaito cewar faɗan ya bazu zuwa Pankshin, mai nisan kilomita 100, daga Jos. Sojojin sun musanta wadannan rahotanni.[16] A ranar 20 ga watan Janairu, mataimakin shugaban ƙasa Goodluck Jonathan ya umarci sojoji zuwa jihar Filato domin dawo da zaman lafiya.[17] Mataimakin shugaban kasa Jonathan ya riƙe madafun iko a lokacin, yayin da shugaba Umaru 'Yar'aduwa yake jinya a kasar Saudiyya.[18][13]

Rundunar ‘yan sandan jihar ta ce mutane 326 ne suka mutu a rikicin na watan Janairu.[19] Shugabannin al'umma sun ce adaɗin ya kai 1,025 da suka mutu.[6] Sama da mutane 5,000 ne suka rasa matsugunansu.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Maris[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kafin wayewar garin ranar 7 ga watan Maris 2010, Makiyaya Hausa-Fulani Musulmi makiyaya sun kashe kiristoci fiye da ɗari a kauyen Dogo-Nahawa kusa da Jos.[20][21] Galibin mazauna ƙauyen Kiristocin ƙabilar Berom ne.[22] Hara-haren na tsawon sa'o'i huɗu, [23] ya shafi wasu ƙauyukan da ke kusa da garin.[24] Maharan sun yi ta harbin bindiga domin tayar da hankali yayin da mutane suke tsaka da gudu an bi su da adduna ana saran su.[20] Sun kunna wuta da yawa daga cikin wasu gine-gine[22] kuma sun bar gawarwakin jibge a kan tituna.[23] Yawancin waɗanda suka mutu mata ne da yara,[20] ciki har da wani jariri da bai wuce wata uku ba.[23]

Rundunar ƴan sandan jihar ta bayar da rahoton cewa mutane 109 ne suka mutu a harin da suka hada da aƙalla yara 38.[25] Wani jami’in gwamnatin jihar ya shaida wa manema labarai cewa an kashe fiye da mutane 500,[26] a yayin da wani rubutu da aka rubuta a wani kabari a Dogo-Nahawa ya ce mutane 501 ne suka mutu a kisan kiyashin, kuma ya lissafa sunayen mutane 354 da aka kashe.[6] Sauran shugabannin al’umma sun ce adadin waɗanda suka mutu ya kai 164, ciki har da mata 34, da ƙananan yara 98.[6]

Dalilai[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Rikicin ya kasance sau da yawa ana kwatanta shi da " tashin hankali na addini ."[3][4] Ƙungiyar Dattawan Kirista ta Jihar Filato, alal misali, ta yi ishara da harin da aka kai a Dogo-Nahawa a watan Maris na 2010 da cewa, “har yanzu wani jihadi ne da tsokana”[11] yayin da al’ummar Musulmi ke kallon rikicin a matsayin wani yunkuri na kawar da musulmi mazauna yankin a wani aiki na addini. Wasu da dama kuma, sun bayyana bambance-bambancen ƙabilanci da batutuwan zamantakewa da tattalin arziki a matsayin tushen tashin hankalin.[2] Babban limamin cocin Anglican na Jos, Benjamin A. Kwashi, alal misali, ya lura cewa, “Abin da ake ganin ya zama jika-jita mai maimaitawa shi ne, a kan lokaci, wadanda suka yi amfani da tashin hankali wajen sasanta batutuwan siyasa, batutuwan tattalin arziki, al’amuran zamantakewa, al’amuran da suka shafi tsakanin kabilu. sabani, ko kuma duk wani lamari na wannan al’amari, yanzu ana ci gaba da amfani da waccan tafarki na tashin hankali da lullube shi da addini".[27] Shi ma Farfesa Kabiru Mato na Jami’ar Abuja ya yi watsi da rawar da addini ya taka wajen tarzomar: “Ban ga wani abu na addini. A inda addini zai iya zama banbance tsakanin ɓangarorin biyu masu gaba da juna, a asali yana nuni ne da nisantar tattalin arziki. Don haka rashin jin dadin jama’a, takaicin siyasa, rashi tattalin arziki da abubuwa da yawa ne ke da alhakin hakan.”[28] To amma wannan ra’ayi ya sha ƙalubalantar yadda a ko da yaushe ake kai hare-hare a wuraren ibada, kamar majami’u da masallatai. Don haka an yi amfani da addini a matsayin wani karfi mai rugujewa a cikin rikicin ko da wane dalili na farko na rikici.[29]

An kuma bayyana adawar ƙabilanci tsakanin al’ummar Hausawa da ‘yan kabilar Berom a matsayin musabbabin tashin hankalin.[30] Babban limamin cocin Katolika da ke Abuja, babban birnin Najeriya, ya yi nuni da tashin hankalin a matsayin "rikicin da ya zama ruwan dare tsakanin makiyaya da manoma, sai dai duk Fulani Musulmi ne, kuma dukkan 'yan kabilar Berom Kiristoci ne."[11] Sai dai wannan ikirari na fuskantar ƙalubale ganin yadda akasarin ƙabilun jihar Filato, wadanda galibinsu mabiya addinin Kirista ne, suna da ra’ayi ɗaya da ƴan ƙabilar Berom, kuma suna ganin barazanar Musulunci a kasashensu.[31]

"An zargi ƴan ƙabilar Berom da rashin jin dadin ci gaban tattalin arzikin wasu ƙungiyoyin mazauna yankin: duk da haka, wannan wata magana ce mai sauki. Yawancin ƴan asalin Filato gaba ɗaya suna jin cewa ba su da haɗin gwiwa ko goyon bayan sauran manyan ƙabilu. Kuma akasarin dukiyar Najeriya kudin man fetur ne ke tafiyar da su. Ƴan ƙabilar Berom da sauran ƴan asalin Jihar Filato galibi manoma ne kuma sun fuskanci kwace filayensu tare da lalata su ta hanyar hako ma’adinai. Yanzu, dole ne su yi gwagwarmaya da ƙungiyoyi yan hijira waɗanda ke amfani da tasirin Tarayya da dukiya don raba su daga ƙasashensu. Katafaren tsarin Gwamnatin Tarayya dai ana yin ta ne da kudin man fetur. Ƴan ƙabilar Berom, da ma sauran ’yan asalin Filato, suna ganin ya kamata su sami ma’aunin ƴancin cin gashin kai a yankunansu na asali kamar yadda ake bi da ƴan asalin Amirkawa a gidajensu a matsayin wata kasa mai cin gashin kanta, ta daukaka zuwa matsayin ƴan tsiraru masu kariya. Kundin tsarin mulkin Najeriya ba shi da wurin mutunta ’yan tsiraru, ko Jos ne, ko yankin Neja-Delta.”[32][33]

Ana kuma ambaton nuna wariya ga “mazauna yankin" musulman Jos, a matsayin wani batu. A yayin da yawancin ƴan asalin yankin Kirista ake kira da ƴan asalin garin, kuma galibinsu Musulmi da suka yi hijira zuwa Jos, yawancinsu Hausa-Fulani ne, a matsayin baƙin haure, ko da kuwa sun shafe shekaru da yawa suna zaune a birnin, kuma suna shan wahala don samun tabbatar da ayyukan gwamnati ko tallafin ilimi, da dai sauransu. Hakan ya ƙara haifar da rarrabuwar kawuna a cikin birnin, da ma kewayen birnin.[34][35] This has further accentuated divisions in and around the city.

Martani[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Fadar Vatican ta nuna ɓacin rai da baƙin ciki game da tarzomar.[11] Fafaroma Benedict na 16 ya ce hare-haren sun kasance "mummuna" kuma "tashin hankali ba ya magance rikice-rikicen illa ya ƙara rura wutar rikicin."[36]

Mataimakin shugaban ƙasa Jonathan, wanda shi ne muƙaddashin shugaban ƙasa a lokacin, ya buƙaci da a kama waɗanda suka kashe su.[21] Rundunar ƴan sandan ta sanar da cewa an kama mutane 313 dangane da tashin hankalin da ya faru a watan Janairun shekarar 2010, yayin da aka kama mutane 200 bayan tashin hankalin a watan Maris na 2010.[6] Ya zuwa shekarar 2013, masu gabatar da kara na tarayya sun samu hukuncin daurin rai da rai kan akalla mutane 129 da ke da hannu a tashin hankalin na 2010.[6]

Shirin Hakkokin Tattalin Arziki da Tattalin Arziki ya rubuta wa Kotun Hukunta Manyan Laifuka ta Duniya, inda ta roƙe su da su binciki batun tarzomar, watakila an aikata laifukan cin zarafin Bil Adama. Mai gabatar da ƙara na ICC ya amsa a watan Nuwamba 2010 yana mai cewa ana nazarin lamarin don ganin ko ya kamata a fara duban koken.[37]

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Nossiter, Adam (19 January 2010). "Christian-Muslim Mayhem in Nigeria Kills Dozens". The New York Times. New York, NY. Archived from the original on 21 January 2010. Retrieved 19 January 2010.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 "'Hundreds dead' in Nigeria attack". BBC News. 8 March 2010. Archived from the original on 9 March 2010. Retrieved 8 March 2010.
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Nigeria religious riots 'kill 200' in Jos". BBC News. 20 January 2010. Archived from the original on 23 March 2010. Retrieved 8 March 2010.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Baldauf, Scott (8 March 2010). "Nigeria violence: Muslim-Christian clashes kill hundreds". BBC News. Archived from the original on 11 March 2010. Retrieved 8 March 2010.
  5. "Curfew relaxed in Nigeria's violence-wracked city: army". Jos. Agence France-Presse. Archived from the original on 28 January 2010. Retrieved 26 January 2010.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 Human Rights Watch (12 December 2013). "Leave Everything to God": Accountability for Inter-Communal Violence in Plateau and Kaduna States, Nigeria. pp. 49–81. Archived from the original on 21 April 2015. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
  7. Smith, David (2010-03-08). "Hundreds dead as more religious violence hits Nigeria". The Guardian (in Turanci). ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2020-01-30.
  8. "A Deadly Cycle: Ethno-Religious Conflict in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria - Nigeria". ReliefWeb (in Turanci). Retrieved 2020-01-30.
  9. Saka, Ahmed (19 January 2010). "Religious violence erupts again in central Nigeria". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 22 January 2010. Retrieved 19 January 2010.
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  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 Abubakar, Aminu (8 March 2010). "Appeals for calm after Nigerian sectarian slaughter". Agence France-Presse. Archived from the original on 14 March 2010. Retrieved 8 March 2010.
  12. Gambrell, Jon (20 January 2010). "Group: More than 200 dead in Nigeria violence". The Washington Post. Retrieved 20 January 2010.[dead link]
  13. 13.0 13.1 McConnell, Tristan (19 January 2010). "Nigerian Army ordered in as 200 die in Christian-Muslim riots". The Times. London, UK. Retrieved 19 January 2010.
  14. "Plateau governor invokes 24-hour curfew". Archived from the original on 22 January 2010. Retrieved 19 January 2010.
  15. Human Rights Watch. "Nigeria: Turning Blind Eye to Mass Killings". Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
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  19. Awolusi, Bunmi (26 January 2010). "We know culprits of Jos crisis, say police – The Guardian". Nigerian Bulletin. Archived from the original on 13 July 2012. Retrieved 26 January 2010.
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  27. Kwashi, Benjamin (8 March 2010). "In Jos We Are Coming Face to Face in Confrontation with Satan". Christianity Today. Archived from the original on 29 January 2010. Retrieved 8 March 2010.
  28. Butty, James (19 January 2010). "Nigerian Professor Says Latest Jos Violence a Result of Many Factors". Voice of America News. Archived from the original on 21 January 2010. Retrieved 20 January 2010.
  29. "Calvin University". worship.calvin.edu (in Turanci). Retrieved 2021-05-04.
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  31. ""Leave Everything to God" | Accountability for Inter-Communal Violence in Plateau and Kaduna States, Nigeria". Human Rights Watch (in Turanci). 2013-12-12. Retrieved 2020-01-30.
  32. "Native American Cultures Across the U.S." NEH-Edsitement (in Turanci). Retrieved 2021-05-04.
  33. The Economist, 11 March 2010 article "Another massacre in Nigeria: An unending cycle."
  34. Duffield, Caroline (12 March 2010). "No end to Nigeria cycle of violence". BBC News. Archived from the original on 18 March 2010. Retrieved 12 March 2010.
  35. Human Rights Watch (April 2006). "They Do Not Own This Place": Government Discrimination Against "Non-Indigenes" in Nigeria (PDF). Retrieved 5 May 2015.
  36. "Pope denounces Nigeria clashes". Straits Times. Singapore. 11 March 2010. Archived from the original on 15 March 2010. Retrieved 11 March 2010.
  37. ICC is Analysing Jos Crisis, Says Prosecutor, Daily Trust, 8 November 2010

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