Jump to content

Umar Taal

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Umar Taal
sarki


Toucouleur Empire (en) Fassara

Rayuwa
Haihuwa Futa Tooro (en) Fassara, 1797
ƙasa Toucouleur Empire (en) Fassara
Mutuwa 12 ga Faburairu, 1864
Karatu
Harsuna Larabci
Sana'a
Sana'a Ulama'u
Imani
Addini Mabiya Sunnah

Hadji Oumarûl Foutiyou TALL ( Umar ibn Sa'id al-Futi Tal, Larabci: حاج عمر بن سعيد طعل‎ ), ( c. 1794 – 1864 CE ), an haife shi a yankin Futa Tooro, Senegambia, shugaban siyasar yammacin Afirka ne, malamin Islama, Tijani Sufi da kwamandan sojan Toucouleur wanda kuma ya kafa Daular Toucouleur na ɗan gajeren lokaci wanda ya kuma mamaye yawancin abin da ake kira Guinea, Senegal, da Mali . [1]

Suna[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An rubuta sunan Omar Tall daban-daban: musamman, sunansa na farko yawanci ana fassara shi da Faransanci da sunan Omar, kodayake wasu kafofin sun fi son Umar ; da patronymic, ibn Sa'id, sau da yawa kuma yana tsallake. da kuma karshe kashi na sunansa, Tall Larabci: طعل‎ ), ana rubuta su daban-daban da tsayi, Taal ko Tal .

A honorific El Hadj (wato al-Hajj ko el-Hadj), ajiye wani Musulmi wanda ya samu nasarar sanya Hajj zuwa Makka, Earsbe Omar Tall sunan da yawa a cikin matani, musamman waɗanda suke a cikin Larabci. Daga baya kuma ya ɗauki manyan masu daraja Amir al-Mu'minin, Khalifa, Qutb (tushen duniya), wazirin Mahdi, Khalifat Khatim al-Awliya (majikin hatimin waliyyai), da Almami (Imam). [1]

Rayuwar farko[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An haifi Omar Tall kimanin shekara ta 1794 a Halwar a cikin Imaman Futa Toro ( Senegal a yau); shi ne na goma cikin yara goma sha biyu. Mahaifinsa shi ne Saidou Tall, daga kabilar Torodbe, mahaifiyarsa kuwa Sokhna Adama Thiam. Omar Tall ya halarci wata madrassa kafin nazari a kan Hajj a shekara ta 1828, ya dawo a shekara ta 1830 El Hadj da aka qaddamar a cikin Tijaniyya, sa'an nan Ya daidaita a kan khalifa na Tijaniyya sufi 'yan'uwantaka a cikin Sudan . El-Hadj ya dauki Khalifat Khatim al-Awliya mai daraja Tijjani . Wannan ikon zai zama ginshikin ikonsa na kansa wanda ya zama dole don jagorantar 'yan Afirka.

Lokacin da ya dawo daga aikin Hajji ya yada zango kusa da Damascus a can ya haɗu da Ibrahim Pasha, Omar Tall yayi abokantaka da Pasha ya ya bawa dansa maganin zazzaɓi kuma ya warke daga zazzaɓi mai kisa, Omar Tall ya samu kwarin guiwa sosai da yanayin da Pasha ya kafa. Ya zauna a Sakkwato Daga shekara ta 1831 zuwa shekara ta 1837, ya auri mata da dama, daya daga cikinsu diyar Halifan Fulani ce ta Khalifan Sokoto, Muhammed Bello . A cikin 1836, Omar Tall ya koma Imamancin Futa Jallon, sannan ya koma Dinguiraye a shekara ta 1840, a Guinea ta yau, inda ya fara shirye-shiryen jihadinsa . A can ya tsara mabiyansa zuwa ƙwararrun runduna ta kusan 50,000, ɗauke da makaman Faransa da masu ba da shawara na yamma. A shekara ta 1852 ya shelanta jihadi a kan maguzawa, da maguzawan musulmi, da turawa masu kutse, da sarakunan Futa Toro da Futa Jallon masu ja da baya. [1]

Omar Tall ya yi iƙirarin ikon mallaka na wuce gona da iri. Ya musanta muhimmancin riko da Mazhaba kuma ya fifita Ijtihadi ko hukunci na addini. Ya koyar da cewa ya kamata mumini ya bi shiriyar Shaihin Sufaye wanda yake da ilimin gaskiya na Ubangiji nan take. Ko da yake Omar Tall bai taba daukar Mujaddadi ko Mahdi ba, amma mabiyansa suna kallonsa a matsayin haka. Ya zama torodbe manufa na farfaɗo da addini da cin nasara a kan arna. [1]

Cin nasara na farko[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Omar Tall ya yi kira ga al’ummar Futa Toro bisa korafe-korafen da suke yi da manyan sojoji. Har ila yau, al'ummarsa sun yi kira ga mutane marasa tushe daga kabilu dabam-dabam wadanda suka sami sabon salo na zamantakewa da kuma damar cin galaba a karkashin tsarin Musulunci. Jihadinsa ya fara ne da cin Futa Toro kuma a shekara ta 1862 daularsa ta haɗa da Timbuktu, Masina, Hamdallahi, da Segu . [1]

A cikin shekara ta 1848, sojojin Omar Tall's Toucouleur, sanye take da makaman Faransa, sun mamaye yankuna da yawa makwabta, arna, Malinké kuma sun sami nasara cikin gaggawa. Omar Tall ya matsa zuwa yankin Kayes na kasar Mali a yau, inda ya ci garuruwa da dama tare da gina wani katafaren katanga a kusa da birnin Kayes wanda a yau ya zama wurin yawon bude ido.

A watan Afrilun shekara ta 1857, Omar Tall ya shelanta yaki a kan masarautar Khasso. Ya shiga rikici da Faransawa waɗanda ke ƙoƙarin kafa ikon kasuwancinsu a gefen kogin Senegal. Omar Tall ya yiwa sojojin mulkin mallaka na Faransa kawanya a sansanin Madina . Yakin bai yi nasara ba a ranar 18 ga Yuli na wannan shekarar lokacin da Louis Faidherbe, gwamnan Faransa na Senegal, ya isa tare da dakarun agaji. A shekara ta 1860 Omar Tall ya kulla yarjejeniya da Faransawa wadanda suka gane nasa, da mabiyansa, fannin tasiri a Futa Toro kuma ya sanya musu jihohin Bambara na Kaarta da Segu . [1]

Bambara da Masina[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

,[ana buƙatar hujja].

Omar Tall ya ɗora ɗansa Ahmadu Tall a matsayin limamin Segu, ya yi tattaki zuwa Nijar, kan imaman Masarautar Hamdullahi. Fiye da 70,000 sun mutu[ana buƙatar hujja] a cikin yaƙe-yaƙe guda uku da suka biyo baya. Mafi yanke hukunci shine a Cayawel, inda Amadu III, Sarkin Masina, ya ji rauni. Djenné ya fadi da sauri [2] sannan faɗuwar ƙarshe da halaka Hamdullahi a watan Mayu 1862. [2]

Mutuwa da gado[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A cikin shekara ta 1862, a cikin neman sabon yanki, Omar Tall da mabiyansa sun mamaye Masarautar Massina (Masina), wanda babban birninta ya kasance a Hamdullahi . Ahmad al-Bakkai al-Kunti, na darikar Sufi Qadari, ya jagoranci hadakar wasu jahohin kasar domin tinkarar wannan farmakin da Ahmad ya yi tir da shi da cewa haramtacciyar yakin musulmi ne akan musulmi. Ƙungiyoyin sun haɗa da, Inter alia, Masina da Timbuktu .

Omar Tall ya kama Hamdullahi a ranar 15 ga Mayun shekara ta 1862. A yanzu Omar Tall yana iko da Nijar ta Tsakiya gabaɗaya, ya ƙaura zuwa Timbuktu, amma a shekara ta 1863 rundunar hadaka ta Tuaregs, Moors, da Fulas suka fatattake su . [3] A shekara ta 1863, kawancen ya yi galaba a kan sojojin Omar Tall da dama, inda suka kashe hafsoshin Tall Alpha Umar (Alfa 'Umar), Thierno Bayla da Alfa 'Uthman.

A halin da ake ciki kuma, an yi tawaye a ƙasar Masina a ƙarƙashin jagorancin Ba Lobbo, kani ga sarkin Masina da aka kashe, Amadu III . A wajen murkushe tawaye, A lokacin bazara na 1863, Omar Tall ya sake mamaye birnin Hamdullahi, kuma a watan Yuni rundunar Balobo ta hadakar Fulas da Kountas sun yiwa sojojin Omar Tall kawanya a can. [4] Mabiya Balobo sun kama Hamdallahi a watan Fabrairun 1864. Omar Tall ya gudu ya yi nasarar kai shi wani kogo a Degembere (a cikin Bandiagara Escarpment ) inda ya rasu a ranar 14 ga Fabrairu 1864. [4]

Yayan Omar Tall Tidiani Tall ya gaje shi a matsayin sarkin Toucouleur, ko da yake dansa Ahmadu Tall, wanda ke aiki daga Ségou, ya yi aiki da yawa wajen kiyaye daular. Duk da haka, Faransanci ya ci gaba da ci gaba, a ƙarshe ya shiga Ségou kanta a 1890. Jihar jihadi ta Omar Tall ta shiga cikin daular Faransa ta yammacin Afirka da ke girma. [1]

Omar Tall ya kasance fitaccen mutum a Senegal, Guinea, da Mali, duk da cewa gadonsa ya bambanta da kasa. Inda 'yan Senegal da yawa sukan tuna da shi a matsayin gwarzo na adawa da Faransa.  Mali kafofin ayan bayyana shi a matsayin mai mamaye wanda ya shirya hanya domin ta Faransa ta raunanar da yammacin Afirka. Omar Tall kuma yayi fice a cikin littafin tarihin Maryse Condé na Segu . Har wala yau ya kasance mai fada a ji a cikin darikar Tijjaniyya da sauran kungiyoyin kawo sauyi, wadanda suka jaddada muhimmancin tsarin addinin Musulunci. Jihar Umar Tall ta hana rawa, shan taba, barasa, laya, bukukuwan maguzawa, da bautar gumaka. An dakatar da ayyuka da yawa da ba na Musulunci ba. An kuma aiwatar da waɗannan dokokin sosai, musamman ma hana barasa. Omar Tall ya soke harajin da ba a san shi ba ya maye gurbinsu da zakka, harajin filaye, da jizya . An iyakance masu auren mace fiye da ɗaya ga mata huɗu kawai. Omar Tall kuwa, ba ya sha’awar abubuwan dabaru na cusa addinin Musulunci kamar ginin kotuna, madrassa, da masallatai. Babban aikin da gwamnatin Umar Tall ta yi shi ne yaƙin farauta, bauta, tara ganima, da gyara ɗabi'u. [1] A cikin Senegambia, ana tunawa da muhimmancinsa a lokacin "lokacin jihadi" a matsayin "ba juriya ga Turawa ba amma "lalata arna" a yammacin Sudan. [5]

A watan Nuwambar shekara ta 2019, gwamnatin Faransa ta mayarwa gwamnatin Jamhuriyar Senegal abin da ake kira takobin Omar Tall - wanda a zahiri takobin Ahmadu Tall ne, dan Omar Tall - ga gwamnatin Jamhuriyar Senegal.  ·

Zuriyar sarauta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Magabata
{{{before}}}
{{{title}}} Magaji
{{{after}}}
Magabata
{{{before}}}
{{{title}}} Magaji
{{{after}}}

Bayanan kula da nassoshi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Asalin wannan labarin ya dogara ne akan fassarar labarin da ya dace daga Wikipedia na Faransa, wanda aka dawo dashi ranar 1 ga Yuli, shekara ta 2005, wanda kuma ya kawo maɓuɓɓuka masu zuwa:

Tushen harshen Ingilishi :

  • Davidson, Basil . Afirka a Tarihi . New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995.
  • BO Oloruntimehin. Daular Segu Tukulor . New York: 'Yan Jarida (1972). Farashin 391002066
  • Willis, John Ralph. A Tafarkin Allah: Son al-Hajj Umar . London: Kasa, 1989.
  • Mai hikima, Christopher. Tekun Hamada: Adabin Sahel . Boulder & London: Lynne Rienner, 2001.
  • Mai hikima, Christopher. Yambo Ouologuem: Marubuci Bayan Mulkin Mallaka, Tsagerun Musulunci . Boulder & London: Lynne Rienner, 1999.

Hanyoyin haɗi na waje[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Fayilolin sauti

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 Lapidus, Ira M. (2014) A History of Islamic Societies. 3rd edition, New York: Cambridge University Press, pages 472-473.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Roberts
  3. Fula: Fulɓe; French: Peul
  4. 4.0 4.1 Tall 2006
  5. The Standarde (Gambia), Al-hajj Umar Fouti Tall c.1797 – 1864 The Tijaniyya jihadist (JUNE 19, 2020) (retrieved 23 August 2020)