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Hukumar Zaɓe mai zaman kanta ta ƙasa

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Hukumar Zaɓe mai zaman kanta ta ƙasa

Bayanai
Iri election commission (en) Fassara
Ƙasa Najeriya
Tarihi
Ƙirƙira 1998

Hukumar Zaɓe Mai Zaman Kanta ta Ƙasa (INEC), wacce aka kafa a shekarar 1998, ita ce hukumar zaɓen da ke lura da zaɓe a Najeriya. Dukkan wasu abubuwan da suka shafi Zaɓe a ƙarƙashin ta suke. Kuma kamar yadda sunan ta yake ita hukuma ce mai zaman kanta

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Dokoki da gudanar da zabe[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Gudanar da zabubbukan dimokiraɗiyya a Najeriya ya samo asali ne tun daga lokacin samun 'Yancin kai lokacin da aka ƙaddamar da Hukumar Zaɓe ta Najeriya (ECN) a shekarar 1958 don gudanar da zaɓen tarayya na 1959. Kafin shekarar 1958, dokokin yanki da gwamnati suna tsarawa da gudanar da zaɓe. ECN ya kasance ƙarƙashin jagorancin wani bature, Ronald Edward Wraith da mambobin Najeriya huɗu dake wakiltar kowane yanki da Babban Birnin Tarayya na Legas. Hukumar Zaɓe ta Tarayya (FEC), wacce aka kafa a 1960 ta gudanar da zaɓukan tarayya da na yankuna kai tsaye bayan samun ‘yanci na 1964 da 1965. Kafin gudanar da zaben na 1964, Babban Jami’in Zaɓe, Kofo Abayomi ya yi murabus kuma wasu jami’an jam’iyyar daga NCNC da AC (Action Group) sun nuna shakku kan sahihancin zaben na gaskiya da adalci. An rusa hukumar zaɓen bayan juyin mulkin soja na 1966. A shekarar 1978, gwamnatin Janar Olusegun Obasanjo ta kafa Hukumar Zaɓe ta Tarayya (FEDECO), inda ta shirya zabukan shekarar 1979 wanda ya kawo Jamhuriya ta Biyu ta Nijeriya ƙarƙashin jagorancin Alhaji Shehu Shagari . Hakanan ta gudanar da babban zaɓen 1983.

A watan Disambar shekarar 1995, gwamnatin mulkin soja ta Janar Sani Abacha ta kafa Hukumar Zaɓe ta Ƙasa ta Najeriya wacce ta sake gudanar da wani zaɓen. Ba a ƙaddamar da waɗannan zaɓaɓɓun cibiyoyin ba kafin mutuwar Janar Abacha kwatsam a watan Yunin shekarar 1998 ya soke aikin. A 1998, Gwamnatin Janar Abdulsalam Abubakar ta rusa NECON ta kuma kafa Hukumar Zaɓe Mai Zaman Kanta ta Ƙasa (INEC). INEC ta shirya zabukan rikon-kwarya da suka haifar da Jamhuriya ta Hudu ta Nijeriya a ranar 29 ga watan Mayun shekarar 1999.

A watan Janairun 2015, ƙungiyar " #BringBackOurGirls " ta yi ƙara game da shirin da Hukumar Zaɓe Mai Zaman Kanta ta Ƙasa (INEC) ke yi don ware Chibok da wasu al'ummomin da ke karkashin ikon Boko Haram a yanzu daga karbar katunan zaɓe na din-dindin (PVCs) don zaben na watan Fabrairu."

Shugabanci[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Shugaban Hukumar Zaɓe ta Tarayyar Najeriya ta farko shi ne Cif Eyo Esua (1964-1966) a Jamhuriya ta Farko. Lokacin da Janar Olusegun Obasanjo ya shirya domin komawa kan mulkin farar hula a Jamhuriya ta Biyu, ya kafa sabuwar Hukumar Zaɓe ta Tarayya karkashin jagorancin Cif Michael Ani don lura da zaɓen 1979. Mai shari’a Victor Ovie Whiskey ne ya maye gurbin Ani. A lokacin gwamnatocin Ibrahim Babangida da na Sani Abacha, waɗanda suka yi yunkurin komawa kan turbar dimokuraɗiyya, Hukumar Zaɓe ta kasa a karkashin jagorancin Farfesa Eme Awa (1987-1989), Farfesa Humphrey Nwosu (1989–1993), Farfesa Okon Uya da Cif Sumner Dagogo- Jack (1994–1998).

INEC[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Janar Abdulsalami Abubakar ne ya kafa INEC ta yanzu, tare da Mai Shari’a Ephraim Akpata a matsayin shugaba. Akpata ya yi mu'amala da ƙungiyoyin siyasa 26, inda ya ba da rajista na wucin-gadi a matsayin jam'iyyun siyasa na zaɓen 1998/1999, daga ƙarshe ya koma karkashin jam'iyyun uku. Duk da kokarin da aka yi na tabbatar da zaɓe cikin gaskiya da adalci, aikin ya jawo kakkausar suka daga masu sa ido na ƙasashen duniya. Bayan Akpata ya mutu a watan Janairun 2000, gwamnatin Shugaba Olusegun Obasanjo ta naɗa Abel Guobadia Babban Jami’in Zaɓe na Najeriya, matsayin da Majalisar Dattawan Najeriya ta tabbatar a watan Mayun 2000. Guobadia ce ke da alhakin zaɓen 2003, wanda rikice-rikice da yawa da wasu ɓarnatar suka yi lahani.

A watan Yunin 2005, Guobadia ya yi ritaya kuma Farfesa Maurice Iwu ya gaje shi. Jim kadan da nada shi, Iwu ya ba da sanarwar cewa ba za a bar masu sa ido na kasashen waje ba yayin zabuka, amma masu sa ido kan zaben na kasashen waje ne kawai. 'Yan siyasa da kungiyoyin farar hula sun yi Allah wadai da wannan shawarar wadanda suka yi kira da a cire shi nan take daga mukaminsa. Yadda aka gudanar da zaɓen 2007 an sake sukar shi da cewa ya faɗi ƙasa da ƙa'idodin dimokuraɗiyya.

A ranar 8 ga watan Yunin 2010, Shugaba Goodluck Jonathan ya zaɓi Farfesa Attahiru Muhammadu Jega a matsayin sabon Shugaban INEC, idan har Majalisar Dattawa ta tabbatar, a matsayin wanda zai maye gurbin Iwu, wanda ya bar mukamin a ranar 28 ga Afrilun 2010. Naɗin Jega a matsayin shugaban INEC ya biyo bayan amincewa da taron Majalisar kasa da Shugaba Jonathan ya kira wanda ya samu halartar tsoffin shugabannin kasa Yakubu Gowon, Muhammadu Buhari, Ibrahim Babangida, Abdulsalami Abubakar, Ernest Shonekan, Olusegun Obasanjo da Shehu Shagari. Shugaban majalisar dattijai David Mark, kakakin majalisar wakilai Oladimeji Bankole, da mafi yawan gwamnonin jihohi suma sun halarci taron. Amincewar da majalissar da aka zaba ta yi wa wannan nadin ya kauce ma cece-kuce game da ko shugaban kasa ya kamata ya nada shugaban INEC. Martani game da sanarwar daga dimbin bangarorin shugabannin siyasa da ƙungiyoyi sun kasance masu kyau, kodayake wasu sun nuna damuwa cewa za a iya lattin aiwatar da gyare-gyare na ainihi kafin zaɓen 2011.

A lokacin yakin neman zaɓen babban zaɓen Najeriya na shekarar 2015, Attahiru Jega "ya fuskanci kakkausar suka daga bangaren adawa da jam'iyya mai mulki." Wa'adin mulkinsa na Attahiru Jega na shekaru biyar ya zo karshe ne a ranar 30 ga watan Yunin shekarar, 2015, kuma duk da cewa ya cancanci sake naɗin, damar hakan ta yi nisa ganin yadda jami'an kamfen din Shugaba Goodluck suka nuna masa son kai. Shugaba Muhammadu Buhari ya naɗa Farfesa Mahmood Yakubu a matsayin Shugaban INEC, Farfesa Yakubu ya karɓi aiki daga hannun Amina Bala-Zakari, wacce ke rikon muƙamin shugaban bayan Jega ya tafi.

Rigingimu[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Hukumar Zaɓe ta INEC ta gamu da rikice-rikice da dama a yayin da ake tunkarar zabuka a kasar, musamman zaɓen watan Afrilun 2007, gami da sukar yadda ta shirya daga Sada Abubakar, Sarkin Musulmi da kuma takaddama kan “rashin cancantar” Mataimakin. takarar shugaban ƙasa Atiku Abubakar. Kotun Koli ta yanke hukuncin cewa INEC ba za ta iya dakatar da ‘yan takara ba, don haka aka kara sunan Abubakar a kuri’un a mintin ƙarshe.

Dangane da batun magudin zaɓe, kakakin hukumar INEC, Philip Umeadi ya ce a ranar 19 ga watan Afrilu cewa "Ba mu zauna kan wani rikici a Najeriya ba." Manufar INEC ita ce ta kasance a matsayin EMB mai zaman kanta kuma mai tasiri wajen gudanar da zaɓe na gaskiya, kuma amintacce don dorewar dimokiradiyya a Najeriya. Hangen nesan INEC shine ya zama daya daga cikin ingantattun Hukumomin Gudanar da Zaɓe (EMB) a duniya wanda zai cika burin jama'ar Najeriya.

A cikin shirye-shiryen babban zaben 2015, INEC a karkashin Jega ta gabatar da na'urar tantance masu kada kuri'a domin tantance masu jefa kuri'a da katunan zaɓensu don rage aukuwar magudi da ƴan siyasa keyi. Gabatar na'urar zaɓe (card reader) yasa shugaban hukumar zaɓe (INEC) ya samu yabo daga ‘yan Najeriya da dama amma gungun wasu kananan jam’iyyun siyasa huɗu waɗanda suka yi ikirarin suna wakiltar jam’iyyun siyasa 15 sun yi tir da hakan kuma sun bukaci INEC da ta dakatar da amfani da na’urar tantance katin a zaben 2015. An yi babban zaben shekarar 2015 a matsayin mafi inganci, sahihi da adalci tun bayan dawowar mulkin dimokuraɗiyya a shekarar 1999.

An zargi INEC da yawan kura-kuran zaɓe a zaɓen shugaban ƙasa na shekarar 2019 da suka haɗa da ƙarar takardun kada ƙuri’a, da kuma na'urar tantance masu zaɓe (card reader) cewa an saita aikinsu don yin maguɗin zaɓe da kuma soke kuri’u masu inganci. Babbar jam'iyyar adawa ta People's Democratic Party da dan takararta na shugaban ƙasa sun kalubalanci sakamakon zaɓen a kotu.

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

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4. https://repository.law.miami.edu/umiclr/vol10/iss2/10


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9. http://allafrica.com/stories/200906020075.html


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19. https://www.vanguardngr.com/2015/03/tension-mounts-on-presidency-over-jega/


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24. https://silverbirdtv.com/uncategorized/18312/4-political-parties-want-jega-fired-threaten-to-boycott-elections-over-card-readers/ Archived 2021-06-11 at the Wayback Machine


25. https://dailypost.ng/2015/06/21/the-use-of-card-readers-in-elections-has-come-to-stay-jega/

Hanyoyin haɗin waje[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]