J

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Transponaturtecken.svgJ
Latin alphabet Jj.svg
ICS Juliet.svg
Character (en) Fassara J (uppercase letter (en) Fassara)
Unicode: 004A

j (lowercase letter (en) Fassara)
Unicode: 006A

J (uppercase letter (en) Fassara, Halfwidth and Fullwidth Forms (en) Fassara)
Unicode: FF2A

j (lowercase letter (en) Fassara, Halfwidth and Fullwidth Forms (en) Fassara)
Unicode: FF4A

Ⓙ (uppercase letter (en) Fassara)
ⓙ (lowercase letter (en) Fassara)
Unicode: 24D9

🄙 (uppercase letter (en) Fassara)
Unicode: 1F119

⒥ (lowercase letter (en) Fassara)
Unicode: 24A5

🅙 (uppercase letter (en) Fassara)
Unicode: 1F159

🅹 (uppercase letter (en) Fassara)
Unicode: 1F179

🄹 (uppercase letter (en) Fassara)
Unicode: 1F139
Iri Alphabet
Bangare na Baƙaƙen boko, Polish alphabet (en) Fassara, English alphabet (en) Fassara, Czech alphabet (en) Fassara, Esperanto alphabet (en) Fassara, Breton alphabet (en) Fassara, Romanian alphabet (en) Fassara, Maltese alphabet (en) Fassara, Slovak alphabet (en) Fassara, Lithuanian alphabet (en) Fassara, Turkish alphabet (en) Fassara, Azerbaijani alphabet (en) Fassara, French alphabet (en) Fassara, Finnish alphabet (en) Fassara, Africa Alphabet (en) Fassara, African reference alphabet (en) Fassara, Pan-Nigerian alphabet (en) Fassara, Benin National Alphabet (en) Fassara da Kazakh Latin alphabets 2017 version (en) Fassara
Code (en) Fassara .--- (Morse code (en) Fassara)
Juliet (NATO phonetic alphabet (en) Fassara)
J (Braille ASCII (en) Fassara)

J, ko j, shine harafi na goma a cikin haruffan Ingilishi na zamani da haruffan Latin na ISO na asali . Its saba sunan Turanci ne <i id="mwFg">jay</i> (pronounced /dʒ eɪ / ), da yanzu-nadiri bambance-bambancen jy /dʒ aɪ / . [1] [2] Lokacin amfani a cikin International karin lafazi Alphabet ga <i id="mwIA">y</i> sauti, zai iya yiwuwa a kira yod ko jod (furta /j ɒ d / ko /j oʊ d / ).

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Littafin yara daga shekara ta1743, yana nuna Ni da J an ɗauke su azaman harafi ɗaya

Harafin J amfani da za a yi amfani da matsayin swash harafi na, amfani da harafi na a karshen Roman numerals lokacin da wadannan wata I, kamar yadda a XXIIJ ko xxiij maimakon XXIII ko XXIII ga Roman adadi wakiltar 23. Wani amfani na musamman ya fito a Tsakiyar Babban Jamusanci . Gian Giorgio Trissino (1478-1550) shine farkon wanda ya bambanta I da J a bayyane a matsayin wakiltar sauti daban -daban, a cikin littafinsa na istpistola del Trissino de le lettere nuωvamente aggiunte ne la lingua italiana (" wasiƙar Trissino game da haruffan da aka ƙara kwanan nan cikin harshen Italiyanci ") ) na shekara ta 1524. [3] Asali, 'I' da 'J' sun kasance siffofi daban -daban don harafi ɗaya, duka daidai suke /i/, /iː/, da /j/ ; duk da haka, harsunan Romance sun haɓaka sabbin sautuna (daga tsohon /j/ da /ɡ/ ) waɗanda aka wakilta a matsayin 'I' da 'J'; saboda haka, Ingilishi J, wanda aka samo daga Faransanci J, yana da ƙima mai ƙima sosai da /j/ (wanda ke wakiltar sautin farko a cikin kalmar Ingilishi " y et")

Furuci da amfani[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

List of pronunciations
Most common pronunciation: Template:IPAslink Languages in italics do not use the Latin alphabet
Language Dialect(s) Pronunciation

(IPA)

Environment Notes
Arabic Standard; most dialects Template:IPAslink Latinization
Gulf Template:IPAslink Latinization
Sudanese, Omani, Yemeni Template:IPAslink Latinization
Levantine, Maghrebi Template:IPAslink Latinization
Azeri Template:IPAslink
Basque Bizkaian Template:IPAslink
Lapurdian Template:IPAslink also used in southwest Bizkaian
Low Navarrese Template:IPAslink also used in south Lapurdian
High Navarrese Template:IPAslink
Gipuzkoan Template:IPAslink also used in east Bizkaian
Zuberoan Template:IPAslink
Catalan Template:IPAslink
English Template:IPAslink
Finnish Template:IPAslink
French Template:IPAslink
Hindi Template:IPAslink
Hokkien Template:IPAslink~Template:IPAslink
Template:IPAslink~Template:IPAslink
Igbo Template:IPAslink
Indonesian Template:IPAslink
Japanese Template:IPAslink~Template:IPAslink Template:IPAslink and Template:IPAslink distinct in some dialects, see Yotsugana
Kiowa Template:IPAslink
<i id="mwAQQ">Konkani</i> Template:IPAslink
<i id="mwAQw">Korean</i> North Template:IPAslink
Template:IPAslink after vowels
South Template:IPAslink
Template:IPAslink after vowels
<i id="mwASc">Kurdish</i> Template:IPAslink
Luxembourgish Template:IPAslink
Template:IPAslink Some words
Malay Template:IPAslink
Mandarin Standard Template:IPAslink Pinyin latinization
Template:IPAslink Wade–Giles latinization
Manx Template:IPAslink
Oromo Template:IPAslink
Pashto Template:IPAslink
Portuguese Template:IPAslink
Romanian Template:IPAslink
Scots Template:IPAslink
Shona Template:IPAslink
Somali Template:IPAslink
Spanish Standard Template:IPAslink
Some dialects Template:IPAslink
Swahili Template:IPAslink
<i id="mwAaI">Tamil</i> Template:IPAslink
Tatar Template:IPAslink
Telugu Template:IPAslink
Turkish Template:IPAslink
Turkmen Template:IPAslink
Yoruba Template:IPAslink
Zulu Template:IPAslink

Turanci[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A Turanci, ⟩ fi wakiltar affricate /dʒ/ . A Old Turanci, da phoneme /dʒ/ ya wakilta orthographically da ⟩ da ⟩ Ƙarƙashin rinjayar Old Faransa, wadda take da irin wannan phoneme deriving daga Latin /j/ English malaman Attaura suka fara amfani da ⟩ (daga baya ⟩ su wakilci kalma-farko /dʒ/ a Old Turanci (misali, i Est kuma, daga baya j Est), yayin da yin amfani da ⟩ da sauran wurare (misali, ya DG e) [4] Daga baya, da yawa wasu amfani da ⟩ (daga baya ⟩ da aka kara a loanwords daga Faransa da kuma sauran harsuna (misali ad j oin, j unta) A farko harshen Turanci littafin yi da bambanci a fili tsakanin ⟩ da ⟩ shi ne juyi na King James 1st Revision Cambridge a shekara ta 1629 da kuma wani English nahawu littafin da aka buga ashekara ta 1633. [5] A aro kalmomi kamar raj, ⟩ iya wakiltar /ʒ/ A cikin wasu daga cikin waɗannan, gami da raj, Azerbaijan, Taj Mahal, da Beijing, lafazin /dʒ/ yana kusa da lafazi na asali, yana yin amfani da /ʒ/ misali na tsinkayen girman kai . Lokaci-lokaci, ⟩ wakiltar ainihin /j/ sauti, kamar yadda a Hallelujah da Fjord (ga Yodh domin qarin bayani) A kalmomi na Spanish asalin, inda ⟩ wakiltar voiceless velar fricative [ x ] (kamar jalapeño) English jawabai yawanci m tare da voiceless glottal fricative /h / .

A Turanci, ⟩ ne karo na hudu kalla akai-akai amfani da harafi a kalmomi, kasancewa mafi m kawai fiye da ⟨ ⟨ kuma ⟨ Yana, duk da haka, ya zama ruwan dare gama gari a cikin sunaye masu dacewa, musamman sunaye na mutum.

Wasu harsuna[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Harsunan Jamusanci da Gabashin Turai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Pronunciation na rubuta ⟩ a Turai harsuna

Mafi yawancin Harsunan Jamus, kamar Jamus, Dutch, Icelandic, Swedish, Danish kuma Norwegian, amfani ⟩ ga palatal approximant /j /, wanda mafi yawa ana wakilta harafi ⟩ a Turanci. Sanannen sanannu shine Ingilishi, Scots da (zuwa ƙaramin matakin) Luxembourgish . ⟩ ma wakiltar /j / a Albanian, da waɗanda Uralic, Slavic da Baltic harsuna da cewa amfani da Latin haruffa, kamar Hungarian, Finnish, Istoniyanci, Polish, Czech, Kuroweshiyancin-Sabiya, Basulake, Basulabe, Latvian da Lithuanian . Wasu related harsuna, kamar Kuroweshiyancin-Sabiya da Macedonian, kuma soma ⟩ cikin QFontDatabase haruffa ga wannan manufa. Saboda wannan ƙa'idar, an zaɓi ƙaramin ƙaramin harafin don amfani dashi a cikin IPA azaman alamar sautin sauti.

Harsunan soyayya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin harsunan Rum, ⟩ ya kullum ci gaba daga asalin palatal approximant darajar a Latin zuwa wasu irin fricative . A Faransa, Portuguese, Catalan, kuma Romanian an fronted da postalveolar fricative /ʒ / (kamar ⟩ in English mea s Ure). A Spain, da bambanci, an biyu devoiced da kuma goyon baya daga wani a baya /ʝ / wani ba-rana /x / ~ /h /, tare da ainihin karin lafazi ganin dangane da magana ta yare.

Gabaɗaya, ⟨j⟩ baya yawan kasancewa a cikin daidaitaccen haruffan Italiyanci na zamani. Kawai dace sunaye (kamar Jesi da Letojanni ), Latin kalmomi ( Juventus ), ko kuma wadanda aro daga kasashen waje harsuna da ⟩ A dace sunaye da kuma Latin kalmomi ana furta a matsayin palatal approximant /j /, yayin da kalmomin aro daga kasashen waje harsuna ayan bi da harshen ta pronunciation na ⟩ Har cikin karni na 19th, ⟩ aka yi amfani maimakon ⟩ a diphthongs, kamar yadda wani zai maye gurbin karshe -ii, kuma a wasali kungiyoyin (as a Savoja) wannan doka ta kasance mai tsauri a rubuce na hukuma. ⟩ ana amfani ga sa /j / a harshe kuskure, misali Romanesco yare ⟩ [ajo] (tafarnuwa. Gwama Italian aglio [aʎo] A Italian mawallafin Luigi Pirandello amfani ⟩ a wasali kungiyoyin a cikin ayyukansu da aka rubuta a cikin Italiyanci. ya kuma ya rubuta a cikin 'yan qasar Sicilian harshe, wanda har yanzu yana amfani da harafin ⟩ su wakilci /j / (da kuma wani lokacin ma [dʒ] ko [gj], dangane da yanayi) Harshen Maltese yaren Semitic ne, ba yaren Romance ba; amma an warai rinjayi su (musamman Sicilian) da kuma shi yana amfani da ⟩ ga sauti / j / (cognate na Semitic yod)

Basque[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A Basque, da diaphoneme wakilta ⟩ yana da dama realizations bisa ga yankin yare: [j, ʝ, ɟ, ʒ, ʃ, x] (na karshe wanda shi ne hali da Gipuzkoa )

Harsunan da ba na Turawa ba[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Daga cikin harsunan da bana Turai da suka soma da Latin rubutun, ⟩ tsaye ga /ʒ / a Turkiyya da kuma Azerbaijani, domin /ʐ / a Tatar . ⟩ tsaye ga /dʒ / a Indonesiya, Somali, Malay, Igbo, Shona, Harshen Oromo, Harshen Turkmen, kuma Zulu . Yana wakiltar faɗar magana mai ƙarfi /ɟ / in Konkani, Yoruba, da Swahili . A Kiowa, ⟩ tsaye ga wata voiceless alveolar plosive, /t /.

⟨j⟩ stands for /dʒ/ in the romanization systems of most of the Languages of India such as Hindi and Telugu and stands for /dʑ/ in the Romanization of Japanese and Korean.

Domin Sin harsuna, ⟩ tsaye ga /t͡ɕ / a Mandarin Sin PinYin tsarin, da unaspirated kwatankwacin ⟩ /t͡ɕʰ /) A Wade-Giles, ⟩ tsaye ga Mandarin Sin /ʐ /. Pe̍h-œ-Ji na Hokkien da Tai-lo ga Taiwan Hokkien, ⟩ tsaye ga /z / da /ʑ /, ko /d͡z / da /d͡ʑ /, dangane da wasulla. A Jyutping for Kannada, ⟩ tsaye ga /j /.

The Royal Thai Janar System of kwafi ba ya amfani da harafin ⟩ ko da yake da shi da ake amfani a wasu dace sunayen da wadanda ba misali transcriptions su wakilci ko dai [tɕ] ko [tɕʰ] (wanda ke biye da tushen tushen Pali/Sanskrit)

A romanized Pashto, ⟩ wakiltar ځ, ya furta [dz]

A Qaniujaaqpait haruffan da Inuktitut harshe, ⟩ ake amfani da su rubũtunsa /j /.

Haruffa masu alaƙa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Ƙari : Harafin Semitic Yodh, wanda daga baya aka samo alamun da ke gaba
  • Ina i : Harafin Latin I, daga abin da J ya samo
  • Ƙari : Dotless j
  • Ƙari : Harafin mai canzawa ƙaramin mara lamba j tare da bugun jini
  • Ƙari : Harafin mai gyara ƙaramin j tare da ƙetare-jela [6]
  • IPA -alamomin musamman masu alaƙa da J: ʝ ɟ ʄ ʲ
  • Harafin Sautin Uralic -alamomin musamman masu alaƙa da J:

Lambobin kwamfuta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Template:Charmap

1 Hakanan don rikodin rikodi akan ASCII, gami da DOS, Windows, ISO-8859 da Macintosh iyalai na rikodi.

Unicode kuma yana da bambance -bambancen mara iyaka, ȷ (U+0237) Da farko ana amfani da shi a Landsmålsalfabet da lissafi. Ba a yi nufin amfani da shi ba tare da diacritics tunda j j na al'ada an yi taushi a Unicode (wato, an cire ɗigon idan za a sanya diacritic a sama; Unicode ya ci gaba da cewa, misali i+ ¨ ≠ ı+ ¨ da iri ɗaya yana da gaskiya ga j da ȷ) [7]

A cikin Unicode, kwafin 'J' don amfani azaman yanayin sautin musamman a cikin tarihin harsunan Girka an sanya shi a cikin toshe rubutun Girkanci kamar ϳ (Unicode U+03F3) Ana amfani da shi don nuna ƙyalli na sarauta /j/ a cikin mahallin rubutun Girkanci. Ana kiranta "Yot" a ma'aunin Unicode, bayan sunan Jamusanci na harafin J. An ƙara babban juzu'in wannan wasiƙar zuwa Unicode Standard a U+037F tare da sakin sigar 7.0 a watan Yuni a shekara ta 2014.

Batun murmushin Wingdings[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin harafin Wingdings ta Microsoft, harafin "J" an sanya shi azaman fuskar murmushi (wannan ya bambanta da alamar lambar Unicode U+263A, wanda ke fassara ☺︎) A cikin aikace -aikacen Microsoft, ":) ana maye gurbinsa ta atomatik tare da murmushin da aka sanya a cikin takamaiman fuskar font lokacin ƙirƙirar takaddun rubutu mai ƙarfi ko imel na HTML. Za'a iya kashe wannan fasalin fasalin ta atomatik ko a canza shi zuwa murmushi na Unicode.

Sauran amfani[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • A cikin lambobin farantin lasisi na duniya, J yana wakiltar Japan .
  • A cikin lissafi, j yana ɗaya daga cikin ɓangarorin hasashe guda uku na ƙima .
  • Hakanan a cikin lissafi, j yana ɗaya daga cikin vectors raka'a uku.
  • A cikin tsarin awo, J shine alamar joule, SI da aka samu don makamashi .
  • A wasu fannonin kimiyyar lissafi, injiniyan lantarki da filayen da ke da alaƙa, j alama ce ga ƙungiyar hasashe (tushen murabba'i na −1) (a wasu fannoni ana amfani da harafin i, amma wannan zai zama mai rikitarwa kamar yadda shima alama ce don halin yanzu ).
  • A J iya zama wani irin harshe na dabam ambatacce ga wani hadin gwiwa ( marijuana taba)
  • A cikin Burtaniya a ƙarƙashin tsohon tsarin (kafin a shekara ta2001), farantin lasisin da ya fara da "J" misali "J123 XYZ" zai yi daidai da abin hawa da aka yi rajista tsakanin 1 ga Agusta, a shekara ta 1991 da 31 ga Yuli, a shekara ta 1992. Hakanan a ƙarƙashin tsohon tsarin, farantin lasisi wanda ya ƙare da "J" misali "ABC 123J" zai yi daidai da abin hawa da aka yi rajista tsakanin 1 ga Agusta, ashekara ta 1970 da 31 ga Yuli, 1971.

Sauran wakilci[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Template:Letter other reps

Nassoshi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

 

Hanyoyin waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • The dictionary definition of J at Wiktionary
  • The dictionary definition of j at Wiktionary
  • "J" . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911.
  1. "J", Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989)
  2. "J" and "jay", Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993)
  3. De le lettere nuωvamente aggiunte ne la lingua Italiana in Italian Wikisource.
  4. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named hogg
  5. English Grammar, Charles Butler, 1633
  6. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named L204132
  7. The Unicode Standard, Version 8.0, p. 293 (at the very bottom)