Haƙƙin magada

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Haƙƙin magada
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na legal transaction (en) Fassara, succession (en) Fassara, sequence (en) Fassara da rule (en) Fassara

Odar magada ko hakkin magaji sh ine layin mutanen da suke da hakkin su rike wani babban mukami idan ya sauka kamar shugaban kasa ko girma kamar muƙami . [1] Ana iya tsara wannan jeri ta hanyar zuriya ko ta ƙa'ida. [1]

Tsarin gwamnati na gado ya bambanta da gwamnatin da aka zaɓa . Tsarin da aka kafa na magaji shine hanyar da aka saba kaiwa ga mukamai na gado, kuma yana ba da cigaba nan da nan bayan guraben da ba za a yi tsammani ba a lokuta da aka zaɓi masu rike da mukamai ta hanyar zaɓe : ofishin ba dole ba ne ya kasance a sarari har sai an zaɓi wanda zai gaje shi. A wasu lokuta magajin ya dauki cikakken aikin wanda ya gabata, kamar yadda yake a cikin shugabancin kasashe da yawa; a wasu lokuta da ba na gado ba babu cikakken gado, amma mai rikon da aka zaɓa ta hanyar ma'auni na gado yana ɗaukar wasu ko duk wani nauyi, to amman ba ofishi na yau da kullum kullun ba, na matsayin. Misali, lokacin da mukamin shugaban kasar Indiya ya zama babu kowa, mataimakin shugaban kasar Indiya yana gudanar da muhimman ayyuka na shugaban kasa har sai an zabi wanda zai gaje shi; Sabanin haka, lokacin da mukamin shugaban ƙasar Philippines ba shi da kowa, mataimakin shugaban ƙasar Philippines gaba daya ya karbi shugabancin da kansa na sauran wa'adin.

Ƙungiyoyin da ba su da tsarin gado ko na wata ka'ida na buƙatar tsarin maye idan ana son a guje wa gwagwarmayar wutar lantarki ta hanyar rashin wutar lantarki .

Bayanin[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A lokuta da dama ba a raba gadon gadon gado, ofis ko makamancin haka, watau wanda ya gabata ya daina rike wannan mukami da dai sauransu, mutum daya ne ya gada. Mukamai da ofisoshi da yawa ba na gado ba ne (kamar ofisoshin mulkin dimokuradiyya) kuma suna ƙarƙashin ƙa'idodi daban-daban na gado.

Layin gado yana iya iyakance ga magada na jiki, ko kuma yana iya wucewa zuwa layukan lamuni, idan babu magada na jiki, ya danganta da ƙa'idodin gada. Ana kuma amfani da waɗannan ra'ayoyin a cikin dokar gadon a Ingilishi.

Dokokin na iya yin ƙayyadaddun cewa magada masu cancanta su ne magada maza ko magada gabaɗaya - duba ƙarin primogeniture (agnatic, cognatic, da kuma dai-dai).

Wasu nau'ikan kadarorin suna wucewa zuwa zuriya ko dangi na ainihin majiɓinci, mai karɓa ko wanda aka bayar bisa ƙayyadadden tsari na dangi . Bayan mutuwar wanda aka bayar, gadon da aka keɓance kamar ɗan'uwa, ko masarauta, ya wuce kai tsaye zuwa ga waccan mai rai, halal, dangi mara riko na wanda aka ba da wanda ya fi girma a zuriya (watau mafi girma a cikin layin magaji, ba tare da la'akari da shi ba. shekaru); sannan kuma a ci gaba da mika wa magada na gaba na wanda aka bayar, bisa ga ka’idoji guda, bayan mutuwar kowane magaji na gaba.

Duk mutumin da ya ci gado bisa ga waɗannan ka'idoji ana ɗaukarsa a matsayin magaji a dokar wanda aka ba shi kuma gadon ba zai iya kaiwa ga wanda ba na halitta ba, halayya ko dangi na wanda aka ba shi.

’Yan’uwan juna, waɗanda suka yi tarayya da wasu ko duka zuriyar wanda aka ba da kyauta, amma ba su kai tsaye daga wanda aka ba su ba, za su iya gado idan babu wata iyaka ga “magada na jiki”.

Akwai wasu nau'o'in ka'idojin gado idan za a iya raba gadon: masu rabon gado da gadon rabo .

Sarauta da masu martaba[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A cikin masarautu na gado tsarin gado yana ƙayyade wanda zai zama sabon sarki lokacin da mai mulki ya mutu ko kuma ya bar gadon sarauta. Irin waɗannan umarni na gado, waɗanda suka samo asali daga ƙa'idodin da doka ko al'ada suka kafa, yawanci suna ƙayyadaddun tsari na girma, wanda aka yi amfani da su don nuna ko wane dangin sarki da ya gabata, ko wani mutum, wanda ya fi ƙarfin da'awar ya hau kan karagar mulki lokacin da mukami ya zo masa.

Sau da yawa, layin magaji yana iyakance ga mutane na jini na sarauta (amma duba auren morganatic ), wato, ga waɗanda aka amince da su bisa doka a matsayin waɗanda aka haifa a cikin ko Kuma a zuriyarsu daga daular mulki ko kuma wani sarki da ya gabata. Mutanen da za su ci sarautar ana kiransu da suna “ daular ”. Kundin tsarin mulki, dokoki, dokokin gida, da ƙa'idodi na iya tsara tsari da cancantar waɗanda za su gaje gadon sarauta.

A tarihance za'aga, wani lokaci ana maye gurbin tsarin gado ko kuma an ƙarfafa shi ta hanyar nadin wani zaɓaɓɓen magaji a matsayin babban masarautu a lokacin rayuwar sarki. Misalai sune Henry the Young King da kuma magadan zaɓaɓɓun masarautu, kamar amfani da taken Sarkin Romawa ga sarakunan Habsburg . A cikin tsarin zaɓi na ɗan takara na tanistry, an zaɓi magaji ko tanist daga ƙwararrun maza na dangin sarauta. Masarautu daban-daban suna amfani da ka'idoji daban-daban don tantance layin gado.

Sarakunan gado sun yi amfani da hanyoyi da dabaru iri-iri don samun tsari na gado tsakanin masu neman takara da suka shafi jini ko aure. Fa'idar yin amfani da irin waɗannan ka'idoji shine cewa daular za su iya, tun daga farkon matasa, su sami adon ado, ilimi, kariya, albarkatu da masu riƙewa da suka dace da martaba da nauyin da kuma ke cikin gaba da ke da alaƙa da rawanin wata ƙasa ko al'umma. Irin waɗannan tsare-tsare kuma na iya haɓaka kwanciyar hankali ta siyasa ta hanyar kafa fayyace, tsammanin jama'a game da jerin masu mulki, mai yuwuwar rage gasa da shigar da ƴan makaranta cikin wasu ayyuka ko hidindimu.

Wasu masarautu na gado sun sami tsarin zaɓi na musamman, musamman bayan hawan sabuwar daular. Daular Faransa ta kafa mazaje na farko a cikin zuriyar Napoleon I, to amma gazawar batun maza tsarin mulki ya baiwa sarakuna damar zabar wanda zai bi su a kan karagar mulki. An sanya Masarautar Italiya a matsayin mai ba da izini ga ɗan Napoleon I Bonaparte na biyu mai rai amma, rashin haka, an tanada wa ɗan sarki Eugène de Beauharnais, don yin nasara, kodayake ƙarshen ba shi da alaƙar jini da gidan Bonaparte . Sarautar Serbia ta gado ce ta asali ga zuriyar maza a cikin zuriyar Yarima Alexander I, amma bayan ƙarewar wannan layin, sarki mai mulki zai iya zaɓar kowane daga cikin danginsa maza na Gidan Karađorđević . A Romania, a daya hannun, a kan bacewar layin maza ya fito daga Carol I na Romania, tsarin mulki ya nuna cewa layin namiji na ɗan'uwansa, Leopold, Yariman Hohenzollern, zai gaji kursiyin kuma, rashin nasarar sauran batutuwan layin maza. Wannan dangin, sarkin daular Romania ne za a zaɓe yarima na daular “Yammacin Turai”. Akasin haka, tsofaffin masarautun Turai sun kasance sun dogara da ka'idojin maye gurbin da kawai ake kira ga karagar zuriyar sarakunan da suka gabata bisa ga ƙayyadaddun ƙa'idodi waɗanda suka samo asali daga ɗaya ko wani tsarin dokoki ko al'adu su.

Gado na tsaye[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A cikin gadon, an ƙayyade magada ta atomatik ta wasu ƙa'idodi da ƙa'idodin da aka riga aka ayyana. Ana iya ƙara rarraba shi zuwa hanyoyi a kwance da kuma a tsaye, tsoffin ƴan'uwan da ke son juna, yayin da a tsaye ke fifita 'ya'ya da jikoki na mai riƙe.

Farko[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Zane-zane na fifikon maza

A cikin primogeniture (ko fiye da ainihin mazaje na farko), babban ɗan sarki da zuriyarsa suna kan gaba a kan ƴan uwansa da zuriyarsu. Manyan 'ya'ya maza suna kan gaba a kan 'ya'ya maza, amma dukan 'ya'ya maza sun fi 'ya'ya mata. Yara suna wakiltar kakanninsu da suka rasu, kuma manyan zuriyar su koyaushe suna kan gaba a kan ƙaramin layi, a cikin kowane jinsi. Haƙƙin magaji na babban ɗan sarki ne (duba magaji ), kuma kusa da babban ɗan babban ɗa. Wannan shine tsarin a Spain da Monaco, kuma shine tsarin da aka yi amfani da shi a cikin ƙasashen Commonwealth ga waɗanda aka haifa kafin shekarata 2011.

Fiefs ko lakabin da aka ba da "a cikin jetsiya gabaɗaya" ko kuma ga "magada gabaɗaya" suna bin wannan tsarin don 'ya'ya maza, amma ana ɗaukar 'ya'ya mata daidai da magada juna, aƙalla a cikin aikin Burtaniya na baya-bayan nan. Wannan na iya haifar da yanayin da aka sani da abeyance . To A cikin tsakiyar zamanai, ainihin aiki ya kuma bambanta da al'adar gida. Yayin da mata za su iya gadon mazaje, mazajensu ( jure uxoris ) ko 'ya'yansu ( jure matris ) ne ke amfani da iko.

Cikakken cognatic primogeniture[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Cikakken zane-zane na farko

Cikakken primogeniture wata doka ce wadda babban ɗan sarki zai gaji gadon sarauta, ba tare da la'akari da jinsi ba, kuma mata (da zuriyarsu) suna da haƙƙin maye kamar na maza. Wannan shine tsarin a halin yanzu a Sweden ( tun a shekarata 1980 ), Netherlands ( tun a shekarata 1983 ), Norway ( tun a shekarata 1990 ), Belgium ( tun Shekarar 1991 ), Denmark ( tun 2009 ), Luxembourg ( tun shekarata 2011 ), [2] da kuma a cikin Ƙasar Ingila da Ƙasar Commonwealth ( tun shekarata 2013 ). [3]

Agnatic-cognatic maye[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Agnatic primogeniture zane

Magajin Agnatic-Cognatic (ko Semi-Salic), wanda ya zama ruwan dare a yawancin Turai tun zamanin da, shine ƙuntatawa ga waɗanda suka fito daga ko kuma suna da alaƙa da wani sarki na baya ko na yanzu kawai ta hanyar zuriyar maza : zuriya ta hanyar mata ba su cancanta ba. don a gaji sai dai idan babu wani mazan da ya rage daga zuriyarsu .

A cikin wannan nau'i na gado, ana ba da gado da farko ga dukan maza na zuriyar daular da suka cancanta bisa ga tsari na farko, sa'an nan kuma idan zuriyar maza ta ƙare gaba ɗaya ga mace daga cikin daular. [4] Sarauta daya tilo da ta yi aiki a karkashin dokar Semi-Salic har zuwa kwanan nan ita ce Luxembourg, wacce ta canza zuwa cikakkiyar matsayi a cikin shekarata 2011. Tsofaffin masarautun da suka yi aiki a ƙarƙashin dokar salin-arki sun haɗa da Austria (daga baya Austria-Hungary ), Bavaria, Hanover, Württemberg, Rasha, Saxony, Tuscany, da Masarautar Sicilies Biyu .

Idan zuriyar mace ta hau gadon sarauta, ba lallai ba ne ta zama babbar magaji ta farko, amma yawanci dangi mafi kusanci ga sarki namiji na ƙarshe na daular ta kusancin jini . Misalai su ne magajin Kirista I na Denmark ga Schleswig-Holstein, Maria Theresa ta Ostiriya (ko da yake an tabbatar da haƙƙinta a ƙarshe sakamakon nasarar da ta samu a Yaƙin Nasarar Austrian da aka ƙaddamar da hawanta), Marie-Adelaide da Charlotte na Luxembourg., Anne na Brittany, da kuma Kirista na IX na Danmark a matsayi Na hakkin matarsa, Louise na Hesse .

Magajin Matrilineal[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Wasu al'adu sun wuce daraja ta layin mata. Dukiyar mutum da matsayinsa 'ya'yan 'yar uwarsa ne suke gadarsu, 'ya'yansa kuma suna karbar gadonsu daga wajen kawunsu na uwa.

A Kerala, kudancin Indiya, ana kiran wannan al'ada da Marumakkathyam . Sarakunan Nair ne da iyalan gidan sarauta suke yi. Maharajah na Travancore saboda haka ɗan 'yar uwarsa ne ya gaje shi, kuma ɗan nasa yana samun lakabi na ladabi amma ba shi da wuri a cikin layin magaji. Tun da Independence na Indiya da zartar da ayyuka da yawa kamar Dokar Nasara ta Hindu shekarata (1956), wannan nau'i na gado ba a iya gane shi ta hanyar doka. Ko da kuwa, mai yin riya ga kursiyin Travancore har yanzu ana ƙaddara ta maye gurbin matrilinear.

Akans na Ghana da Ivory Coast, Afirka ta Yamma suna da irin wannan gado na matrilineal kuma kamar yadda Otumfour Osei-Tutu II, Asantehene ya gaji Golden Stool ( kursiyin ) ta wurin mahaifiyarsa ( Asantehemaa ) Nana Afia Kobi Serwaa Ampem II .

Dokar Salic[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Agnatic-cognatic primogeniture zane

Dokar Salic, ko maye gurbin agnatic, ta iyakance yawan magada ga maza na zuriyarsu, kuma gaba ɗaya ta ware matan daular da zuriyarsu daga magaji. Dokar Salic ta shafi tsoffin gidajen sarauta ko na sarauta na Albaniya, Faransa, Italiya, Romania, Yugoslavia, da Prussia / Daular Jamus . To A halin yanzu ya shafi gidan Liechtenstein, da kuma Chrysanthemum Throne na Japan .

A cikin shekarar 1830 a Spain tambayar ko dokar Salic ta yi aiki ko a'a - don haka, ko Ferdinand VII ya kamata 'yarsa Isabella ta bi shi ko kuma ɗan'uwansa Charles - ya haifar da jerin yaƙe-yaƙe na basasa da kafa daular kishiya mai ƙiyayya wanda har yanzu akwai.

Gabaɗaya, masarautun gado waɗanda ke aiki ƙarƙashin dokar Salic suma suna amfani da primogeniture tsakanin zuriyar maza a cikin layin maza don tantance magajin da ya cancanta, kodayake a cikin tarihi na farko agnatic babba ya saba da na farko. Fiefs da lakabin da aka ba "a namiji wutsiya " to Amman ko ga "majiyin magadan" suna bin wannan tsari na farko na gado. (Wadanda aka ba wa "magada maza na jiki" an iyakance su ne ga zuriyar maza na wanda aka ba da kyauta; waɗanda zuwa "magada janar na maza" za a iya gadonsu, bayan bacewar zuriyar mazan da aka ba da kyauta, ta hanyar jinsin maza. zuriyar mahaifinsa, kakansa na uba, da sauransu. )

Ultogeniture[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Agnatic ultimogeniture zane

Ultimogeniture tsari ne na maye inda batun ya gaje shi da ƙaramin ɗa (ko ƙaramin yaro). Duk Wannan yana hidimar yanayin da ƙaramin ke "kiyaye murhu", kula da iyaye da ci gaba a gida, yayin da manyan yara sun sami lokacin yin nasara "fita a cikin duniya" da kuma azurta kansu.

kusancin jini[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Proximity of blood diagram

Kusancin jini wani tsari ne wanda mafi kusancin dangi da mai mulki ke samun nasara, yana fifita maza fiye da mata da babba akan kanne. Ana amfani da wannan wani lokaci azaman mai sheki don maye gurbin "pragmatic" a Turai; yana da ɗan ƙara tsayawa a lokacin Tsakiyar Tsakiya ko'ina cikin Turai. A cikin Outremer an yi amfani da shi sau da yawa don zaɓar masu mulki, kuma ya kasance a cikin wasu rigingimu na gado game da Mulkin Urushalima . Kuma An kuma gane shi a cikin wannan masarauta don maye gurbin fiefs, a cikin yanayi na musamman: idan fief ya ɓace ga Saracens kuma daga baya aka sake cin nasara, za a ba da shi ga magaji a kusancin jinin na ƙarshe.

Gado mai rabo[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A wasu al'ummomi, an gaji sarauta ko na fiffike ta hanyar da duk wanda yake da hakkin ya sami rabo daga cikinsa. To Amman Fitattun misalan wannan ɗabi'a su ne rarrabuwar kawuna na Daular Faransa a ƙarƙashin daular Merovingian da Carolingian, da makamantansu Gavelkind a cikin Tsibirin Biritaniya.

Gadon kwance[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

babba[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Jadawalin manyan mutane

A cikin manyan mukamai, dangin sarki ko mai rike da sarauta na gaba (kusan ko da yaushe ɗan'uwa), yana yin nasara; ba 'ya'yansa ba. To Kuma, idan gidan sarauta ya fi yawa, ’yan uwan (maza) da sauransu sun yi nasara, bisa ga girman girma, wanda zai iya dogara da ainihin shekaru ko kuma ga girma tsakanin ubanninsu.

Rota tsarin[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tsarin tsarin Rota

The rota tsarin, daga Old Church Slavic kalmar for "tsani" ko "matakin hawa", wani tsarin jingina gada yi (ko da yake ba daidai ba) a Kievan Rus ' da kuma daga baya Appanage da farkon Muscovite Rasha.

A cikin wannan tsarin sarautar ba ta layi ba daga uba zuwa ɗa, amma daga baya daga ɗan'uwa zuwa ɗan'uwa sannan Kuma zuwa ga babban ɗan babban ɗan'uwa wanda ya rike sarauta. Yaroslav mai hikima ne ya fara tsarin, wanda ya ba wa kowane ɗayan 'ya'yansa mazauni bisa ga girma. Lokacin da Grand Prince ya kuma mutu, babban yarima na gaba ya koma Kiev kuma duk sauran sun koma babban sarki kusa da tsani. [5]

Zaɓaɓɓen magaji[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Nadawa, zaɓe, ɗan takara, da juyawa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ana iya shirya odar magaji ta hanyar alƙawari: ko dai sarkin da ke kan gado ko kuma wata hukumar zaɓe ta nada magaji ko jerin sunayen magada kafin a samu gurbi. Masarautar na iya zama zaɓaɓɓu gabaɗaya, kodayake ta hanyar da za a zaɓi wanda zai gaje shi ne bayan ya zama Na fanko.

A cikin tarihi, sau da yawa, amma ba koyaushe ba, alƙawura da zaɓe sun fi so, ko an iyakance su ga membobin wata daula ko dangi. Ana iya samun ƙa’idodin zuriyarsu don sanin duk waɗanda suke da hakkin yin nasara, kuma waɗanda za a yi musu alheri. Wannan ya haifar da wani lokaci zuwa tsarin maye wanda ke daidaita rassan daular ta hanyar juyawa.

A halin yanzu yana aiki, tare da bambance-bambance, ga Mai Tsarki See, Malaysia, Cambodia, Kuwait, UAE, Andorra, Swaziland da Samoa . Ana kuma amfani da shi a Ife, Oyo da sauran jahohin da ke yankin Yarbawa .

Na gaba[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tsarin gado na baya ko na 'yan uwantaka yana wajabta ka'idodin girma a tsakanin 'ya'yan daular daular ko daular daular, tare da manufar zaɓe mafi cancantar ɗan takara don jagoranci. An zabi shugabannin a matsayin dattawan da suka fi balaga a dangi, wadanda suka riga sun mallaki karfin soja da cancantar. An fi son gadon 'yan'uwa don tabbatar da cewa shugabanni balagagge sun jagoranci, cire buƙatar masu mulki. Tsarin gado na gefe yana iya ko ba zai iya cire zuriyar maza a cikin layin mata daga magajiya ba. A aikace, lokacin da babu wani magajin da ya balaga, Kuma yawanci ana tantance magajin mace "a zahiri", ta kusanci da sarki na ƙarshe, kamar Boariks na Caucasian Huns ko Tamiris na Massagetes a Asiya ta Tsakiya an zaɓi. Gabaɗaya ana zaɓen sarki na gefe bayan sarautar shugabanci ta zama fanko. A farkon shekarun daular Mongol, mutuwar sarakunan da ke mulki, Genghis Khan da Ögedei Khan, nan da nan ya dakatar da yakin yammacin Mongols saboda zabuka masu zuwa.

A gabashin Asiya, an fara rubuta tsarin gadon bayan fage ne tun kafin tarihi ya fara da Wai Bing na daular Shang wanda ya gaji dan uwansa Da Ding, sannan kuma dangane da mamayar da Zhou na Shang ya yi, lokacin da Wu Ding ya yi nasara. Dan uwansa Zu Geng ya gaje shi a shekara ta 1189 kafin haihuwar Annabi Isa, sannan wani dan'uwansa Zu Jia ya gaje shi a shekara ta shekarar 1178 kafin haihuwar Annabi Isa.

Wani koma baya na gajeriyar hanya ita ce, yayin da ake tabbatar da mafi cancantar jagoranci a halin yanzu, tsarin ya haifar da rugujewar layukan sarauta waɗanda ba su cancanci a maye gurbinsu ba. Duk wani magajin da ya cancanta wanda bai yi tsayin daka ba har ya hau kan karagar mulki, an jefar da shi a gefe kamar yadda bai cancanta ba, yana haifar da tafki na masu riya da rashin gamsuwa da ake kira Tegin a cikin Turkic da Izgoi a cikin layin daular Rus. Rikicin da ba a daidaita ba na sarakunan da ba a san shi ba zai kawo cikas ga tsarin gado da rugujewar jihar.

Rikicin nasara[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Sa’ad da sarki ya mutu ba tare da bayyanannen magaji ba, ana samun rikicin magaji sau da yawa, wanda yakan haifar da yaƙin gado . Alal misali, sa’ad da Sarki Charles na huɗu na Faransa ya mutu, yaƙin shekara ɗari ya barke tsakanin ɗan’uwan Charles, Philip VI na Faransa, da ɗan’uwan Charles, Edward III na Ingila, don sanin wanda zai gaji Charles a matsayin Sarkin Faransa . Kuma Inda layin magaji ya tabbata, wani lokaci yakan faru cewa mai yin riya mai rauni ko da'awar amma soji ko na siyasa ya kwace mulki.

A cikin 'yan shekarun nan masu bincike sun sami alaƙa mai mahimmanci tsakanin nau'ikan ƙa'idodin da ke tafiyar da gado a cikin masarautu da mulkin kama-karya da kuma yawaitar juyin mulki ko rikicin maye. [6]

Addini[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A cikin addinin Buddha na Tibet, an yi imanin cewa masu rike da wasu manyan ofisoshi irin su Dalai Lama sune reincarnations na mai ci: tsari na gado shi ne kawai cewa mai ci yana biye da sake reincarnation na kansa. Lokacin da mai mulki ya mutu, ana neman magajinsa a cikin jama'a ta hanyar wasu sharuɗɗa da aka yi la'akari da su don nuna cewa an sami Dalai Lama mai reincarnated, wani tsari wanda yawanci yana ɗaukar shekaru biyu zuwa hudu don nemo yaron.

A cikin Cocin Katolika, an tsara hanyoyin da za a bi game da matsayin Paparoma ko bishop .

Jamhuriya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A cikin jumhuriya, buƙatar tabbatar da ci gaba da ayyuka a kowane lokaci ya haifar da yawancin ofisoshi suna samun tsari na tsari. A cikin ƙasar da ke da ƙayyadaddun zaɓe, shugaban ƙasa (shugaban ƙasa) wani lokaci ana samun nasara bayan mutuwa ko murabus daga mataimakin shugaban kasa, kansila, ko firayim minista, sannan kuma masu rike da mukamai daban-daban na majalisar dokoki ko wasu ministocin gwamnati . To A jamhuriyoyin da dama, an yi sabon zaɓe na ɗan lokaci bayan da “shugaban kasa” ya zama babu zato ba zato ba tsammani.

A jahohi ko lardunan da ke cikin kasa, ana yawan zabar laftanar gwamna ko mataimakin gwamna don cike gurbi a ofishin gwamna.

Misalin magaji
  • Idan Shugaban Amurka ba zai iya yin aiki ba, Mataimakin Shugaban kasa zai karbi ragamar idan ya iya yin hidima. Idan ba haka ba, tsarin maye gurbin shine Kakakin Majalisa, Shugaban Majalisar Dattijai, Sakataren Gwamnati, da sauran jami'an majalisar ministoci kamar yadda aka jera a cikin labarin layin shugaban kasa na Amurka .
  • A Finland, magajin shugaban na wucin gadi shine Firayim Minista sannan kuma ministoci a cikin kwanakin da aka yi a ofis, maimakon tsarin ma'aikata. Babu mataimakin shugaban kasa, kuma dole ne a zabi sabon shugaban kasa idan shugaban ya mutu ko ya yi murabus.
  • A Isra'ila, magajin shugaban na wucin gadi shine kakakin majalisar Knesset (majalisar dokokin Isra'ila), tare da sabon shugaban da majalisar za ta zaba idan shugaban ya mutu ko ya yi murabus.

Duba wasu abubuwan[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Layukan maye gurbin zababbun masu rike da mukamai[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

(Jerin da bai cika ba)

  • Cabinet of Mauritius § Alawus da layin gado
  • Governor of Oklahoma § Layin magaji
  • Dokar Magajin Shugaban Kasa
  • Sede vacante (Fafaroma Katolika da bishops)

Duba kuma labaran kan ofisoshin daban-daban (misali, President of the United States § Nasara da nakasa ).

Daban-daban[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Saduwa
  • Baya
  • Ci gaba da mulki
  • Sarkin sarakuna
  • Sarauta
  • Gado
  • Jerin masarautu bisa tsari na gado
  • Tsarin fifiko
  • Haihuwar bayan mutuwa
  • kusancin jini
  • Gidan sarauta
  • Dokar Salic
  • Inuwar gwamnati (rashin gaskiya)
  • Tanistry

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 UK Royal Web site "The order of succession is the sequence of members of the Royal Family in the order in which they stand in line to the throne. This sequence is regulated not only through descent, but also by Parliamentary statute."
  2. "New Ducal succession rights for Grand Duchy". Archived from the original on 2015-12-22. Retrieved 2022-03-12.
  3. Explanatory note to the UK bill, paragraph 42: "There is power to specify the time of day of commencement. Assuming that the other Realms make the same provision, this will enable the changes on succession to be brought into force at the same time – but at different local times – in all sixteen Commonwealth Realms." UK parliament official website. (Retrieved 30 March 2015.)
  4. SOU 1977:5 Kvinnlig tronföljd.
  5. Nancy Shields Kollmann, “Collateral Succession in Kievan Rus’.” Harvard Ukrainian Studies 14 (1990): 377–87; Janet Martin, Medieval Russia 980–1584 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), 27–29.
  6. Kurrild-Klitgaard, Peter (2000). "The constitutional economics of autocratic succession," Public Choice, 103(1/2), pp. 63–84.