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Dokokin Makamashi

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Dokokin Makamashi
Man fetur yana ƙarƙashin tsari da haraji a duk duniya.
Dokokin Makamashi

Dokokin makamashi suna sarrafa amfani da harajin makamashi, duka masu sabuntawa da waɗanda ba za a iya sabuntawa ba . Waɗannan dokokin sune manyan hukumomi (kamar shari'ar shari'a, ƙa'idodi da ƙa'idodi) masu alaƙa da makamashi. Sabanin haka, manufar makamashi tana nufin manufofin da siyasar makamashi.

Dokar makamashi ta haɗa da tanadin doka don mai, mai, da "harajin cirewa." Ayyukan dokar makamashi sun haɗa da kwangiloli don wurin zama, hakar, lasisi don saye da haƙƙin mallaka a cikin mai da gas duka a ƙarƙashin ƙasa kafin ganowa da bayan kama shi, da yanke hukunci game da waɗannan haƙƙoƙin.


 

Dokokin ƙasa da ƙasa

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]
Kamfanin sarrafa kwal a Jamus. Sakamakon cinikin hayaƙi, kwal na iya zama ƙasa da gasa a matsayin mai.

Akwai karuwar sha'awar ilimi game da dokar makamashi ta duniya, [1] gami da ci gaba da tarurrukan ilimin shari'a, rubuce-rubucen, bita na shari'a, da darussan karatun digiri. A sa'i daya kuma, an samu ƙaruwar sha'awa kan batutuwan da suka shafi makamashi da dangantakarsu da cinikayyar ƙasa da ƙasa da ƙungiyoyi masu alaƙa kamar ƙungiyar ciniki ta duniya.[2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9]

Ma'aikatar Wutar Lantarki da Sabunta Makamashi ta Masar ce ke kula da Makamashi na Masar a Masar , wacce ita ce ma'aikatar gwamnati mai kula da sarrafawa da tsara yadda ake samarwa da watsawa da rarraba wutar lantarki a Masar . Hedkwatarsa tana Alkahira . Ministan na yanzu kamar na shekara ta 2020 shine Mohamed Shaker . An kafa ma’aikatar ne a shekara ta 1964 tare da dokar shugaban kasa mai lamba 147.[ana buƙatar hujja] na Aswan, wanda ke samar da wutar lantarki, mallakar gwamnati ne kuma ta tsara shi; Gine-ginensa ya buƙaci cire haikalin Abu Simbel da Haikali na Dendur.[10]

Ghana tana da hukuma mai kula da makamashi, Hukumar Makamashi .

Gwamnatin Najeriya ce ta mallaki Kamfanin Mai na Kasa .

Uganda ta amince da sabuwar dokar makamashin nukiliya, wadda take fatan "zata bunƙasa hadin gwiwar fasaha tsakanin kasar da hukumar kula da makamashin nukiliya ta kasa da kasa ," a cewar " babban jami'in hukumar " daga wannan kasa ta Afirka.[11]

Ginin Energy Australia a Sydney

  Makamashi babban kasuwanci ne a Ostiraliya. Ƙungiyar Haɓaka Man Fetur da Haɓaka Man Fetur ta Australiya tana wakiltar kashi 98% na masu samar da mai da iskar gas a Ostiraliya .[12]

  Kanada tana da babbar dokar makamashi, ta hanyar tarayya da larduna, musamman Alberta . [13] Waɗannan sun haɗa da:

  • Madadin Dokar Fuels (1995, c. 20)
  • Dokar Makamashi Haɗin Kai (1980-81-82-83, c. 108)
  • Dokar Gudanar da Makamashi (RS, 1985, c. E-6)
  • Dokar Kula da Makamashi (RS, 1985, c. E-8)
  • Dokar Makamashin Nukiliya (RS, 1985, c. A-16)
  • Dokar Ayyukan Man Fetur da Gas na Kanada (RS, 1985, c. O-7)
  • Dokar Albarkatun Man Fetur ta Kanada (1985, c. 36 (Supp. ))
  • Dokar Hukumar Makamashi ta Kasa (RS, 1985, c. N-7)
  • Dokar Binciken Wutar Lantarki da Gas (RS, 1985, c. E-4)

Akwai wasu sha'awar ilimi a cikin dokar makamashi ta Kanada, tare da sabis na lokaci-lokaci looseleaf, monographs, [14] da shawarwari tare da lauyoyin da suka kware a wannan aikin, akwai.[15][16][17] [18][19][20][21][22][23] [24] [25][26][27][28][29]

Kotun kolin Kanada ta fitar da wasu dokar shari'ar makamashi ta Kanada.

Dokokin makamashi na Kanada suna da yawa kuma suna da rikitarwa a babban bangare saboda albarkatun makamashi na gwamnati:

Kanada da lardin Quebec suma sun mallaki manyan wuraren samar da wutar lantarki na madatsar ruwa, wadanda suka haifar da ba kawai wutar lantarki ba, har ma da cece-kuce.[30][31][32]

Tarayyar Turai

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  Dokar makamashi ta Turai ta mai da hankali kan hanyoyin doka don gudanar da cikas na ɗan gajeren lokaci ga wadatar makamashin nahiyar, kamar dokar Jamus ta 1974 don tabbatar da samar da makamashi. Haɗin gwiwar aikin hydrogen na Turai aikin ƙungiyar Tarayyar Turai ne don haɗa ƙa'idodin Hukumar Tattalin Arziƙi ta Majalisar Dinkin Duniya (ECE) da ƙirƙirar tushen tsarin ECE na motocin hydrogen da mahimman abubuwan more rayuwa waɗanda ke maye gurbin dokokin ƙasa da ƙa'idodi . Manufar wannan aikin shine inganta amincin motocin hydrogen da daidaita tsarin ba su lasisi da amincewa.[33]

Ƙasashe biyar ne suka ƙirƙiro ƙungiyar makamashi ta EurObserv'ER . EU ta kuma ƙirƙiri Ƙungiyar Makamashi don faɗaɗa manufofin su zuwa kudu maso gabashin Turai. Austuraiu yana karɓar bakuncin Ranakun Makamashi Mai Dorewa na Duniya na shekara.

  Dokar sabunta makamashin Jamus ta tanadi yin amfani da makamashin da ake iya sabuntawa ta hanyar haraji da harajinta . Yana haɓaka haɓaka hanyoyin samar da makamashi mai sabuntawa ta hanyar tsarin kuɗin abinci. Yana daidaita adadin kuzarin da mai samarwa ke samarwa da kuma nau'in tushen makamashi mai sabuntawa. Hakanan yana haifar da abin ƙarfafawa don ƙarfafa ci gaban fasaha da farashi. Sakamakon ya kasance mai ban mamaki: a ranar 6 ga Yuni na shekara ta 2014, fiye da rabin makamashin al'umma da aka yi amfani da su a wannan ranar sun fito ne daga hasken rana. Duk da matakan da aka tsara suna ƙara ƙarin makamashi mai sabuntawa zuwa ga haɗawar makamashi, grid ɗin lantarki na Jamus ya zama abin dogaro, ba ƙasa ba.[34][35][36][37][38][39][40]

Gwamnatin Jamus ta ba da shawarar yin watsi da " shirinta na kawar da makamashin nukiliya don taimakawa wajen farfado da hauhawar farashin wutar lantarki da kuma kare muhalli, a cewar shawarwarin da wata tawagar makamashi ƙarƙashin ministan tattalin arziki Michael Glos ta tsara." [41] Jam'iyyar Green Party ta Jamus ta yi adawa da makamashin nukiliya, da kuma karfin kasuwa na kayan aikin Jamus, tana mai cewa "karancin makamashi" an halicce shi ta hanyar wucin gadi. [42]

Akwai gagarumin sha'awar ilimi a cikin dokar makamashi ta Jamus. [43] Akwai ginshiƙi mai taƙaita dokokin makamashi na Jamus.

Turbines na iska a cikin Campania

Italiya tana da albarkatun ƙasa kaɗan. rashin isasshen ma'adinan ƙarfe, gawayi, ko mai . Tabbataccen tanadin iskar gas, galibi a cikin kwarin Po da Adriatic na teku, sun zama mafi mahimmancin albarkatun ma'adinai na ƙasar. Fiye da kashi 80% na albarkatun makamashin kasar ana shigo da su ne daga kasashen waje. Bangaren makamashi ya dogara sosai kan shigo da kayayyaki daga ketare: a shekara ta 2006 kasar ta shigo da sama da kashi 86% na yawan makamashin da take amfani da shi.

A cikin shekaru goma da suka gabata, Italiya ta zama ɗaya daga cikin manyan masu samar da makamashi mai sabuntawa a duniya, matsayi a matsayin mai samar da makamashin hasken rana mafi girma na biyar a cikin 2009 kuma na shida mafi girma na samar da wutar lantarki a cikin shekara ta 2008.[44][45][46][47][48]

A cikin shekara taikin 1987, bayan bala'in Chernobyl, yawancin 'yan Italiya sun amince da kuri'ar raba gardama na neman kawar da makamashin nukiliya. Gwamnati ta mayar da martani ta hanyar rufe tashoshin nukiliyar da ake da su tare da dakatar da shirin nukiliyar kasa gaba daya. Italiya kuma tana shigo da kusan kashi 16% na bukatar wutar lantarki daga Faransa akan 6.5 GWe, wanda ya sa ta zama babbar mai shigo da wutar lantarki a duniya. Saboda dogaro da tsadar albarkatun mai da shigo da kaya, Italiyanci suna biyan kusan kashi 45% fiye da matsakaicin EU na wutar lantarki .

A shekara ta 2004, sabuwar dokar makamashi ta kawo yuwuwar hada gwiwa da kamfanonin kasashen waje don gina tashoshin nukiliya da shigo da wutar lantarki. A cikin 2005, kamfanin samar da wutar lantarki na Italiya, ENEL ya yi yarjejeniya da Electricite de France akan MWe 200 daga injin nukiliya a Faransa da yuwuwar ƙarin MWe 1,000 daga sabon gini. A matsayin wani ɓangare na yarjejeniyar, ENEL ta sami kashi 12.5% a cikin aikin da kuma shiga kai tsaye a cikin ƙira, gine-gine, da kuma sarrafa tsire-tsire. A wani yunƙurin kuma, ENEL ta kuma sayi kashi 66% na wutar lantarki ta Slovak da ke sarrafa injinan nukiliya guda shida. A wani bangare na wannan yarjejeniya, ENEL za ta biya gwamnatin Slovakia Yuro biliyan 1.6 don kammala tashar samar da makamashin nukiliya a Mochovce, wanda ke da babban adadin 942 MW . Tare da wadannan yarjejeniyoyi, Italiya ta yi nasarar samun damar yin amfani da makamashin nukiliya ba tare da sanya matatun mai a yankin Italiya ba. [49]

Ƙasar Lithuania tana da dokar makamashi, Energetikos teisė. [50]

A cikin Ukraine, ayyukan makamashi masu sabuntawa suna tallafawa ta hanyar tsarin jadawalin kuɗin fito . Dokar Ukraine "A kan madadin hanyoyin samar da makamashi" tana nufin madadin hanyoyin makamashi: hasken rana, iska, geothermal, hydrothermal, marine da hydrokinetic energy, hydroelectricity, biomass, landfill biogas da sauransu. Hukumar Kula da Makamashi da Makamashi ta Kasa ta Ukrainian da Hukumar Kula da Makamashi ta Jiha kan Inganta Makamashi da Ajiye Makamashi na Ukraine sune manyan hukumomin daidaita makamashin da ake sabunta su. Gwamnatin Ukraine ta yi gyare-gyare a madadin makamashi. Akwai buƙatar sabis na tanadin makamashi a cikin Ukraine. Ƙimar sa ya kai kusan Yuro biliyan 5 kawai a cikin gine-gine mallakar gwamnati.[51]

In Ukraine, renewable energy projects are supported by a feed-in tariff system. The law of Ukraine "On alternative sources of energy"[52][53][54][55][56]

Ukraine tana da wata hukuma ta daban don gudanar da Yankin Keɓewa na Chernobyl .

Sauran kasashen Turai

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Albaniya na da kafa Cibiyar Man Fetur da Gas ta Albaniya.

Akwai gagarumin ikon geothermal a Iceland ; kusan kashi 80% na makamashin da al'ummar kasar ke bukata, ana samun su ne ta hanyar samar da makamashin kasa, wanda duk mallakar gwamnati ne, ko kuma ta tsara su.

 

A fasahance, Iraki ba ta da dokar makamashi, amma ana shirin aiwatar da dokar kusan shekaru biyar a farkon shekara ta 2012.

Ma'aikatar mai ta Iraqi tana ba da kwangila ga kamfanoni kaɗan ne kawai . Ya zuwa watan Yulin shekara ta 2014, akwai kamfanonin mai guda 23 da aka kafa, amma kamfanonin banki guda 17 ne kawai a Iraki.

Dokar Tushen Makamashi na Isra'ila, 5750-1989 ("Dokar Makamashi"), ta bayyana abin da ake ɗauka a matsayin "makamashi" da "tushen makamashi" kuma manufarsa ita ce tsara yadda ake amfani da makamashi yayin da ake tabbatar da ingantaccen amfani da shi. A karkashin dokar makamashi, majalisar dokokin Isra'ila ta gabatar da wasu hanyoyin auna ma'auni don daidaita ingancin amfani da makamashin. Bugu da ƙari, wace ƙungiya ce za ta cancanci bi da amfani da irin waɗannan hanyoyin.

Bugu da ƙari kuma, a cikin Isra'ila akwai wasu ƙarin dokoki da suka shafi amfani da makamashi, kamar Dokar Bangaren Gas, 5762-2002 wanda ya ba da sharuɗɗan haɓakar yanayin iskar gas a Isra'ila, da kuma Wutar Lantarki. Dokar Sashin, 5756-1996, wacce ta kafa "Hukumar Amfani da Jama'a - Wutar Lantarki" wacce ke buga umarni da ka'idoji don amfani da sabbin hanyoyin wutar lantarki, gami da makamashin hasken rana da makamashin ruwa.

Bala'in nukiliyar Fukushima Daiichi na shekarar 2011, hatsarin nukiliya mafi muni a duniya tun 1986, ya raba gidaje 50,000 da muhallansu bayan da radiation ta leka cikin iska, kasa da teku. Binciken radiation ya haifar da hana jigilar kayan lambu da kifi.

Kafin girgizar kasa da tsunami na Maris 2011, da bala'o'in nukiliya da suka haifar da ita, Japan ta samar da kashi 30% na wutar lantarki daga injinan nukiliya kuma ta yi niyya don haɓaka wannan kaso zuwa 40%.

Makamashin nukiliya shine fifikon dabarun ƙasa a Japan, amma an yi damuwa game da ƙarfin makaman nukiliya na Japan don jure ayyukan girgizar ƙasa. An rufe tashar nukiliyar Kashiwazaki-Kariwa gaba daya na tsawon watanni 21 bayan girgizar kasa a 2007.

Girgizar kasa da tsunami na 2011 sun haifar da gazawar tsarin sanyaya a tashar makamashin nukiliya ta Fukushima I a ranar 11 ga Maris kuma an ayyana gaggawar nukiliya. An kwashe mazauna 140,000. Ba a fayyace adadin adadin kayan aikin rediyo da aka saki ba, yayin da rikicin ke ci gaba da gudana. A ranar 6 ga Mayun 2011, Firayim Minista Naoto Kan ya ba da umarnin rufe tashar nukiliyar Hamaoka saboda girgizar kasa mai karfin awo 8.0 ko sama da haka na iya afkuwa a yankin cikin shekaru 30 masu zuwa.

Matsalolin daidaita tashar nukiliya ta Fukushima I sun taurare halayen makamashin nukiliya. Tun daga watan Yuni 2011, "fiye da kashi 80 na Jafanawa yanzu sun ce su ne anti-nukiliya da rashin amincewa da bayanan gwamnati game da radiation ".

Ya zuwa watan Oktoba na 2011, an sami karancin wutar lantarki, amma Japan ta tsira daga lokacin bazara ba tare da an samu bakar duhu da aka yi hasashe ba. Wata takarda mai farar fata ta makamashi, wadda Majalisar Ministocin Japan ta amince da ita a watan Oktoban 2011, ta ce "amincin da jama'a ke da shi kan amincin makamashin nukiliyar ya lalace sosai" sakamakon bala'in Fukushima, tare da yin kira da a rage dogaro da al'ummar kasar kan makamashin nukiliya.

An rufe da yawa daga cikin tashoshin nukiliya na Japan, ko kuma an dakatar da ayyukansu don duba lafiyarsu. Na ƙarshe na 54 reactors na Japan ( Tomari-3 ) ya tafi layi don kulawa a ranar 5 ga Mayu, 2012., ya bar Japan gaba ɗaya ba tare da samar da wutar lantarki ta nukiliya ba a karon farko tun 1970. Duk da zanga-zangar, a ranar 1 ga Yuli, 2012 an sake kunna raka'a 3 na Kamfanin Wutar Nukiliya ta Ōi. Tun daga watan Satumbar 2012, raka'a na 3 da 4 ne kawai tashoshin makamashin nukiliyar Japan da ke aiki da su, duk da cewa birnin da lardin Osaka sun bukaci a rufe su.

Shirin Haɗin gwiwar Makamashin Nukiliya na Amurka da Japan, yarjejeniya ce ta haɗin gwiwa da ke da nufin tsara tsarin bincike na haɗin gwiwa da haɓaka fasahar makamashin nukiliya, wanda aka rattaba hannu kan Afrilu 18, 2007. [57] An yi imanin cewa yarjejeniyar ita ce ta farko da Amurka ta rattaba hannu don bunkasa fasahohin makamashin nukiliya tare da wata kasa, ko da yake Japan na da yarjejeniya da Australia, Canada, China, Faransa, da kuma Birtaniya . [58] A karkashin shirin, Amurka da Japan kowannensu zai gudanar da bincike kan fasahar reactor mai sauri, fasahar zagayowar man fetur, na'urar kwamfyuta ta zamani da ƙirar ƙira, ƙanana da matsakaita reactors, kariya da kariya ta jiki; da sarrafa sharar nukiliya, wanda kwamitin hadin gwiwa zai gudanar da shi. Ci gaban yerjejeniyar ya kasance cikin rudani tun lokacin da Fukushima I ta yi hatsarin nukiliya.

Kamfanin Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation (JOGMEC) kamfani ne na gwamnati wanda ke da hannu wajen binciken makamashin burbushin mai, da dai sauransu. A cikin 2013, ma'aikatanta na kamfanoni sun fara fitar da Methane clathrate daga ma'ajin ajiyar teku.[59][60][61][62][63][64][65][66][67][68][69][70][71][72][73][74][75][76][77][78][79] [80] l[81] [82][83][84]

Malaysia tana sarrafa sashin makamashinta sosai.

Daga shekara ta 1982 zuwa shekara ta 1992, Gwamnatin Sabah ta mallaki masana'antar iskar gas ta Sabah don gudanar da ayyukan albarkatun iskar gas na Sabah, wanda ke Labuan, Malaysia, wanda aka sanya don zama mai zaman kansa . [85] An sayar da shukar methanol ga Petronas kuma tana aiki a yau azaman Petronas Methanol (Labuan) Sdn Bhd . [86] An sayar da tashar wutar lantarki ga Sabah Electricity . [86]

Saudi Arabia

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Saudi Arabiya tana da wasu dokoki game da makamashi, musamman dokar mai da iskar gas. Saudiyya ita ce ƙasar da ta fi kowacce ƙasa samar da mai a duniya don haka dokarta ta makamashi na da matukar tasiri a kan samar da makamashi a duniya baki ɗaya. A karkashin dokar kasar Saudiyya, duk arzikinta na mai da iskar gas na gwamnati ne: “Dukkanin dukiyar da Allah Ya yi wa kasala, ko ta kasa ko ta kasa ko ta ruwa na ƙasa, a cikin ƙasa ko na ruwa da ke ƙarƙashin ikon gwamnati., sune dukiyar ƙasa kamar yadda doka ta ayyana. Shari’a ta bayyana hanyoyin da ake amfani da su, da kariya, da bunƙasa irin wannan dukiya domin amfanin ƙasa, tsaronta, da tattalin arzikinta.” [87] Har ila yau, ana ba da izinin harajin makamashi musamman; Sashe na 20 na dokar asali ya ce, “Ana sanya haraji da kudade ne bisa adalci kuma sai lokacin da bukatar hakan ta taso. Ƙaddamarwa, gyara, sokewa, da keɓancewa kawai doka ta halatta." [88]

Ma'aikatu biyu na Masarautar Saudiyya ne ke da alhakin bangaren makamashi: Ma'aikatar Man Fetur da na Ruwa da Wutar Lantarki. Dokokin kasar kuma sun kafa wasu hukumomin da ke da wasu hurumin doka, amma ba su da ka'ida. Wadannan sun haɗa da Saudi Aramco, asali na hadin gwiwa tsakanin Masarautar da California-Arabian Standard Oil, amma yanzu gaba daya mallakar Masarautar, da Saudi Consolidated Electricity Companies.[89][90][91][92]

Najeriya ce ƙasa mafi yawan arzikin man fetur a nahiyar Afirka kuma ita ce ta 11 a duniya wajen samar da man fetur. Dokar makamashi a ƙasar ta shafi man fetur da iskar gas, da sauran hanyoyin samar da wutar lantarki. Har ila yau, tana da doka da siyasa mai karfi a cikin makamashin da ake sabunta shi na samar da wutar lantarki a ƙasar. Haka kuma aikin samar da wutar lantarki a yankunan karkara ya samu gindin zama a dokar makamashi a ƙasar.

Tsohuwar Dokar Man Fetur ta Turkiyya ta shafe shekaru 70 tana aiki har zuwa shekarar 2013, inda ta kafa sabuwar dokar man fetur mai lamba 6491. Daga cikin wasu tanade-tanade, yana tsawaita shekarun da aka halatta na izinin hakowa, da rage farashi, da kuma kawar da mulkin mallaka na jiha.

Ƙasar Ingila ta fara shirin barin al'ummar Turai tun daga watan Janairun 2020.

Wannan sashe ya shafi dokar Amurka, da kuma jihohin da suka fi yawan jama'a ko mafi yawan samar da makamashi.

A cikin Amurka, ana sarrafa makamashi da yawa ta hanyar Ma'aikatar Makamashi ta Amurka, da kuma hukumomin gudanarwa na jihohi.

Kowace jiha, Gwamnatin Tarayya, da Gundumar Columbia suna karɓar wasu harajin harajin abin hawa . Musamman, waɗannan harajin haraji ne akan man fetur, man dizal, da mai . [93] Yayin da yawancin jihohi a yammacin Amurka suka dogara ga haraji mai yawa (haraji akan hakar ma'adinai), yawancin jihohi suna samun ɗan ƙaramin adadin kudaden shiga daga irin waɗannan hanyoyin. [94]

  • Sakamakon rikicin makamashi na 2000s

Gabaɗayan batutuwan makamashi

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]
  • Tsarin makamashi
  • Kiyaye makamashi
  • Tattalin arzikin makamashi
  • Kasuwannin makamashi da abubuwan haɓaka makamashi
  • Karyawar ruwa
  • Seismicity da aka jawo
  • Jerin batutuwan makamashi
  • Albarkatun makamashi na duniya da amfani
  • Tarihin kasuwar mai ta duniya daga 2003

Musamman dokoki da manufofi

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]
  • Atomic Energy Basic Law
  • Koyarwar hakkoki
  • Cuius est solum eius est usque ad coelum et ad inferos
  • Sauƙi
  • Dokokin keken lantarki
  • Manufar makamashi na Tarayyar Turai
  • Yarjejeniyar Yarjejeniyar Makamashi
  • Tauraron Makamashi
  • Tsaron makamashi
  • Tariff ɗin ciyarwa
  • Amfanin man fetur da dizal da farashi
  • Jerin hukumomin kula da makamashi
  • Jerin kararrakin muhalli
  • Manufar makamashin nukiliya
  • Petrobangla - Bangladesh State Energy Corporation

Tankunan tunani da ƙungiyoyi na ilimi

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]
  • Alliance don Ajiye Makamashi
  • Cibiyar Makamashi, Man Fetur da Dokokin Ma'adinai
  • Cibiyar Nazarin Muhalli
  • Sabunta Makamashi da Haɗin gwiwar Haɓaka Ƙarfafa Makamashi
  • RETSscreen
  • Cibiyar Makamashi da Albarkatu
  • Jami'ar Laval
  • Jami'ar Wyoming

Sabuntawa da madadin hanyoyin makamashi

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]
  • Madadin motsawa
  • Tsabtace Makamashi Trends
  • Tsabtace Tech Nation
  • Ƙarfafa ƙarfin hasken rana
  • Ingantacciyar amfani da makamashi
  • Abin hawa lantarki
  • Ƙarfin geothermal
  • dumamar yanayi
  • Green banki
  • Hydro One
  • Tushen wutar lantarki mai ɗan lokaci
  • Taron Taro na Kasa da Kasa Kan Mai
  • Jerin batutuwan makamashi masu sabuntawa ta ƙasa
  • makamashin teku
  • Tsarin ginin hasken rana mai wucewa
  • Plug-in matasan
  • Kasuwancin makamashi mai sabuntawa
  • Zafi mai sabuntawa
  • Hasken rana
  • Zane mai dorewa
  • The Clean Tech Revolution
  • V2G

Kyaututtuka da ma'auni

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Ci gaba da karatu

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  • Klause Bosselmann, Ƙa'idar Dorewa (Burlington, VT: Ashland 2008)  .
  • GT Goodman, WD Rowe, Gudanar da Hadarin Makamashi (New York: Academic Press 1979)  . An samo a Biblio

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