Walƙiya mai haɗari

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Wata walƙiya ta kama kamar yadda aka gani daga ƙauyen Dolno Sonje, a wani ƙauye a kudancin Skopje, Arewacin Macedonia .

Yajin walƙiya ko walƙiya shine fitarwar lantarki tsakanin yanayi da ƙasa. Yawancin ya samo asali ne a cikin gajimare na cumulonimbus kuma yana ƙarewa a ƙasa, wanda ake kira walƙiya -zuwa ƙasa (CG). Wani nau'in yajin da ba a saba sabawa ba, walƙiya daga ƙasa zuwa gajimare (GC), walƙiya ce mai haɓakawa zuwa sama wanda aka fara daga wani abu mai tsayi kuma yana shiga cikin gajimare. Kusan kashi 69 cikin 100 na duk abubuwan da ke faruwa na walƙiya a duk duniya suna faruwa ne tsakanin yanayi da abubuwan da ke daure ƙasa. Yawancin su ne intracloud (IC) walƙiya da gajimare-zuwa-girgije (CC), inda fitarwa kawai ke faruwa a cikin sararin samaniya. [1] Walƙiya tana afkawa matsakaicin jirgin sama na kasuwanci aƙalla sau ɗaya a shekara, amma injiniyanci da ƙira na zamani yana nufin wannan ba matsala bace. Motsin jirage ta cikin gajimare na iya haifar da tashin walƙiya.

Walƙiya guda ɗaya ita ce "flash", wanda ke da sarƙaƙƙiya, tsari mai yawa, wasu sassa waɗanda ba a fahimta sosai ba. Yawancin CG suna walƙiya kawai "busa" wuri ɗaya na jiki, wanda ake magana da shi azaman "ƙarewa". Tashar gudanarwa ta farko, haske mai haske, wanda ake iya gani kuma ana kiranta "yajin", kusan inci ɗaya ne kawai a diamita, amma saboda tsananin haske, sau da yawa ya fi girma ga idon ɗan adam da hotuna. Fitowar walƙiya yawanci tsayin mil ne, amma wasu nau'ikan watsawar a kwance na iya kaiwa sama da dubun mil a tsayi. Dukan filasha yana ɗaukar ɗan juzu'in daƙiƙa ɗaya kacal

Hotunan panorama da aka ɗauka yayin guguwar walƙiya a Bucharest, Romania

Yajin aiki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Walƙiya na iya cutar da mutane ta hanyoyi daban-daban:

  1. Kai tsaye
    • Yajin kai tsaye - mutumin wani yanki ne na tashar walƙiya. Yawancin kuzari suna wucewa cikin jiki da sauri, yana haifar da konewa na ciki, lalata gabobin jiki, fashewar nama da kashi, da lalacewar tsarin juyayi. Dangane da ƙarfin walƙiya da samun dama ga sabis na likita, yana iya zama mai mutuwa nan take ko ya haifar da rauni da lahani na dindindin.
    • Raunin tuntuɓa - abu (gaba ɗaya madugu) wanda mutum yake taɓawa yana samun wutar lantarki ta yajin aiki.
    • Fashewar gefe - rassan igiyoyin igiyoyin ruwa "tsalle" daga tashar filasha ta farko, tana kunna mutum.
    • Raunin fashewar - jifa da fama da rauni mai ƙarfi daga girgizar girgiza (idan yana kusa) da yuwuwar lalacewar ji daga aradu .
  2. Kai tsaye
    • Ƙarƙashin ƙasa na halin yanzu ko "yiwuwar mataki" - saman duniya yana cajin tseren zuwa tashar walƙiya yayin fitarwa. Saboda ƙasa tana da babban haɗari, na yanzu "zaɓi" mafi kyawun jagora, sau da yawa kafafun mutum, suna wucewa ta jiki. Matsakaicin saurin fitarwa na kusa yana haifar da yuwuwar (bambanci) akan nisa, wanda zai iya kai adadin volts dubu da yawa a kowace ƙafar madaidaiciya. Wannan al'amari (wanda kuma ke da alhakin rahotannin mutuwar dawa da yawa a sakamakon guguwar walƙiya) yana haifar da ƙarin raunuka da mutuwar fiye da uku na sama.  haɗe.
    • EMPs - tsarin fitarwa yana haifar da bugun jini na lantarki ( EMP ), wanda zai iya lalata na'urar bugun zuciya ta wucin gadi, ko kuma ya shafi tsarin rayuwa na yau da kullun.
    • Ana iya haifar da ruɗi a cikin mutanen da ke tsakanin a ƙalla 200 m (650 ft) na guguwar walƙiya mai tsanani.
  3. Sakandare ko sakamako
    • Fashewa
    • Gobara
    • Hatsari

Alamomin faɗakarwa na yajin da ke gabatowa a kusa na iya haɗawa da ƙarar sauti, jin daɗin wutar lantarki a gashi ko fata, ƙamshi mai ƙamshi na ozone, ko bayyanar hazo mai shuɗi a kusa da mutane ko abubuwa ( Wutar St. Elmo ). An shawarci mutanen da aka kama a cikin irin wannan matsanancin yanayi - ba tare da sun iya guduwa zuwa wuri mafi aminci ba, cikakken sararin samaniya - an shawarci su ɗauki "matsayin walƙiya", wanda ya haɗa da "zauna ko tsuguno tare da gwiwoyi da ƙafafu kusa da juna don ƙirƙirar wuri ɗaya kawai. Sannan Kuma tare da ƙasa" (tare da ƙafafu daga ƙasa idan zaune; idan ana buƙatar matsayi na tsaye, ƙafafu dole ne su taɓa). [2]

Raunin[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hatsarin walƙiya na iya haifar da munanan raunuka, kuma suna da mutuwa a tsakanin kashi 10 zuwa 30% na lokuta, tare da kusan kashi 80% na waɗanda suka tsira suna samun raunuka na dogon lokaci. Wadannan raunuka masu tsanani ba yawanci ba ne suke haifar da ƙonawar zafi, tun da halin yanzu yana da ɗan gajeren lokaci don zafi da kyallen takarda; A maimakon haka, jijiyoyi da tsokoki na iya lalacewa kai tsaye ta hanyar babban ƙarfin lantarki da ke samar da ramuka a cikin membranes na tantanin halitta, tsarin da ake kira electroporation .

A cikin yajin kai tsaye, igiyoyin lantarki a cikin tashar walƙiya suna wucewa kai tsaye ta cikin wanda aka azabtar. Yawan faɗuwar wutar lantarki a kusa da mafi ƙarancin na'urorin lantarki (kamar ɗan adam), yana haifar da iskar da ke kewaye da ionize kuma ta karye, sannan kuma walƙiya na waje yana karkatar da mafi yawan magudanar ruwa ta yadda ya zagaya "zagaye" jiki, yana rage rauni. .

Abubuwan ƙarfe da ke hulɗa da fata na iya "maida hankali" ƙarfin walƙiya, idan aka yi la'akari da shi shi ne mafi kyawun jagorar halitta da kuma hanyar da aka fi so, wanda ya haifar da mummunan rauni, kamar konewa daga narkakkar da ƙarfe ko ƙafe. Akalla lokuta biyu (2) ne aka bayar da rahoton inda wani yajin aikin sanye da iPod ya samu munanan raunuka sakamakon haka.

A lokacin walƙiya, to Amman kodayake, halin yanzu yana gudana ta hanyar tashar da kewayen jiki na iya haifar da manyan filayen lantarki da EMPs, waɗanda zasu iya haifar da ɓacin rai (surges) a cikin tsarin juyayi ko bugun zuciya, yana ɓata ayyukan yau da kullun . Wannan tasirin na iya bayyana lokuta inda kamawar zuciya ko kamawa ya biyo bayan yajin walƙiya wanda bai haifar da rauni na waje ba. Hakanan yana iya yin nuni ga wanda aka azabtar ba a buga shi kai tsaye ba kwata-kwata, amma kawai yana kusa da ƙarshen yajin.

Wani illar walƙiya akan masu kallo shi ne ga jinsu . Sakamakon girgizar tsawa na iya lalata kunnuwa. Hakanan, kutsewar wutar lantarki ga wayoyi ko belun kunne na iya haifar da lalatar amo .

Epidemiology[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Taswirar dige-dige da ke nuna mace-mace maza da mata ta hanyar walkiya a nahiyar Amurka tsakanin 2007 da 2017
Tunawa da wani mutum da walƙiya ta kashe a London, 1787

Kimanin al'amura kimanin 240,000 game da walƙiya na faruwa a duniya kowace shekara. [3]

A cewar National Geographic, kimanin mutane kimanin 2,000 a duk shekara ana kashe su a duniya ta hanyar walƙiya. Dangane da waɗannan alkalumman, to, matsakaicin ɗan adam yana da kusan ɗaya daga cikin 60,000 zuwa 80,000 damar faɗaɗa wa walƙiya a cikin rayuwar kusan shekaru 65-70. Haka kuma, saboda karuwar wayar da kan jama'a da ingantattun masu kula da walƙiya da kariya, adadin masu mutuwan walƙiya a kowace shekara yana raguwa a kowace shekara.

A cewar Hukumar Kula da Ruwa da Ruwa ta Kasa, a cikin shekaru 40 da suka wuce, Amurka ta yi asarar rayuka 51 a duk shekara, lamarin da ya sa ya zama na biyu mafi yawan sanadin mutuwar masu nasaba da yanayi bayan ambaliya . [4] A cikin Amurka, tsakanin 9 zuwa 10% na waɗanda aka kashe sun mutu, [5] tare da matsakaicin mutuwar 25 na shekara-shekara a cikin shekaru goma na shekarar 2010 (16 a cikin shekarata 2017).

A Kisii da ke yammacin Kenya, kimanin mutane kimanin 30 ne ke mutuwa a kowace shekara sakamakon tsawa. Yawan kashewar walƙiyar Kisii na faruwa ne saboda yawan tsawa da kuma saboda yawancin gine-ginen yankin suna da rufin ƙarfe.

Wadannan kididdigar ba su nuna bambanci tsakanin hare-haren kai tsaye ba, inda wanda aka azabtar ya kasance wani bangare na hanyar walƙiya, sakamakon kai tsaye na kusa da wurin ƙarewa, kamar igiyoyin ruwa na ƙasa, da kuma sakamakon, inda abin da ya faru ya taso daga abubuwan da suka biyo baya, kamar gobara. ko fashewa. Ko da mafi yawan ƙwararrun masu amsawa na farko ba za su iya gane raunin da ya shafi walƙiya ba, balle cikakkun bayanai, wanda ma'aikacin likita, mai binciken 'yan sanda, ko kuma a wani lokaci da ba kasafai ƙwararren ƙwararren walƙiya na iya samun wahalar gano yin rikodin daidai ba. Wannan yana watsi da gaskiyar cewa walƙiya, a matsayin abin da ya faru na farko, na iya ɗaukar alhakin gaba ɗaya da sakamakon haɗari.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Rikicin kai-tsaye na iya yin sama da adadin da aka ruwaito.

Tasiri akan yanayi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tasiri kan ciyayi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Wani koren bishiyar da walkiya ta same shi, ta fashe da gangar jikin.
Wannan bishiyar eucalyptus ta yi fama da walƙiya, yayin da ba a taɓa ɓangarorin ƙwaya biyu na kusa ba, Darwin, Yankin Arewa, Ostiraliya.
Wata bishiyar da aka yi wa walƙiya a tsibirin Toronto, tana nuna a fili hanyar da cajin ya ɗauka a cikin ƙasa.

Bishiyoyi sune masu jagorantar walƙiya akai-akai zuwa ƙasa. Tunda ruwan 'ya'yan itace maras nauyi ne, juriyar wutar lantarki ya sa ya yi zafi da zafi zuwa tururi, wanda ke fitar da bawon a wajen hanyar walƙiya. A cikin yanayi masu zuwa, bishiyoyi suna girma wurin da suka lalace kuma suna iya rufe shi gaba ɗaya, yana barin tabo a tsaye kawai. Idan lalacewar ta yi tsanani, to bishiyar ba za ta iya farfadowa ba, kuma rubewar ya taso, daga ƙarshe ya kashe bishiyar gaba ɗaya.

A yankunan da ba su da yawa kamar Gabas mai Nisa na Rasha da Siberiya, walƙiya na daya daga cikin abubuwan da ke haddasa gobarar dazuzzuka . Hayaki da hazo da wata babbar gobarar dajin ke fitarwa na iya haifar da cajin wutar lantarki, tare da kunna ƙarin gobara a ƙasan kilomita da yawa sosai. [6]

Fasa duwatsu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Lokacin da ruwa a cikin dutsen da ya karye ya yi saurin zafi ta hanyar yajin walƙiya, sakamakon fashewar tururi zai iya haifar da tarwatsewar dutse da kuma jujjuya duwatsu. Yana iya zama wani muhimmin al'amari na zaizayar wurare masu zafi da tsaunuka na wurare masu zafi waɗanda ba a taɓa samun dusar ƙanƙara ba. To Amman Shaidar faɗuwar walƙiya ta haɗa da filayen maganadisu marasa kuskure.

Lalacewar lantarki da tsarin[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Wani sassake da walƙiya ya lalata a Wellington, New Zealand
Hasumiyar Eiffel babban jagoran walƙiya ne. (Hoton da aka ɗauka 1902-06-03 21:02)

Wayoyin hannu, modem, kwamfuta, da sauran na’urorin lantarki na iya lalacewa ta hanyar walƙiya, saboda cutar da ke tattare da wuce gona da iri na iya isa gare su ta hanyar jack ɗin wayar, kebul na Ethernet, ko wutar lantarki . Kusa-kusa yana iya haifar da EMPs, musamman a lokacin " fitowar walƙiya".

Wutar walƙiya tana da saurin tashi sosai, akan tsari na kusan 40 kA a cikin microsecond. Don haka, masu gudanar da irin wannan igiyoyin suna nuna alamar tasirin fata, yana haifar da mafi yawan igiyoyin ruwa suna gudana ta hanyar waje na mai gudanarwa.

Baya ga lalacewar wayoyi na lantarki, sauran nau'ikan lalacewar da za a yi la'akari da su sun haɗa da tsari, gobara, da lalacewar kadarori.

Rigakafi da raguwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Fannin tsarin kariyar walƙiya babbar masana'anta ce a duk duniya saboda tasirin walƙiya kan gine-gine da ayyukan ɗan adam. Walƙiya, kamar yadda ya bambanta a cikin kaddarorin da aka auna a fadin oda mai girma kamar yadda yake, na iya haifar da tasiri kai tsaye ko kuma yana da tasiri na biyu (2); kai ga rugujewar kayan aiki ko tsari ko kuma kawai haifar da gazawar firikwensin lantarki mai nisa; zai iya haifar da dakatar da ayyukan waje saboda matsalolin tsaro ga ma'aikata yayin da tsawa ta kusa kusa da wani yanki kuma har sai ta wuce isasshe; yana iya ƙone kayayyaki marasa ƙarfi da aka adana a cikin adadi mai yawa ko tsoma baki tare da aiki na yau da kullun na kayan aiki a lokuta masu mahimmanci sosai.

Yawancin na'urori da tsarin kariya na walƙiya suna kare tsarin jiki a cikin ƙasa, jirgin sama a cikin jirgin ya kasance sanannen keɓanta. Yayin da aka biya wasu hankali ga ƙoƙarin sarrafa walƙiya a cikin sararin samaniya, duk ƙoƙarin da aka yi ya kasance mai iyaka a cikin nasara. Chaff da azurfa iodide kristal an ƙirƙira su don yin hulɗa kai tsaye tare da ƙwayoyin gajimare, kuma an ba su kai tsaye cikin gajimare daga wani jirgin sama mai wuce gona da iri. An ƙera ƙashin ne don magance alamun wutar lantarki na guguwar daga ciki, yayin da aka ƙirƙiri fasahar gishirin iodide na azurfa don tunkarar ƙarfin injina na guguwar.

Tsarin kariya na walƙiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Misali na ma'auni, mai nuni, tashar iska

Ana amfani da ɗaruruwan na'urori, gami da sandunan walƙiya da tsarin canja wurin caji, don rage lalacewar walƙiya da tasiri hanyar walƙiya.

Sanda mai walƙiya (ko kariyar walƙiya) tsiri ne na ƙarfe ko sanda da aka haɗa da ƙasa ta hanyar madubi da tsarin ƙasa, ana amfani da shi don samar da hanyar da aka fi so zuwa ƙasa idan walƙiya ta ƙare akan tsari. Ajin waɗannan samfuran ana kiran su da "ƙarshe" ko "air terminal". Sanda mai walƙiya ko kuma "sandan Franklin" don girmama sanannen mai ƙirƙira, Benjamin Franklin, sandar ƙarfe ce kawai, kuma ba tare da haɗa shi da tsarin kariya na walƙiya ba, kamar yadda ya kasance a wasu lokuta a baya, ba zai ba da ƙarin kariya ga tsari. Sauran sunaye sun hada da "dukiya mai walƙiya", "mai kama", da "mai fitar da wuta"; duk da haka, a cikin shekarun da suka gabata an shigar da waɗannan sunaye cikin wasu kayayyaki ko masana'antu tare da hannun jari na kariya ta walƙiya. Sai dai Mai kama walƙiya, alal misali, sau da yawa yana nufin haɗaɗɗun hanyoyin haɗin yanar gizo waɗanda ke fashewa lokacin da yajin ya faru zuwa layin wutar lantarki mai ƙarfi don kare mafi tsadar tasfoma a kan layi ta buɗe kewaye. A zahiri, farkon nau'i ne na na'urar kariya mai nauyi mai nauyi. Masu kamawa na zamani, waɗanda aka gina su da ƙarfe oxides, suna da ikon yin watsi da matsananciyar wutar lantarki da ba ta dace ba zuwa ƙasa yayin da suke hana gajartawar tsarin wutar lantarki na yau da kullun zuwa ƙasa.

A cikin shekarata 1962, Hukumar ta USAF ta sanya ginshiƙan hasumiya mai kariyar walƙiya a duk wuraren da aka harba makami mai linzami na Jupiter MRBM na Italiya da Turkiyya bayan wasu hare-hare biyu da ke ɗauke da makamai masu linzami.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Tsarin kulawa da faɗakarwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

iStrike Walƙiya Siren System w/ Strobe a halin yanzu ana amfani dashi a Noblesville, Indiana
Tsarin tsinkayar walƙiya na Thor Guard

Har yanzu ba a iya tantance ainihin wurin da walkiya za ta kasance da kuma lokacin da zai faru. Koyaya, an ƙirƙira samfura da tsare-tsare daban-daban na sarƙaƙƙiya don faɗakar da mutane yayin da yuwuwar yajin aikin ke ƙaruwa sama da matakin da aka ƙayyade ta hanyar kimanta haɗarin yanayi da yanayin wurin. Wani muhimmin ci gaba shi ne a fannin gano walƙiya ta hanyar na'urorin kallo na tushen ƙasa da na tauraron dan adam. Ba a yi hasashen buguwa da walƙiya na yanayi ba, amma matakin dalla-dalla da waɗannan fasahohin suka rubuta ya inganta sosai a cikin shekaru a ƙalla 20 da suka gabata.

Ko da yake yawanci ana danganta shi da tsawa a kusa, walƙiya na iya faruwa a ranar da kamar babu gajimare. Ana kiran wannan abin da ya faru da "kullun daga shuɗi [sky]"; [7] Walƙiya na iya afkawa har zuwa mil kusan 10 daga gajimare.

Walƙiya tana tsoma baki tare da sigina na rediyo na amplitude (AM) fiye da siginar daidaitawa (FM), yana ba da hanya mai sauƙi don auna ƙarfin walƙiya na gida. Don yin haka, ya kamata mutum ya daidaita daidaitaccen mai karɓar raƙuman raƙuman ruwa na AM zuwa mitar ba tare da tashoshi masu watsawa ba, kuma ya saurari ƙuƙumma a tsakanin madaidaicin . Ƙarfi ko walƙiya na kusa zai haifar da tsagewa idan an kunna mai karɓar zuwa tasha. Yayin da ƙananan mitoci ke yaɗuwa tare da ƙasa fiye da na sama, ƙananan ƙananan igiyoyin igiya (MW) (a cikin kashi 500-600). kewayon kHz) na iya gano alamun walƙiya a nesa mai tsayi; idan band longwave (153-279 kHz) yana samuwa, yin amfani da shi na iya ƙara wannan kewayon har ma da ƙari.

An ƙirƙira tsarin gano walƙiya kuma ana iya tura shi a wuraren da walƙiya ke haifar da haɗari na musamman, kamar wuraren shakatawa na jama'a. An tsara irin waɗannan tsare-tsare don gano yanayin da aka yi imanin zai taimaka wa faɗakarwar walƙiya da kuma ba da gargaɗi ga waɗanda ke kusa da su don ba su damar ɗaukar matakan da suka dace.

Tsaro na sirri[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Cibiyar Tsaro ta Walƙiya ta Ƙasar Amirka [8] tana ba da shawara ga jama'ar Amirka da su yi shiri don kare lafiyarsu lokacin da hadari ya faru kuma su fara shi da zarar an ga walƙiya na farko ko aka ji tsawa. Wannan yana da mahimmanci, saboda walƙiya na iya tashi ba tare da faɗuwar ruwan sama ba. Idan za a iya jin aradu kwata-kwata, to akwai hadarin walƙiya. Wuri mafi aminci shine cikin gini ko abin hawa. Idan a ciki, guje wa kayan lantarki da famfo, gami da shawa. Hatsarin ya kasance har zuwa mintuna a ƙalla 30 bayan walƙiya ko tsawa ta ƙarshe.

Cibiyar Tsaro ta Walƙiya ta Ƙasa ta ba da shawarar yin amfani da hanyar FB (flash to boom) don auna nisa zuwa yajin walƙiya. Walƙiyar walƙiya da sakamakon tsawa na faruwa a kusan lokaci guda. Amma haske yana tafiyar kilomita kusan 300,000 a cikin dakika 1, kusan sau miliyoyi gudun sauti. Sauti yana tafiya a hankali cikin sauri kusan 340 m/sec (ya danganta da yanayin zafi), don haka ana ganin walƙiyar walƙiya kafin a ji aradu. Hanya don tantance tazara tsakanin yajin walƙiya da mai kallo ya haɗa da kirga daƙiƙa tsakanin walƙiyar walƙiya da tsawa. Sannan, a raba uku don tantance tazarar kilomita, ko da biyar tsawon mil. Ya kamata a dauki matakan gaggawa don guje wa walƙiya idan lokacin FB ya kasance daƙiƙa kimanin 25 ko ƙasa da haka, ma'ana, idan walƙiya ya kusa kusa da 8. km da 5 mil.

Wani rahoto ya nuna cewa ko mutum yana tsaye, yana tsugunne, ko yana kwance a waje yayin da ake tsawa ba kome ba ne, domin walƙiya na iya tafiya tare da ƙasa; wannan rahoton ya ba da shawarar kasancewa a cikin ƙaƙƙarfan tsari ko abin hawa ya fi aminci. [9] A cikin Amurka, matsakaicin adadin masu mutuwa na shekara-shekara daga walƙiya yana kusan mutuwar mutane 51 a kowace shekara, kodayake kwanan nan, a cikin lokacin shekarata 2009 zuwa 2018, Amurka ta sami matsakaicin asarar walƙiya 27 kawai a kowace shekara. Ayyuka mafi haɗari sun haɗa da kamun kifi, kwale-kwale, zango, da golf. [9] Mutumin da ya ji rauni ta hanyar walƙiya ba ya ɗaukar cajin wutar lantarki, kuma ana iya kula da shi lafiya don neman taimakon gaggawa kafin isowar sabis na gaggawa. Walƙiya na iya shafar ƙwalwar ƙwaƙwalwa, wanda ke sarrafa numfashi. [10]

Yawancin bincike da aka gudanar a Kudancin Asiya da Afirka sun nuna cewa ba a yi la'akari da illolin walƙiya da muhimmanci a can ba. Wata tawagar bincike daga Jami'ar Colombo ta gano cewa ko a unguwannin da suka fuskanci mace-mace sakamakon walkiya, ba a dauki matakan kariya daga guguwar da za ta yi gaba ba. A shekarar 2007 ne aka gudanar da taron kwararru kan yadda za a wayar da kan jama'a game da walƙiya da kuma inganta matakan kariya daga walƙiya, tare da nuna damuwa cewa ƙasashe da dama ba su da ƙa'idojin kafa sandunan walƙiya a hukumance.

Sanannen al'amura[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Dukkan abubuwan da ke da alaƙa ko waɗanda ake zargi da haifar da lalacewa ana kiran su "haɗuwar walƙiya" saboda abubuwa huɗu masu mahimmanci.

  • Hujjojin ƙarewar walƙiya, a cikin mafi kyawun misalan da aka bincika, su ne kaɗan (rami a cikin ƙarfe ƙasa da wurin alƙalami) ko kuma wanda bai dace ba (launi mai duhu).
  • Abin da ya faru na iya fashe ko kuma gobarar da ta biyo baya ta lalata duk ƴan ƴan shaidar da ka iya samuwa nan da nan bayan yajin aikin da kansa.
  • Tashar walƙiya da fitarwar kanta ba ita ce kaɗai ke haifar da rauni, ƙonewa, ko lalacewa ba, watau, igiyoyin ruwa na ƙasa ko fashewar abubuwan fashewa.
  • Gashin hankalin ɗan adam bai kai na millise seconds ba a tsawon lokacin walƙiyar walƙiya, kuma ikon da mutane ke iya lura da wannan al'amari yana ƙarƙashin gazawar kwakwalwar fahimtarsa. Na'urorin gano walƙiya suna tafe akan layi, duka tauraron dan adam da na ƙasa, amma har yanzu ana auna daidaitonsu a cikin ɗaruruwan ƙafafu zuwa dubunnan ƙafa, da wuya su ba su damar tantance ainihin wurin da aka dakatarwa.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Kamar yadda irin wannan sau da yawa ba shi da ma'ana, kodayake sai mai yiwuwa walƙiyar walƙiya ta shiga, don haka rarraba shi a matsayin "al'amarin walƙiya" ya rufe dukkan tushe.

Duniya-daure[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • 1660s: A cikin shekarata 1660, walƙiya ta kunna mujallolin bindiga a Osaka Castle, Japan ; Sakamakon fashewar fashewar ya kunna wuta a gidan sarauta. A shekara ta 1665, walƙiya ta sake ƙarewa a kan babban hasumiya na katangar, inda ta kunna wuta, wanda daga baya ya ƙone har zuwa tushe.
  • 1769: Wani mummunar walƙiya ta faru a Brescia, Italiya . Walƙiya ta afkawa cocin St. Nazaire, inda ta kona mutane 90 ton na gunpowder a cikin rumbunsa; Sakamakon fashewar ya kashe mutane 3,000 mutane suka lalata kashi shida na birnin. [11]
  • 1901: An kashe 11 kuma daya ya shanye a kasa da kwatangwalo ta hanyar wani yajin aiki a Chicago. [12]
  • 1902: Yajin walƙiya ya lalata sashin sama na Hasumiyar Eiffel, yana buƙatar sake gina samansa. [13]
  • 1970 ga Yuli 12: Babban mast ɗin tashar rediyon Orlunda da ke tsakiyar Sweden ya ruguje bayan wata walƙiya ta lalata insulator na tushe.
  • 1980 Yuni 30: Wata walkiya ta kashe dalibai 11 a makarantar firamare ta Biego a Kenya a gundumar Nyamira ta yau. Wasu almajirai 50 kuma sun sami raunuka, yayin da wasu kuma suka ji rauni.
  • 1994 Nuwamba 2: Wata walƙiya ta haifar da fashewar tankunan mai a Durunka, Masar, wanda ya haddasa 469 . mace-mace.
  • 2005 Oktoba 31: Shanu sittin da takwas sun mutu a wata gona a Fernbrook a kan hanyar Waterfall kusa da Dorrigo, New South Wales, bayan sun shiga cikin lamarin walƙiya. Wasu uku kuma sun samu gurguzu na wani dan lokaci na tsawon sa’o’i da dama, daga baya suka samu cikakkiyar lafiya. Shanun dai suna mafaka ne a kusa da wata bishiya sai walkiya ta same su. Ƙarƙashin ƙasa gabaɗaya ya fi na naman dabba girma. Lokacin da aka fitar da makamashi mai yawa a cikin ƙasa, ƴan ƴan mita sama da ƙafar dabba, ta cikin jikinta da ƙasa sauran ƙafafu na iya haifar da raguwar juriya ga wutar lantarki kuma daidai gwargwado mafi girma zai gudana ta cikin dabba fiye da ƙasa. wanda yake tsaye. Wannan al'amari, da ake kira hawan ƙasa mai yuwuwa, na iya haifar da girgizar wuta mai mahimmanci da lahani, wanda ya isa ya kashe manyan dabbobi. [14]
  • Yuli shekarata 2007: Wata walƙiya ta kashe mutane 30 mutane lokacin da ta afkawa Ushari Dara, wani ƙauyen dutse mai nisa a arewa maso yammacin Pakistan .
  • 2011 Yuni 8: An aika da walƙiya 77 Iska Tilasta jami'an tsaro zuwa asibiti lokacin da abin ya faru a tsakiyar sansanin horo a Camp Shelby, Mississippi.
  • 2013 Fabrairu: An kwantar da yara 9 a Afirka ta Kudu a asibiti bayan da wata walkiya ta faru a filin wasan kurket a makarantarsu, inda ta raunata yara biyar a filin wasa da kuma ‘yan mata hudu da ke tafiya gida.
  • 2016 Mayu–Yuni: An soke bikin Rock am Ring da ke kusa da birnin Frankfurt bayan da aƙalla mutane 80 suka jikkata sakamakon walƙiya a yankin. Bugu da kari. Yara 11 a Faransa da kuma manya uku a Jamus sun ji rauni sannan an kashe mutum daya a kudancin Poland a daidai wannan ranakun.
  • 2016 Agusta 26: An kashe wani garke na daji a Hardangervidda a tsakiyar Norway, inda ya kashe 323. Kakakin Hukumar Kula da Muhalli ta Norway Kjartan Knutsen ya ce ba a taba jin adadin wadanda suka mutu irin wannan ba. Ya ce bai sani ba ko an sami wasu hare-hare da dama, amma duk sun mutu a cikin “lokaci daya”.
  • 2017: Rikodin rayuwa ta farko na yajin walƙiya a kan tsiri na bugun zuciya ya faru a cikin wani saurayi matashi wanda ke da rikodin madauki a matsayin mai saka idanu na zuciya don syncope neurocardiogenic .
  • 2018: Wata walkiya ta kashe akalla mutane 16 tare da raunata wasu da dama a wani cocin Seventh-day Adventist a kasar Rwanda .
  • 2021: Wata tsawa ta kashe wani yaro dan shekara 9 a wata gona a Blackpool, Ingila.
  • 2021: A cikin Afrilu, aƙalla mutane 76 a duk faɗin Indiya sun mutu sakamakon tsautsayi a ƙarshen mako guda; Mutane 23 sun mutu a hasumiya ta Amer Fort, sanannen wurin yawon bude ido a Rajasthan, kuma an kashe 42 a Uttar Pradesh tare da adadin 14 mafi girma da ya faru a birnin Allahabad . A karshe, an kashe kusan 11 a Madhya Pradesh tare da kashe biyu daga cikinsu a lokacin da suke fakewa a karkashin bishiyoyi a lokacin da suke kiwon tumaki.
  • 2021: A ranar 04 ga Agusta, an kashe mutane 17 sakamakon wata tsawa daya ta kama a Shibganj Upazila na gundumar Chapainawabganj a Bangladesh; Mutane 16 ne suka mutu nan take yayin da daya kuma ya mutu sakamakon bugun zuciya yayin da ya ga sauran.

A cikin jirgin[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ana yawan afkawa jiragen sama da walƙiya ba tare da lahani ba, tare da buga irin na kasuwanci da aka saba yi aƙalla sau ɗaya a shekara. Wani lokaci, ko da yake, sakamakon yajin aiki yana da tsanani sosai.

  • 1963 Disamba 8: Pan Am Flight 214 ya fado a wajen Elkton, Maryland, a lokacin wata mummunar guguwar lantarki, tare da asarar duka 81. fasinjoji da ma'aikatan jirgin. Jirgin Boeing 707-121, mai rijista a matsayin N709PA, yana kan matakin karshe na jirgin San Juan-Baltimore-Philadelphia.
  • 1969 Nuwamba 14: The Apollo<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwAaY"> </span>12 manufa ta Saturn Roka V da ionized plume ɗin sa ya zama wani ɓangare na tashar walƙiya mai walƙiya 36.5 dakika kadan bayan dagawa. Ko da yake fitar ta faru ne "ta hanyar" fatar karfe da tsarin motar, bai kunna wutar da rokar din ke da shi sosai ba.
  • 1971 Disamba 24: Jirgin LANSA Flight 508, Lockheed L-188A Electra turboprop, mai rijista OB-R-941, wanda aka tsara a matsayin jirgin fasinja na cikin gida ta Lineas Aéreas Nacionales Sociedad Anonima (LANSA), ya fado bayan wata walƙiya ta kunna tankin mai yayin da yake tafiya. Yana kan hanyarsa daga Lima, Peru, zuwa Pucallpa, Peru, inda ya kashe 91 mutane - duk 6 ma'aikatan jirgin da 85 daga 86 fasinjoji. Wanda ya tsira shine Juliane Koepcke, wanda ya fadi 2 miles (3.2 km) zuwa cikin gandun daji na Amazon wanda ke daure a kujerarta kuma ta tsira da gaske daga faɗuwar, sannan ta sami damar tafiya cikin daji na tsawon 10. kwanaki har sai da masunta na cikin gida suka ceto ta.
  • 2012 Nuwamba 4: An bayar da rahoton wani jirgin sama yana fashe a bakin tekun Herne Bay, Kent, yayin da yake cikin jirgin. Hakan bai kasance haka ba; a maimakon haka, jirgin ya zama wani ɓangare na tashar walƙiya, wanda ya sa masu kallo suka ba da rahoton jirgin kuma sararin samaniya ya bayyana mai haske.
  • 2019 May 5: Aeroflot Flight 1492, Sukhoi Superjet 100, a cewar kyaftin din jirgin, walkiya ta same shi a yayin tashinsa, ya lalata na'urorin lantarki tare da tilasta matukan jirgin su yi yunkurin saukar gaggawa. Jirgin ya daki kasa da karfin tsiya ya kama wuta, lamarin da ya cinye jirgin a kan titin jirgin. Daga cikin mutane 78 da ke cikin jirgin, 41 sun mutu.

Dan Adam da ya fi kamuwa da cutar[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Roy Sullivan yana rike da kundin tarihin duniya na Guinness bayan ya tsallake rijiya da baya a wata walkiya daban-daban guda bakwai. Ya samu raunuka da dama sosai a jikinsa. [15]

Wutar walƙiya mafi tsayi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Wutar walƙiya ta shekarar 2020 a kudancin Amurka ta kafa tarihi mafi tsayi da aka taɓa ganowa. Jirgin ya yi nisan mil 477 (kilomita 768) a kan Mississippi, Louisiana, da Texas, duk da cewa yana tsakanin gajimare ne kuma bai taba kasa ba. Hukumar Kula da Yanayi ta Duniya ta tabbatar da matsayinta na karya rikodin a cikin Janairun shekarata 2022.

Duba wasu abubuwan[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Fulgurite wani lamari ne na fitarwa na walƙiya na CG wanda zai iya haifar da "walƙiya mai walƙiya", yana nuna babban, duk da taƙaitaccen adadin kuzarin da aka tura ta hanyar walƙiya. Suna iya nunawa a gani yadda makamashi zai iya yaduwa a ciki ko waje daga ɗaya ko dama tsakiya na ƙarshen ƙarshen, da kuma bambance-bambance tsakanin diamita na waɗannan tashoshi, wanda ke tsakanin ƴan mm kawai zuwa santimita da yawa. Yiwuwar kewayon nau'ikan nau'ikan nau'ikan fulgurite sun bambanta da ban mamaki, suna nuna rikitattun kaddarorin lantarki, sinadarai, da zahiri na laka, dutse, ko yawan halittu.
  • Matsalolin da ke haifar da geomagnetically abubuwan al'ajabi ne da ke da alaƙa da hasken sararin samaniya, suna haifar da wuce gona da iri da rashin daidaituwa na lantarki waɗanda ke tasiri tsarin watsa wutar lantarki da bayanai akan sikeli mai faɗi. Filashin EMPs da igiyoyin ruwa na ƙasa suna aiki iri ɗaya, amma sun fi yawa kuma suna da tasiri da yawa akan fasaha.
  • Keraunopathy shine nazarin likita na raunin walƙiya da jiyya mai alaƙa.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Cooray, Vernon. (2014). Lightning Flash (2nd Edition) - 1. Charge Structure and Geographical Variation of Thunderclouds. Page 4. Institution of Engineering and Technology.
  2. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Davis2014
  3. Ronald L. Holle Annual rates of lightning fatalities by country. (PDF) . 0th International Lightning Detection Conference. 21–23 April 2008. Tucson, Arizona, USA. Retrieved on 2011-11-08.
  4. Lightning Safety Facts. lightningsafety.noaa.gov (archived)
  5. Cherington, J. et al. 1999: Closing the Gap on the Actual Numbers of Lightning Casualties and Deaths. Preprints, 11th Conf. on Applied Climatology, 379-80..
  6. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named journal
  7. NWS Pueblo Lightning Page – Bolts From The Blue. Crh.noaa.gov. Retrieved on 2011-11-08.
  8. Personal Lightning Safety Tips National Lightning Safety Institute . Accessed July 2008
  9. 9.0 9.1 JONEL ALECCIA, June 20, 2014, NBC News, Debunked: 5 Lightning Myths That Could Kill You, Accessed June 20, 2014
  10. Dayton, L (1993). "Science: Secrets of a bolt from the blue", New Scientist, 1904.
  11. Rakov and Uman, p. 2
  12. Lightning kills Eleven, Door County Democrat , Volume 9, Number 28, June 6, 1901
  13. La Tour Eiffel – The Eiffel Tower – Paris Things To Do – www.paris-things-to-do.co.uk. Paris-things-to-do.co.uk (2007-01-16). Retrieved on 2012-06-23.
  14. Samantha Williams, Lightning kills 106 cows. news.com.au (2005-11-03)
  15. Most Lightning Strikes Survived. guinnessworldrecords.com (archived)

Hanyoyin haɗi na waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]