Batun Ƴancin Adam da ke da Alaƙa da Korona

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Wikidata.svgBatun Ƴancin Adam da ke da Alaƙa da Korona
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Facet of (en) Fassara COVID-19 pandemic (en) Fassara da human rights violation (en) Fassara

A yayin barkewar COVID-19, an ba da rahoton take hakkin ɗan adam da suka haɗa da takunkumi, nuna wariya, tsare (Lockdown) ba bisa ƙa'ida ba da ƙyamar baƙi daga sassa daban-daban na duniya. Kungiyar kare hakkin bil adama ta Amnesty International ta mayar da martani da cewa "take hakkin dan adam na hana, maimakon sauƙaƙewa, martani ga abubuwan gaggawa na lafiyar jama'a tare da lalata ingancin su."[1] Hukumar Lafiya ta Duniya (WHO) ta bayyana cewa bai kamata a ba da amsar zaman-gida-gida don rage barkewar cutar ba ta hanyar kare hakkin dan adam.[2] An ba da ƙarin damuwa game da tasirin matakan ɗaukar matakan COVID-19 akan haƙƙin ɗan adam, dimokiraɗiyya da shugabanci.[3][4]

Masana da yawa sun ba da rahoton cewa batutuwa daban -daban suna ratsawa, kuma yanzu ba batun batu ɗaya ba ne.[5]

'Yancin magana da faɗin albarkacin baki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Dangane da rahoton Freedom House, aƙalla ƙasashe 91 sun fuskanci ƙuntatawa kan kafofin watsa labarai a zaman wani ɓangare na martanin su ga cutar ta COVID-19, tare da waɗannan ƙuntatawa da ke faruwa a cikin kashi 62% na 'Ƙasashe Masu' Yanci 'da 67% na' Ba Kasashe Masu 'Yanci . ' Bugu da ƙari kuma, sun kuma ba da rahoton cewa an sanya ƙarin takunkumin gwamnati kan 'yancin faɗar albarkacin baki a cikin aƙalla ƙasashe 72.[6]

Azerbaijan[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Human Rights Watch ta ba da rahoton cewa an tsare a kalla masu fafutuka 6 da 'yan jaridu masu goyon bayan adawa bayan sukar matakan da gwamnatoci ke dauka kan cutar, tare da zargin su da yin amfani da takunkumin don rufe bakin adawar siyasa.[7]

Bangladesh[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An zargi Gwamnatin Bangladesh da amfani da kwayar cutar a matsayin hanyar murkushe masu sukar gwamnati. A cikin Mayu 2020, Human Rights Watch ta ba da rahoton cewa mutane 11, ciki har da masu rubutun ra'ayin yanar gizo, masu zane -zane da 'yan jarida, an kama su saboda rahoton cutar.[8]

China[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Gwamnatin China ta tilasta yin kutse da wuri don murkushe bayanai game da COVID-19 da haɗarin da ke tattare da lafiyar jama'a.[9][10] Akwai suka da ke cewa an ba da damar barkewar annobar na makwanni kafin a fara kokarin shawo kan cutar.[11] Li Wenliang, likitan kasar Sin wanda ya fadakar da abokan aikinsa game da COVID-19 an tursasa shi sannan aka tsare shi saboda "yada jita-jita ta karya".[12] Daga baya ya kamu da cutar bayan wani mara lafiya ya kamu da ita.[13] Amnesty International ta soki matakin da China ta kai wa hukumar ta WHO ya hada da rage tsananin barkewar cutar.[1]

<i id="mwOA">Plague Inc.</i>, wasan tafi -da -gidanka wanda ke mai da hankali kan kwaikwayon cututtukan duniya, Hukumar Cyberspace ta China ta hana ta saboda tana da "abubuwan da ba bisa ka'ida ba" kuma an cire shi nan take daga duk shagunan dijital na China. Ndemic Creations, mai haɓaka wasan, ya ce babu tabbas ko wannan yana da alaƙa da cutar ta COVID-19, amma sun yi shirin yin aiki tukuru don dawo da wasan su cikin hannun 'yan wasan China.[14]

Isra'ila[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A ranar 3 ga Oktoba 2020, dubunnan Isra’ilawa sun fito kan tituna a cikin ɗaruruwan yankuna a duk faɗin Isra’ila, a cikin kulle-kullen COVID-19, don yin zanga-zangar biyo bayan amincewar majalisar ga sabuwar dokar da ta hana zanga-zangar adawa da gwamnati. An hana mutane gudanar da irin wannan zanga -zangar fiye da 1 km daga gidajensu, a karkashin sabuwar doka, wacce ta tilasta tsauraran dokoki na nesantawar jama'a. Masu suka sun kira shi da tursasawa 'yancin fadin albarkacin baki. Zanga -zangar ta sabawa dokar, yayin da ta ci gaba da matsin lamba kan Firayim Minista Benjamin Netanyahu kan yadda ya magance cutar da zargin cin hanci da rashawa.[15]

Poland[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An kori wata gogaggen ungozoma da ke aiki yayin barkewar cutar a wani asibiti na Poland bayan ta buga rahoto a Facebook ranar 18 ga Maris game da yanayin ma'aikatan kiwon lafiya da asibitin dangane da cutar. Rahotanni sun fito daga baya cewa an hana likitoci bayar da bayanai ga manema labarai. A ranar 25 ga Maris 2020, Ombudsman na Poland Adam Bodnar ya sanar da Ministan Lafiya cewa an ba da tabbacin 'yancin ma'aikatan kiwon lafiya na magana da haƙƙin jama'a na sani a ƙarƙashin Labarai na 2, 54 da 61 na Tsarin Mulkin Poland da kuma korar likitoci ko hukunta su saboda sanar da jama'a. yayin bala'in na iya zama cin zarafin "ƙa'idodin wajibi".

A ranar 26 ga Maris, sakataren gwamnatin Poland na Ma’aikatar Lafiya, Józefa Szczurek-Żelazko [pl], ta buga rubutacciyar sanarwa ta hana masu ba da shawara na kiwon lafiya na voivodeship yin kalamai da suka shafi COVID-19 sai dai idan sun fara tuntubar Ma'aikatar Lafiya ko Główny Inspektorat Sanitarny [pl] (GIS, hukumar lafiya ta ƙasa). A likitoci 'kungiyar, Porozumieniu Chirurgów SKALPEL, ya bayyana domin kamar yadda ci da ceto, kuma ya ce da shi kasai bala'i.

Turkiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hukumomin tilasta bin doka sun tsare masu amfani da shafukan sada zumunta 19 wadanda sakonnin su “ ba su da tushe kuma suna tsokana”, abin da ya haifar da fargaba da fargaba a cewar jami’an.[16] Wasu jaridu sun ɗauki waɗannan ayyukan a matsayin takunkumi .[17] Tun daga ranar 6 ga Afrilu, a kalla 'yan jarida bakwai, kowannensu na ba da rahoto ga kafofin watsa labarai na cikin gida, an tsare su saboda yadda suka ba da labarin barkewar cutar, kuma hukumar sa ido kan kafafen yada labarai ta jihar ta ci a kalla tashoshi uku don ba da labarin barkewar cutar, gami da babban tashar Habertürk, wanda aka hukunta bayan ƙwararren masanin kiwon lafiya ya bayyana cewa ƙarancin gwajin da yawan kamuwa da cutar yana nufin akwai lokuta da yawa da ba a gano su ba, wanda ya zarce alkaluman da gwamnati ta tabbatar.[18]

Sakamakon barkewar cutar COVID-19, majalisar dokokin Turkiyya ta amince da daftarin doka wanda zai iya ba da damar sakin fursunoni kusan 100,000, gami da mutanen da ke da alhakin mutuwa. Koyaya, dokar ta ware fursunonin siyasa kusan dubu hamsin na Turkiyya,[19] ciki har da 'yan jarida da masu kare haƙƙin ɗan adam, waɗanda aka ce za su ci gaba da zama a gidan yari duk da cunkoso da yanayin rayuwa mara tsafta wanda tuni ke haifar da babbar barazana ga lafiya.[20][21]

Turkmenistan[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Gwamnatin Turkmenistan ta haramta kalmar "coronavirus" a kafofin watsa labarai.[22]

Cibiyoyin sadarwar jama'a[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hanyoyin sadarwar zamantakewa daban-daban sun yi amfani da matakan hana spam don abubuwan da aka buga game da SARS-CoV-2 da cutar. Facebook ana zarginsa da toshe bayanan da ke bayani game da kwayar cutar. A cewar masu amfani, an toshe posts game da COVID-19 daga ingantattun kafofin watsa labarai kuma an ɓoye su ga sauran masu amfani. Facebook ya yi ikirarin cewa kwaro ne ke da alhakin wannan, amma makirce -makirce suna yawo cewa da gangan aka yi hakan don murkushe bayanai.[23]

YouTube ya lalata bidiyon da yawa inda aka yi amfani da kalmar "corona". An kawo alamar aljanu a ƙarƙashin ƙa'idodin abun ciki mai mahimmanci.[24]

Hakkin lafiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

China[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A China, dole ne a juya marasa lafiya da yawa daga asibitoci bayan sa'o'i da yawa a layi saboda yawan marasa lafiya.[1] An bayar da rahoton karancin gwaji da magani.[25]

Italiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Saboda yawaitar shigar masu haƙuri a Italiya, likitoci sun tilasta yanke shawara kan ko za a kula da tsofaffi, ko a bar su su mutu.[26] An yada hoton wata ma'aikaciyar jinya da ta fadi saboda yawan aiki a wani asibitin Italiya a matsayin alamar tsarin da ya cika.[26]

Libya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A Libiya, halin rashin lafiya yana taɓarɓarewa yayin yaƙin da ke gudana, inda ake kai hare -hare kan asibitoci koyaushe. A cikin watan Afrilu 2020, mai kula da ayyukan jin kai na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya na Libya, Yacoub El Hillo ya tabbatar da cewa cibiyoyin kiwon lafiya 27 sun lalace kuma 14 na kusa cikin makonni biyar. A ranar 6 ga Afrilu, sojojin da ke samun goyon bayan Hadaddiyar Daular Khalifa Haftar sun kai hari da makamin roka kan Grad kan Babban Asibitin Al-Khadra tare da lalata ginin gadaje 400, inda ake kula da marasa lafiya 300, ciki har da marasa lafiya biyu na COVID-19. Yacoub El Hillo yayi Allah wadai da harin a matsayin cin zarafin dokokin jin kai na kasa da kasa.[27][28]

Tarayyar Rasha[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An canja asibitoci na musamman ga marasa lafiya da ke fama da cututtukan numfashi. Wannan ya kara tsananta samuwar kulawar likita ga marasa lafiya da ke fama da munanan cututtuka. A cewar tawagar kwararru, wannan ya haifar da karuwar mace -macen da ya ninka adadin wadanda suka mutu sakamakon ciwon huhu.[29]

'Yanci daga nuna bambanci[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Wariyar launin fata da kyamar baki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An sami karuwar rahotannin wariyar launin fata kan mutanen Asiya, musamman kan mutanen China a Turai da Amurka.[30][31][32] Kwamitin Gaggawa na Hukumar Lafiya ta Duniya ya fitar da wata sanarwa da ke ba da shawara ga dukkan kasashe da su tuna da "ka'idojin Mataki na 3 na IHR ( Dokokin Kiwon Lafiya na Duniya )," wanda WHO ta ce ta yi taka tsantsan da "ayyukan da ke inganta kyama ko nuna bambanci., "lokacin gudanar da matakan mayar da martani na kasa game da barkewar cutar.[33]

Wani mai daukar hoton ma’aikatan Washington Post ya dauki hoton hoton jawabin shugaban Amurka Donald Trump wanda a ciki ya tsallake kalmar “coronavirus” ya maye gurbinsa da kalmomin “cutar China.”[34] [35] Trump ya kira COVID-19 a matsayin "kwayar cutar Sinawa" a cikin jawabansa yayin ci gaba da zanga-zangar nuna wariyar launin fata daga bangarori daban-daban. Koyaya, ya bayyana cewa bai yarda maganganun nasa na nuna wariyar launin fata ba saboda kwayar cutar ta samo asali ne daga wurin, kuma ya kuma bayyana cewa yana da niyyar magance farfagandar China wacce ke ikirarin cewa asalin sojojin Amurka ne suka kawo cutar a China.[36][37]

Indiya ta ga mutane da yawa daga sassan arewa maso gabas da ake kira 'coronavirus' saboda kamanceceniyar launin fatarsu ga mutanen China, ƙasar da cutar ta samo asali.[38] Wannan yana cikin matsalolin matsalolin wariyar launin fata da mutane daga waɗannan yankuna ke ci gaba da fuskanta.[39] Karamar ministar harkokin marasa rinjaye ta gwamnatin Indiya, Kiren Rijiju ta yi bayani kan karuwar maganganun wariyar launin fata kan mutanen Arewa maso Gabashin Indiya.[40]

A ranar 1 ga Mayu 2020, hukumomin Malaysia sun tattara tare da tsare kusan bakin haure 586 da ba su da takardun aiki a wani samamen da aka gudanar a Kuala Lumpur . Bakin hauren da aka tsare sun hada da yara kanana da kuma 'yan kabilar Rohingya' yan gudun hijira daga Myanmar, a yayin da ake samun karuwar kyamar baki. Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ta yi Allah wadai da matakin, wanda ya bukaci Malaysia da ta guji irin wannan tsarewar da kuma sakin yaran, tana mai gargadin cewa cibiyoyin da ke cike da cunkoso za su kasance masu matukar rauni yayin bala'in COVID-19.[41]

A cikin watan Yuni 2020, a rahoton a United Kingdom alama cewa kabilanci 'yan tsiraru ne a wata mafi girma hadarin rasa rayukansu saboda COVID-19. A ranar 5 ga Yuni, Hukumar Daidaitawa da Kare Hakkokin Dan Adam (EHRC) ta ba da sanarwar ƙaddamar da binciken doka kan rashin daidaiton launin fata, wanda aka fallasa yayin yawan shari'o'in COVID-19 a Burtaniya. Binciken mai sa ido kan kare hakkin dan adam shi ne bayar da bayanan da ke da tushe, wadanda aka tilasta su daga sassan gwamnati da kungiyoyi.[42]

A ranar 30 ga Yuni, wata kasida daga Jaridar Wall Street Journal ta bayyana cewa adadin asibitoci da mutuwa a Amurka da ke da alaƙa da Covid-19 an lura sun fi girma ga ƙungiyoyin da ba fararen fata ba ko da bayan daidaitawa ga dalilai kamar shekaru da yanayin ƙasa.[43] A cikin wani rahoto da Cibiyoyin Kula da Cututtuka da Cututtuka suka fitar suna nazarin COVID -19 asibiti a tsakanin yaran Amurkawa, an gano cewa 40% na binciken yaran da aka kwantar da asibiti Hispanic ne kuma 33% Baƙaƙe ne. Binciken ya kammala da cewa al'ummomin marasa rinjaye sun fi fuskantar hadari saboda rashin daidaiton zamantakewar al'umma, kamar rashin daidaiton tattalin arziki da matsayin inshora.[44]

Cin mutunci[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mutane sun ba da rahoton fuskantar ƙuntatawar zamantakewa bayan sun murmure daga rashin lafiya.[45] Wasu ma'aikatan kiwon lafiya da ke kula da mutanen da ke da COVID-19 suma sun ba da rahoton fuskantar matsalolin lafiyar kwakwalwa saboda fargabar cin mutuncin danginsu da al'ummarsu.[46]

Cocin Shincheonji na Yesu, ƙungiyar marasa rinjaye na addini da ke Koriya ta Kudu, da membobinta da ke da alaƙa sun fuskanci wariya da cin zarafi akan layi da layi saboda hanyar haɗin gwiwa zuwa farkon barkewar COVID-19 a Daegu, Koriya ta Kudu. Membobin sun ba da rahoton hare-haren tashin hankali, cin zarafin kan layi, lalacewar kasuwanci, da cin zarafi a wuraren aiki da makarantu sakamakon ƙin Shincheonji da ya tashi tun daga watan Fabrairu 2020.[ana buƙatar hujja]

A cikin Nuwamba 2020, Kwamitin Kare Hakkin Dan Adam na Koriya da Cibiyar Bincike ta Koriya ta Koriya sun ba da rahoton cewa akwai kararraki 86,451 na kalaman kiyayya ta yanar gizo da aka yi niyya ga Shincheonji, tsakanin Fabrairu 2020 da Mayu 2020, a kan dandamali daban -daban na kafofin watsa labarun, allon al'umma na kan layi, da shafukan yanar gizo, suna zargin Shincheonji da yaduwar COVID-19.[47] Akwai lamura guda biyu na mata da aka tura su kashe kansu sakamakon zargin COVID-19 da nuna wariya ga membobin Shincheonji. A ranar 26 ga Fabrairu, an ba da rahoton cewa wata mace 'yar Shincheonji ta samu hari daga mijinta wanda ke kokarin tilasta mata barin Shincheonji, kuma ta mutu bayan ta fado daga bene na bakwai.[48] A ranar 4 ga Mayu, wata 'yar'uwar Shincheonji' yar shekara 42, wacce aka ci zarafin ma'aurata da ake zargi saboda alakarta da Shincheonji, ta mutu bayan ta fado daga gidan bene na 11. [49]

Rashin nuna bambanci[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A ranar 17 ga Afrilu 2020, Babban Kwamishinan OSCE a kan Ƙananan Ƙananan Ƙasa ya ba da wata takarda da ake kira "Ƙarfafa bambancin: Matakan COVID-19 waɗanda ke tallafawa haɗin kan jama'a".[50] Daftarin ya haɗa da shawarwari ga ƙasashe masu shiga cikin OSCE an haɗa su akan yadda martanin gwamnati ga COVID-19 zai iya tabbatar da haɗin kai da kuma kula da bambancin zamantakewa. Manyan ka'idoji sun haɗa da: kiyaye haƙƙoƙin ɗan adam, kasancewa tare da kula da buƙatun harshe, da kuma kiyaye rashin haƙuri ga nuna bambanci da ƙyamar baƙi.[51]

'Yancin bayanai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Danne bayanai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Amnesty International ta ba da rahoton cewa gwamnatin China ta tozarta labarai da dama da suka shafi cutar ta COVID-19 a China. Nicholas Bequelin, Daraktan Yankin na Amnesty International ya soki cewa "hukumomin China suna haɗarin hana bayanan da zasu iya taimaka wa ƙungiyar likitocin magance coronavirus da taimakawa mutane kare kansu daga kamuwa da ita".[1]

Twitter ya toshe raba wani sako, wanda Ma'aikatar Lafiya ta Brazil ta buga a ranar 13 ga Janairu, 2021, wanda ya bukaci mutane da su nemi magani da wuri don kamuwa da COVID-19. Sanarwar ta Ma'aikatar ta ba da shawarar: "Don yaƙar Covid-19, ƙa'idar ba ta jira ba. Da zarar an fara magani, mafi girman damar samun lafiya. Don haka, zauna a hankali! Lokacin nuna alamun Covid-19, # Kada ku Dakata, je Sashin Kiwon Lafiya ku nemi magani da wuri. ” A cikin toshe tweet din, Twitter ya ce: "Wannan Tweet ɗin ya keta Dokokin Twitter game da yada ɓarna da yiwuwar cutarwa da ke da alaƙa da COVID-19."[52]

'Yanci daga kamawa ba tare da izini ba[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Masu fafutuka da ke musayar bayanai game da yanayin annobar COVID-19 a China sun firgita kuma an tursasa su.[1] [53]A cikin Amurka, Ma'aikatar Shari'a ta isa Majalisa don ikon tambayar manyan alkalai su tsare mutane har abada ba tare da fitina ba yayin bala'i-wani ɓangare na tura sabbin madafun iko wanda ya zo yayin da COVID-19 da farko ya bazu ko'ina cikin Amurka.[54]

A ranar 15 ga Mayu, Babban Kwamishinan Kare Hakkin Dan Adam na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya Michelle Bachelet ya yi gargadin cewa wasu gwamnatoci sun yi amfani da karfin ikon gaggawa da kulle-kullen da aka sanya a tsakanin cutar ta COVID-19. Ta yin amfani da halin da ake ciki, gwamnatocin da aka ambata suna yunƙurin rufe bakin masu adawa da kuma hana abokan adawar siyasa, masu fafutukar kare haƙƙin ɗan adam da 'yan jarida. Ta kuma bayyana cewa yakamata a mayar da martanin rikicin "da hujjojin kimiyya", maimakon siyasa ko tattalin arziki.[55]

A cikin rahoton su na 'Dimokradiyya a ƙarƙashin kullewa', binciken Freedom House ya sami shaidar cin zarafin 'yan sanda kan fararen hula aƙalla ƙasashe 59, da tsarewa da kamun da ke da alaƙa da martanin cutar a cikin ƙasashe akalla 66.[56] Misalan wannan sun haɗa da Kenya, wacce ake tuhumar 'yan sandan ta da duka da hawaye a kan mutane yayin da suke kan hanyarsu ta komawa gida daga aiki,[57] da Zimbabwe, wanda Amnesty International ta zargi gwamnatin ta da amfani da cutar a matsayin hujjar murƙushe masu fafutukar kare haƙƙin ɗan adam.[58]

Tsare bakin haure, 'yan gudun hijira da masu neman mafaka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kasashe da dama sun tsare 'yan ci-rani,' yan gudun hijira da masu neman mafaka ba bisa ka'ida ba, ba bisa ka'ida ba, wanda hakan ya sabawa dokar kasa da kasa da 'yancin dan adam. Amnesty International ta soki gwamnatocin Amurka, Mexico, Kanada, Curaçao, da Trinidad da Tobago don ci gaba da “tare tare da tsare dubunnan manya, iyalai, da yara a wuraren tsare bakin haure” a tsakanin COVID-19.[59][60][61]

'Yancin motsi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sarrafa iyaka da keɓewa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Turkmenistan[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sabis na kan iyaka na Turkmenistan ya sami horo kan layi akan "kula da wuraren ƙetare iyaka (BCP) a cikin yanayin yaƙin duniya da cutar ta COVID-19".[62] Cibiyar OSCE da ke Ashgabat ce ta shirya taron tare da Ofishin Hukumar WHO na Turkmenistan, Ofishin Yankin WHO na Turai, Ma'aikatar Kiwon Lafiya, da Masana'antar Likitancin Turkmenistan. [63]

Ostiraliya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Gwamnatin Ostireliya ta tura daruruwan Australiya da aka kwashe daga Wuhan a watan Fabrairu 2020 zuwa cibiyar tsare bakin haure a Tsibirin Kirsimeti , inda kungiyar likitocin Ostiraliya ta bayyana yanayin a matsayin "rashin mutunci".[1][63] Wadanda aka kora daga baya sun ba da rahoton cewa yayin da suke cikin damuwa game da jinyar da za su yi kafin su isa Tsibirin Kirsimeti, sun bayyana shirye -shiryen lokacinsu na keɓewa a cibiyar da kyau.[64]

A cikin Oktoba 2020 Human Rights Watch ya bayyana cewa tsananin rufe iyakokin cikin gida da Gwamnatin Yammacin Ostiraliya ta sanya "yana haifar da wahala ga iyalai". Kungiyar ta ba da shawarar cewa "yakamata gwamnati ta kara yin banbanci ga lamuran jin kai, da fifikon haduwar dangi, samar da karin haske game da tsarin amincewa, da bayar da cikakkun bayanai ga mutanen da aka hana izinin komawa jihar su ta asali".[65]

Malaman ilimi Jane McAdam da Ben Saul sun nuna damuwa a cikin Disamba 2020 cewa ƙuntatawa da aka sanya akan adadin mutanen Australiya waɗanda suka sami damar shiga ƙasar da kuma yadda aka keɓe wuraren keɓewa na otal ɗin otal na iya zama take hakkin ɗan adam.[66]

Argentina[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A Argentina, dokar ta -baci ta taƙaita haƙƙoƙin tsarin mulki ( 'yancin kan mutum, ' yancin motsi, 'yancin yin taro ), da sararin soji na jama'a. Ba a san ƙalubalen doka kan matakan ba. Kotun koli ta Argentina ta tsawaita hutun aikinta na shekara -shekara, tare da takaita samun damar yin adalci.[67]

'Yancin taro[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ƙuntatawa akan motsi, gami da kulle -kulle, ya yi tasiri ga bayyana 'yancin yin taro ta hanyar sanya iyakan mutanen da za su iya haɗuwa a kowane taro, ko hana duk wani taro kai tsaye.

'Yancin addini[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ƙuntatawa na kullewa a wasu ƙasashe ya sanya iyakance masu yin aikin ibada.

Hukumomi a wasu ƙasashe sun ba da damar a saurari kiran sallar musulmi daga minarets a cikin Ramadan . A Austria, Poland, Faransa da wasu Europeanan wasu ƙasashen Turai, jami'ai sun sanya rufe fuska a matsayin matakin kariya, yayin da fewan shekarun da suka gabata suka hana haƙƙin rufe fuskar mata Musulmai waɗanda ke son yin hakan a zaman wani ɓangare na rigunan addini.

Dama na sirri[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Gwamnatoci a ƙasashe da yawa suna gudanar da sa ido kan jama'a domin gudanar da binciken gano cutar da yaɗuwarta.[68] A China, gwamnati ta sanya CCTV a ƙofar mutanen da aka keɓe don tabbatar da cewa ba su fita ba.[69] An sanya wasu mazauna Hong Kong su sanya guntun wuyan hannu da ke da alaƙa da app na wayar salula don faɗakar da hukuma idan mutumin ya keɓe keɓe.[70] A wasu sassan Indiya, an hatimci fasinjoji da tawada da ba za a iya mantawa da ita ba, ranar har sai mutum ya ci gaba da keɓewa.[71]

A ranar 13 ga Mayu, 2020, Human Rights Watch ta ba da rahoton cewa aikace-aikacen sa ido na wayar tafi-da-gidanka da gwamnatoci a duniya ke amfani da su don magance rikicin COVID-19, yana haifar da haɗarin haƙƙin ɗan adam. A hakkokin kungiyar zargin cewa mai amfani na irin wannan shirye-shirye da aka har yanzu m, kuma tare da sauki damar zuwa mai amfani da geopolitical wuri da kuma kusanci bayanai, disproportionate kula iya barazana da su na sirri tsare sirri.[72] A ranar 18 ga Mayu, 2020, Hukumar Kare Hakkokin Dan Adam ta Scotland ta rubuta wasika ga Kwamitin Adalci na Holyrood da ke nuna mummunan yanayin da ke cikin gidajen yarin Scotland a yayin barkewar cutar. A cikin wasikar ta, hukumar ta bayar da hujjar cewa matsayin da ake da shi a halin yanzu na iya haifar da cin zarafin fursunoni, wanda hakan ya saba wa kasida ta 3 na yarjejeniyar kare hakkin dan adam ta Turai . “Wataƙila mutanen da ke cikin kurkuku za su fi fuskantar haɗarin da tasirin COVID-19. Rufewar yanayin tsarewa yana sanya nisantar zamantakewa kusan ba zai yiwu ba; fursunoni da yawa a halin yanzu suna zaune tare a cikin sel da aka tsara don mutum ɗaya; kuma fursunoni suna yin karin lokaci a cikin dakunan su ba tare da yiwuwar samun ziyara daga dangin su ba, ”in ji Judith Robertson, shugaban hukumar.[73]

A ranar 1 ga Yulin 2020, kungiyar kare hakkin dan adam da Hukumar ASEAN ta Hukumar Kare Hakkin Dan Adam (AICHR) sun aike da wata budaddiyar wasika ga gwamnatin Indonesiya don fitar da doka kan kokarin ta na tuntubar COVID-19, gami da bayanan da aka tattara da kuma yadda yakamata bayanan su a bi da su don kare sirrin mutane.[74]

Cin zarafi a gidajen yari[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A ranar 10 ga Afrilu 2020, hoton da Amnesty International ta raba ya nuna cewa wadanda ake tsare da su a cikin gidan yarin Cambodia suna rayuwa cikin "yanayin rashin tausayi." Tare da aƙalla fursunoni 25 suna kwance a ƙasa na ƙaramin ɗaki guda ɗaya, ana zargin gidan yarin yana cike da cunkoso kuma ya keta buƙatun nesanta jiki. An kira ta da "bam na ɗan lokaci, musamman lokacin barkewar cutar coronavirus."[75]

Matakan keɓewa a tsakanin cutar ta COVID-19 sun yanke yanayin a cikin marasa tsabta da cibiyoyin cunkoso na Latin Amurka . Rashin abinci, wanda yawanci dangin fursunonin ke bayarwa, ya haifar da sabon tashin hankali a cikin gidan yarin Venezuela, a cikin gidan yarin Los Llanos (CEPELLA) a Guanare . Rikicin da ya barke a cikin gidan yarin ya kashe a kalla fursunoni 46 tare da jikkata sama da 70, ciki har da jami’in tsaron kasa da kuma wani mai gadin gidan.[76] Kungiyoyin kare hakkin bil'adama, ciki har da Amnesty International, sun yi kira da a gudanar da bincike tare da yin nazari kan martanin da hukumomi suka mayar.[77]

A ranar 19 ga Mayu, 2020, ƙungiyoyin kare haƙƙin ɗan adam 20 sun aika wa Shugaban Tanzania John Magufuli wasika suna neman ɗaukar matakan da suka dace don magance halin COVID-19 a cikin gidajen yarin da ke cike da cunkoso sannan kuma sun buƙaci tabbatar da cewa fursunoni da fursunoni suna da damar isa ga lauya. Kungiyoyin da suka aiko da wasikar sun hada da, Cibiyar Shari'a da 'Yancin Dan Adam a Dar es Salaam, Amnesty International, da Human Rights Watch.[78]

A ranar 10 ga Yuni, 2020, Kungiyar Kare Hakkin Dan Adam ta yi kira ga hukumomi a Hadaddiyar Daular Larabawa da su dauki matakin gaggawa na tabbatar da tsaron fursunoni a kalla cibiyoyin tsare mutane 3 a yayin barkewar COVID-19 . Dangin fursunonin a kurkukun al-Wathba, kurkukun al-Awir, da sabon cibiyar tsarewar al-Barsha, sun sanar da HRW cewa wasu daga cikin fursunonin da aka gwada lafiyarsu tare da COVID-19 kuma da yawa daga cikin fursunonin da ke fama da rashin lafiya an hana su dacewa. taimakon likita. Gidajen kurkukun sun cika makil kuma hukumomi ba su kula da tsabtar muhalli da tsaftar muhalli ba, lamarin da ke kara tsananta yaduwar cutar.[79]

A ranar 20 ga Yuli 2020, Human Rights Watch ta ba da rahoton gidajen yarin Masar suna fuskantar shari'o'i masu yawa tare da COVID-19 kuma sun kashe aƙalla fursuna 14. Hukumomi suna neman dakile labaran cutar da ke yaduwa a cikin gidajen yari tare da kame ma’aikatan kiwon lafiya, ‘yan jarida, da masu sukar da suka tayar da murya dangane da damuwar gwamnati kan yadda cutar ke yaduwa.[80]

Dangane da rahoton wata ƙungiyar kare haƙƙin ɗan adam ta cikin gida, wasiƙar da aka fallasa daga gidajen yari 2 da binciken Human Rights Watch, ya zuwa 15 ga Yuli 2020 aƙalla wuraren tsare mutane 10 a Masar sun kamu da Covid-19 kuma kusan fursunoni 14 sun mutu bayan kamuwa da cutar. cutar. Wadanda ake tsare da su suna da karancin damar zuwa kula da lafiya kuma ba su da damar yin gwajin Covid-19.[81]

Duk da gargadin Human Rights Watch game da haɗarin yanayin gidan yari mara tsafta a Amurka,[82] yawan kamuwa da cutar fursunoni ya ninka sau 5.5 fiye da na yawan jama'a.[83] Sakamakon haka, yawan mace -macen da ake samu a gidajen yari ya yi yawa idan aka kwatanta da wajen gidajen yarin.

A watan Disambar 2020, Human Rights Watch ta bayyana cewa Saudi Arabiya tana tsare dubban bakin haure 'yan Afirka a cikin kazanta a cibiyoyin da ake tsare da su. Wadanda aka tsare, wadanda aka yi hira da su, sun ba da rahoton cewa hukumomin Saudiya ba su dauki matakan dakile yaduwar COVID-19 a cikin gidan yarin ba, duk da cewa wasu daga cikinsu a cikin gidan sun nuna alamun COVID-19 .[84]

Rahoton da Amnesty International ta fitar ya yi nuni da azabtarwa da zaluntar da aka yi wa fursunonin lamiri a fursunonin Masar. Rahoton, " Me ya dame ni idan kun mutu?" Sakaci da hana kula da lafiya a gidajen yarin Masar ”an sake shi ne a bikin cika shekaru 10 da tayar da kayar baya na 2011 a Masar . Bayan azabtar da maza da mata da aka kama saboda neman adalci na zamantakewa da siyasa, rahoton na Amnesty ya kuma ba da haske kan sakacin matakan kula da lafiya don kare fursunoni daga cutar ta COVID-19 . Philip Luther, Daraktan Bincike da Advocacy na Gabas ta Tsakiya da Arewacin Afirka na Amnesty International ya fada cewa hukumomin gidan yarin sun bar fursunonin su dogara da danginsu don abinci, magunguna, da kayan yau da kullun kamar sabulu, kuma sun hana su kula da lafiya ko kuma canja wurin su zuwa asibiti a kan lokaci.[85][86]

A watan Yunin 2021, fitaccen mai fafutukar kare hakkin dan adam na Bahrain, Husain Barakat (48) ya mutu a gidan yarin Jau na kasar bayan ya yi kwangilar Covid-19. An yi masa allurar riga -kafi a cikin Maris 2021. Lamarin da ya haifar da zanga -zangar da ba kasafai ake yi a kasar ba, inda daruruwan mutane suka taru don gudanar da zanga -zangar da ke da alhakin kashe Sarki Baraktu Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa saboda rashin kulawa da bai dace ba. Da yawa daga cikin masu kare hakkin dan adam da kungiyoyi sun kira shi "sakacin likitanci na yau da kullun", inda aka zargi gwamnatin Bahrain da yin watsi da girman matsalar. Duk da yawan allurar rigakafin, Bahrain tana fuskantar babban tiyata a cikin shari'o'in Covid-19. Kasar ta dogara da allurar rigakafin Sinopharm ta China, BBIBP-CorV, wacce ba ta da ikon samar da isassun garkuwar jiki don kariya daga cutar.[87]

Hakkokin marasa rinjaye[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Amurka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A Amurka, yawancin ƙabilu da ƙabilun da ba su dace ba COVID-19 ya shafa.[88]

'Yan Filifin-Amurkawa sun sha bamban da COVID-19. Yawancin Amurkawa 'yan Filifin suna aiki a matsayin masu jinya a cikin ICU inda ake kula da marasa lafiya na COVID, kuma da yawa daga cikinsu ba a ba su PPE ba.[89] 'Yan Filifin Ba'amurke suna da adadin mace -mace mafi girma, wanda aka danganta da abincinsu wanda ya haifar da yawan kamuwa da kiba, hawan jini da cututtukan zuciya.[90] A wasu masana'antu a Utah tsakanin Maris da Yuni, an gano cewa ma'aikatan Hispanic da wadanda ba farare ba sun kasance kashi 73% na kamuwa da cutar a wuraren aiki. Har ila yau, 'yan Hispanic suna da tasirin kuɗi, suna fuskantar ƙimar rashin aikin yi mafi girma fiye da na ƙasa.[91]

'Yancin girmama rayuwar masu zaman kansu da ta iyali[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Faransa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin Strasbourg da Lyon, kotunan gudanarwa sun soke ko iyakance dokokin gida waɗanda ke ba da umarnin rufe abin rufe fuska,[92][93] amma Majalisar Faransa, babbar kotun gudanarwa ta Faransa, ta tabbatar da ƙa'idodin.[94]

Jamus[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An gabatar da kararrakin umarnin da yawa kan dokokin jihar da ke tsara matakan hana yaduwar SARS-2 ga kotun tsarin mulkin Jamus a shekarar 2020, amma duk an ki amincewa da su ko a cikin tsari ko abun ciki. A mafi yawan lokuta, an gabatar da masu shigar da kara zuwa kotunan gudanarwa na yau da kullun.

Daga cikin abubuwan da aka kalubalanci akwai:

  • Gwajin tilas na COVID-19 na mutanen da ke zuwa daga ƙasashen da ke da haɗarin haɗarin kamuwa da cutar SARS-2, an ƙalubalance su a kan amincin jiki da kuma kula da yara. [95]
  • Nesantar da ɗaliban makaranta a Bavaria, wanda aka ƙalubalance shi bisa dalilan haƙƙin ilimi, da haƙƙin haɓaka halayyar mutum kyauta, da ƙa'idar daidaitawa . [96]
  • An ƙalubalanci nesantawar jama'a (ƙuntatawa lamba), bin diddigin tuntuɓar juna, da tilasta amfani da abin rufe fuska a kan ƙima . [97]
  • Keɓe keɓe ga mutanen da ke shiga ko dawowa Jamus daga ƙasashen da ba na Turai ba, an ƙalubalance su bisa dalilan ' yancin yin shari'ar gaskiya . [98]

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Jerin manyan abubuwan da annobar COVID-19 ta shafa
  • Tasirin cutar COVID-19 akan wasanni
  • Tasirin cutar COVID-19 akan addini
  • Tasirin cutar COVID-19 akan ilimi
  • Tasirin cutar COVID-19 akan sinima

Hanyoyin waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

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