Haƙƙoƙin yara

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.

Haƙƙoƙin yara wani yanki ne na haƙƙin ɗan adam tare da kulawa ta musamman ga haƙƙoƙin kariya da kulawa ta musamman da ake ba wa yara ƙanana. (Kada a rude da hakkin Matasa ). Yarjejeniyar kare hakkin yara ta shekarar 1989 (CRC) ta bayyana yaro a matsayin "duk wani dan Adam da bai kai shekara sha takwas ba, sai dai idan a karkashin dokar da ta shafi yaron, an samu rinjaye a baya." [1] Haƙƙoƙin yara sun haɗa da haƙƙin haƙƙin haɗin gwiwa tare da iyaye biyu, ainihin ɗan adam da kuma abubuwan buƙatu na kariya ta jiki, abinci, ilimin da ake biyan kuɗin ƙasa na duniya, kula da lafiya, da dokokin laifuka waɗanda suka dace da shekaru da haɓakar ɗan yaro, daidaitaccen kariyar. 'yancin ɗan adam, Kuma da 'yanci daga nuna bambanci dangane da launin fata, jinsi, yanayin jima'i, asalin jinsi, asalin ƙasa, addini, nakasa, launi, ƙabila, ko wasu halaye. Fassarorin haƙƙoƙin yara sun bambanta daga ba wa yara damar yin aikin kai tsaye zuwa tilasta wa yara su kasance a zahiri, Sannna Kuma hankali da tunani ba tare da cin zarafi ba, kodayake abin da ya ƙunshi “zagi” lamari ne na muhawara. Sauran ma'anar sun haɗa da haƙƙin kulawa da renon yara. [2] Babu wani ma'anar wasu kalmomin da aka yi amfani da su don kwatanta matasa kamar " matasa ", "matasa", ko " matasa " a cikin dokokin duniya, [3] amma ana ɗaukar ƙungiyoyin kare hakkin yara daban da ƙungiyoyin kare hakkin matasa . Fannin kare hakkin yara ya ta'allaka ne a fagen shari'a, siyasa, addini, da kyawawan halaye.

Hujja[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Yaro yana aiki a matsayin "Yaron agogo" a kan titunan Merida, Mexico

A matsayin yara ƙanana bisa doka, yara ba su da 'yancin kai ko 'yancin yanke shawara da kan su a kowane yanki da aka sani na duniya. Kuma Madadin haka masu kula da su manya, gami da iyaye, ma'aikatan jin daɗin jama'a, malamai, ma'aikatan matasa, da sauransu, an ba su ikon wannan ikon, gwargwadon yanayin. [4] Wasu na ganin cewa wannan yanayin na ba wa yara rashin isasshen iko kan rayuwarsu kuma yana sa su zama masu rauni. [5] Louis Althusser ya yi nisa da siffanta wannan na'ura ta doka, Sannna kamar yadda ta shafi yara, a matsayin "na'urorin gwamnati na danniya". [6]

Wasu masu sharhi sun gudanar da tsare-tsare irin su manufofin gwamnati don rufe hanyoyin da manya ke cin zarafi da cin zarafin yara, Kuma wanda ke haifar da talaucin yara, rashin samun ilimi, da aikin yara . A kan wannan ra'ayi, ya kamata a dauki yara a matsayin 'yan tsiraru wanda al'umma ke buƙatar sake duba yadda take.

Masu bincike sun gano yara suna bukatar a gane su a matsayin masu shiga cikin al'umma waɗanda ke buƙatar sanin haƙƙinsu da alhakin su a kowane zamani . [7]

Ma'anonin tarihi na haƙƙoƙin yara[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

'Yar Fir'auna ta ji tausayin jariri Musa a cikin kwandon da yake iyo. (Babanta ne ya umarta a kashe jariran Ibraniyawa. )

Sir William Blackstone shekarata (1765-1769) ya gane ayyuka uku na iyaye ga yaro: kulawa, kariya, da ilimi. [8] A cikin harshen zamani, yaron yana da hakkin ya karbi waɗannan daga iyaye.

Ƙungiyar Ƙungiyoyin Ƙasashen Duniya ta amince da <i id="mwWg">Yarjejeniyar Geneva na 'Yancin Yara</i> a shekarata (1924), wanda ya nuna 'yancin yara don karɓar abubuwan da ake bukata don ci gaba na al'ada, hakkin yaron da ke fama da yunwa don ciyarwa, 'yancin yaron mara lafiya ya sami lafiya. DA Kuma kula, da hakkin dan baya a kwatowa, hakkin marayu na matsuguni, da hakkin kariya daga amfani. [9]

Yarjejeniyar kare hakkin dan Adam ta Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ta shekarar (1948) a cikin Mataki na ashirin da 25(2) ta amince da bukatar uwa da yara zuwa "kariya ta musamman da taimako" da 'yancin dukkan yara na samun "kariyar zamantakewa".

Babban taron Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ya amince da sanarwar Majalisar Dinkin Duniya game da hakkin yara a shekarata (1959), wanda ya zayyana ka'idoji goma don kare hakkin yara, ciki har da haƙƙoƙin duniya baki ɗaya, Kuma 'yancin samun kariya ta musamman, da yancin kariya daga wariya., da sauran hakkoki. [10]

Yarjejeniyar fayyace hakkin yara ta kara fitowa fili a cikin shekaru hamsin da suka gabata. [11] Wani bugu da Hillary Clinton ta buga a shekarata 1973 (sai lauya) ta bayyana cewa yancin yara “laka ne mai bukatar ma’ana”. A cewar wasu masu bincike, har yanzu ba a fayyace ra'ayin 'yancin yara ba, inda a kalla daya ke nuni da cewa babu wata ma'ana ko ka'idar hakkin da yara ke da shi. [12]

Ana ayyana dokar haƙƙin yara a matsayin wurin da doka ta haɗu da rayuwar yaro. Wannan ya haɗa da laifuffuka na yara, tsarin da ya dace ga yara masu hannu a cikin tsarin shari'ar laifuka, wakilcin da ya dace, da kuma ingantaccen sabis na gyarawa; kulawa da kariya ga yara a kulawar jihar; tabbatar da ilimi ga duk yara ba tare da la'akari da launin fata, jinsi, yanayin jima'i, asalin jinsi, asalin ƙasa, addini, nakasa, launi, ƙabila, ko wasu halaye ba, da kuma; kiwon lafiya da shawarwari. [13]

Rabewa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Yara suna da nau'ikan haƙƙoƙin ɗan adam iri biyu a ƙarƙashin dokokin haƙƙin ɗan adam na duniya . Suna da haƙƙoƙin ɗan adam na gama-gari kamar manya, kodayake wasu haƙƙoƙin ɗan adam, kamar haƙƙin aure, suna nan kwance har sai sun girma, Na biyu kuma, suna da haƙƙoƙin ɗan adam na musamman waɗanda suka wajaba don kare su a lokacin tsirarunsu. [14] haƙƙin ɗan adam, ’yanci daga wulakanci, rashin tausayi, ko wulaƙanci, da yancin samun kariya ta musamman lokacin ƙuruciya . Haƙƙin ɗan adam na musamman na yara sun haɗa da, Kuma a tsakanin sauran haƙƙoƙin, yancin rayuwa, yancin suna, yancin bayyana ra'ayinsa a cikin al'amuran da suka shafi yaro, 'yancin yin tunani, lamiri da addini, ' yancin kula da lafiya, ' yancin samun kariya daga cin zarafi na tattalin arziki da jima'i, da ' yancin ilimi . [1]

Ana fayyace haƙƙoƙin yara ta hanyoyi da yawa, gami da nau'ikan haƙƙoƙin farar hula, siyasa, tattalin arziki, zamantakewa da al'adu . Sannna Kuma Hakkoki sun kasance nau'i biyu na gama-gari: masu ba da shawara ga yara a matsayin masu cin gashin kansu a ƙarƙashin doka da kuma masu yin da'awar a kan al'umma don kariya daga cutarwa da ake yi wa yara saboda dogaro da su. Waɗannan an lakafta su a matsayin haƙƙin ƙarfafawa da kuma haƙƙin kariya . [12]

Jagororin ilimi na Majalisar Ɗinkin Duniya na yara sun rarraba haƙƙoƙin da aka zayyana a cikin Yarjejeniyar Haƙƙin Yara a matsayin "3 Ps": Samarwa, Kariya, da Shiga. Ana iya fayyace su kamar haka:

  • Samar da: Yara suna da hakkin samun isasshen yanayin rayuwa, kula da lafiya, ilimi da ayyuka, da wasa da nishadi . Waɗannan sun haɗa da daidaitaccen abinci, gado mai dumi don kwana a ciki, da samun damar zuwa makaranta .
  • Kariya: Yara suna da hakkin samun kariya daga cin zarafi, sakaci, cin zarafi da wariya. Wannan ya haɗa da haƙƙin wurare masu aminci don yara su yi wasa; ingantacciyar dabi'ar tarbiyyar yara, sannan da kuma yarda da iyawar yara masu tasowa .
  • Shiga: Yara suna da 'yancin shiga cikin al'ummomi kuma suna da shirye-shirye da ayyuka don kansu. Wannan ya haɗa da shigar yara cikin ɗakunan karatu da shirye-shiryen al'umma, ayyukan muryar matasa, da haɗa yara a matsayin masu yanke shawara. [15]

Hakazalika, Ƙungiyar kare hakkin yara ta kasa da kasa (CRIN) ta kasafta haƙƙoƙin zuwa rukuni biyu: [16] [17]

  • Haƙƙoƙin tattalin arziki, zamantakewa da al'adu, masu alaƙa da yanayin da ake buƙata don biyan buƙatun ɗan adam kamar abinci, matsuguni, ilimi, kula da lafiya, da samun aikin yi. Sannna Kuma Haƙƙin haƙƙin ilimi, isassun gidaje, abinci, ruwa, mafi girman ma'auni na lafiya, haƙƙin yin aiki da haƙƙoƙin aiki, da haƙƙin al'adu na tsiraru da ƴan asalin ƙasar.
  • Haƙƙoƙin muhalli, al'adu da ci gaba, waɗanda wasu lokuta ana kiransu " haƙƙin ƙarni na uku ", gami da 'yancin rayuwa a cikin yanayi mai aminci da lafiya kuma ƙungiyoyin jama'a suna da haƙƙin ci gaban al'adu, siyasa da tattalin arziki.

Kungiyar kare hakkin bil adama ta kasa da kasa Amnesty International ta fito fili ta ba da shawarar kare hakkin yara guda hudu da suka hada da kawo karshen tsare yara kanana ba tare da neman afuwa ba, kawo karshen daukar yara aikin soja da kawo karshen hukuncin kisa ga mutanen kasa da shekara 21, da kuma wayar da kan jama'a game da hakkin dan Adam a cikin aji . Human Rights Watch, kungiyar kare hakkin bil adama ta kasa da kasa, ta kuma hada da aikin yara, adalcin yara, marayu da yaran da aka yi watsi da su, 'yan gudun hijira, yara kan titi da kuma azabtar da jiki .

Nazarin ilimi gabaɗaya yana mai da hankali kan haƙƙin yara ta hanyar gano haƙƙoƙin mutum ɗaya. Sannan Kuma Hakkoki masu zuwa "ba da damar yara su girma cikin koshin lafiya da 'yanci":  ] [18]

Hakkokin jiki[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Wani rahoto da kwamitin kula da harkokin jama’a da lafiya da ci gaba mai dorewa na Majalisar Dokokin Tarayyar Turai ya fitar, ya bayyana wurare da dama da kwamitin ya damu da su, da Kuma suka hada da hanyoyin da suka hada da “kaciyar mata, kaciya ga yara maza saboda dalilai na addini. ayyukan likitanci na yara kanana game da yaran da ke tsakanin jima'i da kuma mika wuya ga ko tilasta wa yara yin huda, jarfa ko tiyatar filastik". [19] Majalisar ta amince da kudurin da ba ya dawwama a cikin shekarata 2013 wanda ya yi kira ga kasashe mambobinta 47 da su dauki matakai da yawa don inganta mutuncin yara. [20]

Mataki na sha tara 19 na Yarjejeniyar 'Yancin Yara ya umurci bangarori da su "daukar duk matakan da suka dace na majalisa, gudanarwa, zamantakewa da ilimi don kare yaron daga duk wani nau'i na tashin hankali na jiki ko tunani, rauni ko cin zarafi, sakaci ko kulawa, zalunci ko rashin kulawa ko rashin kulawa. amfani". Kwamitin kare hakkin yara ya fassara labarin 19 a matsayin haramta azabtar da jiki, yana yin tsokaci game da "wajibi na dukan Jihohin Jam'iyyar don matsawa da sauri don haramtawa da kawar da duk wani hukunci na jiki." [21] Kwamitin Kare Hakkokin Dan Adam na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ya kuma fassara sashe na 7 na yarjejeniyar kasa da kasa kan 'yancin jama'a da siyasa da ya haramta " zalunci, cin zarafi ko wulakanci ko hukunci" ga yara, gami da azabtar da yara. [22]

Newell shekarata (1993) ya bayar da hujjar cewa "...matsi don kare mutuncin yara ya kamata ya zama wani bangare na matsin lamba ga duk 'yancin yara."

Kwamitin Ilimin Halittu na Cibiyar Nazarin Ilimin Yara ta Amurka (AAP) (1997), yana ambaton Yarjejeniyar Haƙƙin Yara shekarata (1989), ta tabbatar da cewa "kowane yaro ya kamata ya sami damar girma da haɓakawa daga rashin lafiya ko rauni da za a iya hana shi. "

Wasu batutuwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Sauran batutuwan da kuma suka shafi 'yancin yara sun hada da amfani da yara sojoji da sayar da 'ya'ya, karuwancin yara da hotunan batsa .

Bambanci tsakanin 'yancin yara da 'yancin matasa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

"A mafi yawancin hukunce-hukuncen, alal misali, ba a yarda yara su yi zabe, su yi aure, su sayi barasa, yin jima'i, ko kuma su yi aikin da ake biya." [23] A cikin kungiyar kare hakkin matasa, an yi imanin cewa babban bambanci tsakanin 'yancin yara da 'yancin matasa shine cewa masu goyon bayan 'yancin yara gabaɗaya suna ba da shawarar kafawa da aiwatar da kariya ga yara da matasa, yayin da 'yancin matasa (ƙananan motsi) gabaɗaya ya ba da shawarar fadadawa. Kuma 'yancin kai ga yara da/ko matasa da na haƙƙoƙin kamar zaɓe .

Ikon iyaye[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ana ba iyaye isassun iko don cika ayyukansu ga yaro. [8]

Iyaye suna shafar rayuwar yara ta wata hanya ta musamman, don haka dole ne a bambanta rawar da suke takawa a cikin hakkin yara ta wata hanya ta musamman. Batutuwa na musamman a cikin dangantakar yara da iyaye sun haɗa da rashin kula da yara, Sannnan cin zarafin yara, yancin zaɓi, azabtar da jiki da rikon yara . [24] An sami ra'ayoyin da aka bayar waɗanda ke ba wa iyaye ayyuka na tushen haƙƙoƙi waɗanda ke warware tashe-tashen hankula tsakanin "ilimin da na kowa" da 'yancin yara. [25] Batun ya fi dacewa a cikin shari'ar da ta shafi yiwuwar 'yantar da kananan yara, da kuma a lokuta da yara suka kai karar iyayensu. [26]

Haƙƙoƙin yaro ga dangantaka da iyayensu biyu ana ƙara saninsa a matsayin muhimmin al'amari don ƙayyadaddun maslahar yaro a cikin kisan aure da kuma shari'ar kula da yara . Sannan kuma Wasu gwamnatocin sun kafa dokoki da ke haifar da zato da za a iya warwarewa cewa tarbiyar yara ita ce mafi kyawun amfanin yara. [27]

Iyakance ikon iyaye[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Iyaye ba su da cikakken iko akan 'ya'yansu. Kuma Iyaye suna ƙarƙashin dokokin aikata laifuka kan watsi, cin zarafi, da rashin kula da yara. Dokokin kare hakkin dan Adam na kasa da kasa sun yi tanadin cewa bayyanar addinin mutum na iya iyakancewa don kare lafiyar jama'a, don kare zaman lafiyar jama'a, lafiya ko ɗabi'a, ko don kare haƙƙoƙi da yancin wasu. [28]

Kotuna sun sanya wasu iyakoki akan iko da ayyukan iyaye. Kotun Koli ta Amurka, a cikin shari'ar Prince v. Massachusetts, ta yanke hukuncin cewa addinin iyaye ba ya ba da izinin sanya yaro cikin haɗari. [29] The Lords of Appeal a Talakawa ta yi mulki, a game da Gillick v West Norfolk da Hukumar Kiwon Lafiya ta Wisbech da kuma wani, cewa haƙƙin iyaye yana raguwa tare da haɓaka shekaru da ƙwarewar yaron, amma kada ya ɓace gaba ɗaya har sai yaron ya kai ga rinjaye. Kuma Ana samun haƙƙin iyaye daga ayyukan iyaye ga yaro. Idan babu aiki, babu haƙƙin iyaye. [30] Kotun Koli ta Kanada ta yanke hukunci, a cikin shari'ar E (Mrs) da Hauwa'u, cewa iyaye ba za su iya ba da izinin maye gurbin ba don hana haihuwa ba. [31] Kotun Koli ta Kanada ta yanke hukunci,Sannan a cikin shari'ar B. (R.) v. Ƙungiyar Taimakon Yara na Metropolitan Toronto : [32]

Yayin da yara ba za su iya cin gajiyar Yarjejeniya ba, musamman wajen kare hakkinsu na rayuwa da kuma tsaron lafiyar jikinsu, ba za su iya tabbatar da wadannan hakkoki ba, kuma don haka al’ummarmu ta dauka cewa iyaye za su yi amfani da ‘yancin zabar su ta hanyar da ta dace. wanda ba ya cin zarafin ‘ya’yansu.

Adler a shekarata (2013) yayi jayayya cewa iyaye ba su da ikon ba da izinin maye gurbin kaciya na yara marasa magani. [30]

Motsi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Buga na shekarata 1796 na Thomas Spence 's Rights of Infants yana cikin farkon furcin Turanci na haƙƙin yara. A cikin karni na 20, masu fafutukar kare hakkin yara sun shirya don yancin yara marasa gida da ilimin jama'a . Littafin The Right to Respect na Janusz Korczak a shekara ta 1927 ya ƙarfafa wallafe-wallafen da ke kewaye da wannan fanni, kuma a yau ƙungiyoyin ƙasa da ƙasa da dama suna aiki a faɗin duniya don haɓaka yancin yara. Kuma A cikin Burtaniya kafa ƙungiyar masana ilimi, malamai, ma'aikatan adalci na matasa, 'yan siyasa da masu ba da gudummawar al'adu da ake kira Sabon Ideals a Taron Ilimi [33] (1914-37) ya tsaya ga darajar 'yantar da yaro' kuma ya taimaka wajen ayyana ma'anar. makarantar firamare 'mai kyau' a Ingila har zuwa 80s. [34] Taron nasu ya zaburar da kungiyar UNESCO, Sabuwar Fellowship Fellowship.

Kamar yadda littafin Neill na shekarata 1915 A Dominie's Log (1915), littafin diary na wani babban malami ya canza makarantarsa bisa ga 'yanci da farin ciki na yaro, ana iya kallonsa a matsayin samfurin al'adu wanda ke murna da jaruman wannan yunkuri.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Adawa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Adawa da yancin yara ya daɗe kafin duk wani yanayi na yau da kullun a cikin al'umma, Kuma tare da rubuce-rubucen maganganu game da haƙƙin yara tun daga karni na 13 zuwa baya. Masu adawa da ’yancin yara sun yi imanin cewa matasa suna buƙatar a kāre su daga duniyar balagaggu, gami da yanke shawara da alhakin wannan duniyar. [35] A cikin al'ummar da ta fi kowa girma, yarinta yana da kyau a matsayin lokacin rashin laifi, sannna lokaci mara nauyi da rikici, kuma lokacin da wasa ya mamaye shi. [36] Yawancin 'yan adawa sun samo asali ne daga matsalolin da suka shafi ikon mallakar ƙasa, 'yancin jihohi, dangantakar iyaye da yara. An kuma ba da misali da matsalolin kuɗi da kuma "ƙasassun dabi'un gargajiya na adawa da 'yancin yara", haka nan. [37] Tunanin haƙƙin yara ya ɗan sami kulawa a Amurka. [38]

Dokokin kare hakkin dan adam na duniya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ana ganin sanarwar Haƙƙin Dan Adam ta Duniya a matsayin tushen duk ƙa'idodin shari'a na duniya don yancin yara a yau. Akwai yarjejeniyoyin yarjejeniya da dokoki da yawa waɗanda ke magance yancin yara a duniya. Sannna kuma Takardun da yawa na yanzu da na tarihi suna shafar waɗannan haƙƙoƙin, gami da Bayanin Haƙƙin Yara, [9] wanda Eglantyne Jebb ya tsara a cikin shekarar 1923, wanda Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ta amince da shi a shekarata 1924 kuma ta sake tabbatarwa a cikin 1934. Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ta yi amfani da sigar da aka fadada dan kadan a cikin shekarar 1946, sannan kuma wani nau'i mai fa'ida da yawa wanda Babban Taro ya karbe a Shekarata 1959. Daga baya ya zama tushen Yarjejeniyar Haƙƙin Yara .

Yarjejeniya Ta Duniya Kan 'Yancin Jama'a da Siyasa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ta amince da yarjejeniyar kasa da kasa kan 'yancin jama'a da siyasa (ICCPR) a cikin shekarata 1966. ICCPR yarjejeniya ce ta kasa da kasa da yawa wacce kusan dukkan al'ummomi a Duniya suka amince da su ko kuma suka amince da su. Ana buƙatar al'ummomin da suka zama jam'iyyun Jiha zuwa ga Alkawari su mutunta da aiwatar da haƙƙoƙin da wa'adin ya bayyana. Yarjejeniyar ta fara aiki ne a ranar 23 ga Maris shekarar 1976. Haƙƙoƙin da ICCPR ta tsara na duniya ne, don haka sun shafi kowa ba tare da togiya ba kuma wannan ya haɗa da yara. Ko da yake yara suna da duk wani hakki, kuma wasu haƙƙoƙin kamar haƙƙin yin aure da ’yancin yin zaɓe suna aiki ne kawai bayan yaron ya balaga.

Wasu haƙƙoƙin gama gari waɗanda ke aiki ga yara sun haɗa da:

  • hakkin rayuwa
  • hakkin tsaron mutum
  • 'yancin walwala daga azabtarwa
  • 'yancin samun 'yanci daga zalunci, rashin mutuntaka ko wulakanci ko hukunci
  • 'yancin rabuwa da manya lokacin da aka tuhume su da laifi, 'yancin yanke hukunci cikin gaggawa, da 'yancin a yi musu magani daidai da shekarun su

Mataki na ashirin da hudu ya tsara ’yancin yaro na samun kariya ta musamman saboda tsirarunsa, da hakkin suna, da hakki na dan kasa.

Yarjejeniya kan Haƙƙin Yara[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Yarjejeniyar 'yancin yara ta Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ta shekarata 1989, ko CRC, ita ce kayan aiki na farko na duniya da ke daure bisa doka don haɗa cikakken haƙƙoƙin ɗan adam—yancin ɗan adam, al'adu, tattalin arziki, siyasa da zamantakewa. Kwamitin kare hakkin yara ne ke kula da aiwatar da shi. Gwamnatocin kasa da suka amince da ita sun dukufa wajen kare da tabbatar da hakkin yara, tare da kuma amincewa da daukar alhakin wannan alkawari a gaban kasashen duniya. [39] CRC ita ce yarjejeniya ta haƙƙin ɗan adam da aka fi amincewa da ita tare da amincewa 196; Amurka ce kadai kasar da ba ta amince da ita ba.

CRC ta dogara ne akan ka'idoji guda hudu: ka'idar rashin nuna bambanci; kuma mafi kyawun bukatun yaron; 'yancin rayuwa, rayuwa da ci gaba; da kuma la'akari da ra'ayoyin yaron a cikin yanke shawara da suka shafe su, gwargwadon shekarun su da balaga. [40] CRC, tare da hanyoyin tabbatar da laifuka na kasa da kasa kamar Kotun Hukunta Manyan Laifuka ta Duniya, Kuma Kotunan Yugoslavia da Ruwanda, da Kotun Musamman na Saliyo, an ce sun kara yawan martabar hakkin yara a duniya.

Sanarwar Vienna da Shirin Aiki[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Sanarwar Vienna da shirin Aiki ta bukaci, a sashe na biyu para 47, dukkan kasashe da su dauki matakan da za su kai iyakar abin da suke da su, tare da goyon bayan hadin gwiwar kasa da kasa, don cimma muradun shirin aiwatar da ayyukan koli na duniya. Sannna Kuma Da kuma yin kira ga Jihohi da su sanya yarjejeniyar kare hakkin yara cikin tsare-tsaren ayyukansu na kasa. Ta hanyar wadannan tsare-tsare na kasa da kasa da kuma kokarin kasa da kasa, ya kamata a ba da fifiko na musamman wajen rage yawan mace-macen jarirai da mata masu juna biyu, da rage matsalar rashin abinci mai gina jiki da jahilci da samar da tsaftataccen ruwan sha da ilmin asali. Kuma A duk lokacin da aka bukaci haka, ya kamata a samar da tsare-tsare na ayyukan kasa da kasa don yaki da bala'o'i na gaggawa da ke haifar da bala'o'i da rikice-rikice na makamai da kuma babbar matsalar kananan yara cikin matsanancin talauci. Bugu da kari, sakin layi na 48 ya bukaci dukkan jihohi, tare da goyon bayan hadin gwiwar kasa da kasa, da su magance matsalar kananan yara a cikin mawuyacin hali. Yakamata a magance cin zarafi da cin zarafi ga yara, gami da magance tushensu. Sannna Ana buƙatar ingantattun matakai game da kisan jarirai mata, cutar da yara masu cutarwa, siyar da yara da gabobin jiki, karuwancin yara, batsa na yara, da sauran nau'ikan lalata. [41] Wannan ya rinjayi amincewa da Yarjejeniyar Zaɓuɓɓuka akan Shigar Yara a cikin Rikicin Makamai da Yarjejeniyar Zaɓuɓɓuka akan Siyar da Yara, Karuwancin Yara da Batsa na Yara .

tilastawa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Akwai ƙungiyoyin tilastawa da dabaru iri-iri don tabbatar da yancin yara. Sun hada da kungiyar kare hakkin yara don taron Majalisar Dinkin Duniya na musamman kan yara. Kuma An kafa ta ne don inganta cikakken aiwatarwa da bin yarjejeniyar kare hakkin yara, da kuma tabbatar da cewa an ba da fifiko kan hakkin yara a lokacin babban taron Majalisar Dinkin Duniya na musamman kan yara da tsarin shirye-shiryensa. An ƙirƙiri Hukumar Kare Haƙƙin Bil Adama ta Majalisar Ɗinkin Duniya "tare da begen cewa za ta iya kasancewa mai ma'ana, sahihanci da inganci wajen yin tir da take haƙƙin ɗan adam a duk duniya fiye da hukumar 'yancin ɗan adam da aka sanya siyasa a ciki." Ƙungiya mai zaman kanta don Yarjejeniya kan Haƙƙin Yara Ƙungiya ce ta ƙungiyoyi masu zaman kansu na duniya da aka kafa tun shekarata 1983 don sauƙaƙe aiwatar da yarjejeniyar Majalisar Dinkin Duniya kan 'yancin yara.

Dokar kasa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kasashe da yawa a duniya suna da jami'an kare hakkin yara ko kwamishinonin yara wadanda aikin hukuma, na gwamnati shi ne wakilcin muradun jama'a ta hanyar bincike da kuma magance korafe-korafen da daidaikun jama'a suka bayar game da hakkin yara. Sannan kuma Hakanan ma'aikatan kare hakkin yara na iya aiki ga kamfani, jarida, wata kungiya mai zaman kanta, ko ma ta jama'a.

Dokokin Amurka[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Amurka ta sanya hannu amma ba ta amince da CRC ba. Sannan kuma Sakamakon haka, ba a aiwatar da haƙƙin yara bisa tsari ba a Amurka

Gabaɗaya ana ba wa yara ainihin haƙƙoƙin da Kundin Tsarin Mulki ya ƙunsa, kamar yadda Kwaskwarimar Kwaskwarima ta Goma sha huɗu ga Kundin Tsarin Mulkin Amurka ya tanadar . Matsakaicin Kariya Daidaitacce na wannan gyara shine ya shafi yara, waɗanda aka haifa a cikin aure ko a'a, amma ya ware yaran da ba a haifa ba tukuna. Hukuncin Kotun Kolin Amurka na In re Gault shekarata (1967) ya ƙarfafa wannan. A cikin wannan shari'ar, dan shekaru 15 Gerald Gault dan jihar Arizona ya shiga hannun 'yan sandan yankin bayan an zarge shi da yin kiran waya na batsa. An tsare shi kuma ya sadaukar da shi zuwa Makarantar Masana'antu ta Jihar Arizona har sai da ya kai shekaru 21 don yin kiran wayar batsa ga wani makwabcin balagagge. A cikin yanke shawara na 8-1, Kotun ta yanke hukuncin cewa a cikin karar da za ta iya haifar da sadaukar da kai ga wata hukuma, mutanen da ke kasa da shekaru 18 suna da 'yancin sanarwa da ba da shawara, Kuma yin tambayoyi ga shaidu, da kuma kariya daga cin zarafi. Kotun ta gano cewa hanyoyin da aka yi amfani da su wajen sauraren karar Gault ba su cika ko daya daga cikin wadannan bukatu ba. [42]

Kotun kolin Amurka ta yanke hukunci a shari'ar Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District shekarata (1969) cewa ɗalibai a makaranta suna da haƙƙin Tsarin Mulki. [43]

Kotun kolin Amurka ta yanke hukunci a shari'ar Roper v. Simmons cewa ba za a iya kashe mutane ba saboda laifuffukan da aka aikata a ƙasa da shekara goma sha takwas. Kuma Ta yanke hukuncin cewa irin wannan kisa zalunci ne da ba a saba gani ba, don haka ya saba wa kwaskwarima na takwas ga kundin tsarin mulkin Amurka . [44]

Akwai wasu damuwa a Amurka game da yancin yara. Cibiyar Lauyoyin karɓowa ta Amurka ta damu da haƙƙoƙin yara zuwa aminci, sannan kuma tallafi da tsayayyen tsarin iyali. Matsayin da suke da shi game da hakkin yara a cikin shari'o'in tallafi ya furta cewa, "'ya'ya suna da sha'awar 'yancin kai bisa tsarin mulki don kare iyalansu da aka kafa, haƙƙoƙin da aƙalla daidai yake da su, kuma mun yi imani fiye da haka, haƙƙin wasu da za su yi da'awar 'mallaka. ' sha'awar yaran nan." Sauran batutuwan da suka taso a fafutukar kare hakkin yara na Amurka sun hada da hakkin yara na gado a auren jinsi da musamman hakki na matasa .

Dokokin Jamus[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Wani rahoto da shugabar taron masu zaman kansu na Majalisar Turai, Anelise Oeschger ta gabatar, ya gano cewa yara da iyayensu na fuskantar cin zarafi na take hakkin bil adama na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya, Tarayyar Turai da UNICEF . Musamman damuwa ita ce hukumar Jamus (da Ostiriya), Jugendamt ( Jamus : Ofishin Matasa) wanda sau da yawa rashin adalci ya ba da damar ikon gwamnati ba tare da kulawa ba game da dangantakar iyaye da yara, wanda ya haifar da cutarwa ciki har da azabtarwa, wulakanci, kuma zalunci kuma ya haifar da cutarwa. mutuwar yara. Matsalar tana da sarƙaƙiya ta kusan "iko mara iyaka" na jami'an Jugendamt, ba tare da wasu matakai don bita ko warware maganin da bai dace ba ko cutarwa. Kuma A dokar Jamus, jami'an Jugendamt (JA) suna da kariya daga tuhuma. Ana ganin tsawon lokacin kula da jami'an JA a cikin shari'o'in da ke zuwa kotu na iyali inda za a iya soke shaidar ƙwararru daga ƙananan ilimi ko ƙwararrun jami'an JA; Kuma A cikin fiye da 90% na shari'o'in shawarar jami'in JA na karɓar shawarar kotun dangi. Jami’an sun kuma yi watsi da hukuncin kotunan iyali, kamar lokacin da za a mayar da ‘ya’ya ga iyayensu, ba tare da wani lahani ba. Jamus ba ta amince da shawarar kula da yara masu alaƙa da Kotun Majalisar Turai ta yanke ba wanda ya nemi kariya ko warware yara da take haƙƙin iyaye. [45]

Duba wasu abubuwan[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Kungiyar Ayyukan Talauci
  • Jaridar Matasa da Muhalli
  • Ilimin hakkin yara
  • Yarjejeniyar Turai kan Haƙƙin Dan Adam
  • FGM, Tilastawa Kaciya, da Da'a na kaciya
  • Kyautar Zaman Lafiyar Yara ta Duniya
  • Shirin Ayyukan Kasa na Yara
  • Tilastawa 'yan mata tsiraru a Pakistan
  • Ranar Jan Hannu
  • Save the Children
  • Ka yi tunanin yara
  • UNICEF
  • Kyautar Yara ta Duniya don Haƙƙin Yaranta
  • Ka'idojin Jagoranci Tsakanin Hukumomi akan Yara Mara Rakiya da Rabe

Hakkokin yara na duniya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Hakkokin yara a Chile
  • Hakkokin yara a Colombia
  • Hakkokin yara a Japan
  • Hakkin yara a Mali
  • Bayanin Haƙƙin Yara
  • Hakkin Yara a Iran
  • Jadawalin yancin matasa a Burtaniya
  • Jadawalin yancin matasa a Amurka
  • Zargin maita akan yara a Afirka

Batutuwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kungiyoyin kare hakkin yara[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Hanyoyin haɗi na waje[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Littafi Mai Tsarki[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

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