Kungiyar Tattalin Arziki Ta Duniya

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Group half.svgSurvival International
Bayanai
Iri International NGO
Mulki
Shugaba Robin Hanbury-Tenison (en) Fassara
Hedkwata Landan
Subdivisions
Haraji £1,624,935 (2015)
Tarihi
Ƙirƙira 1969
Awards received

survivalinternational.org


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Kungiyar Tattalin Arziki ta Duniya ƙungiya ce ta kare haƙƙin ɗan adam da aka kafa a shekarata 1969 wacce ke yin gwagwarmayar haƙƙoƙin 'yan ƙasa da / ko kabilu da kuma mutanen da ba a sadu da su ba.

Kamfen ɗin ƙungiyar gaba ɗaya yana mai da hankali ne ga sha'awar mutanen kabilu don kiyaye ƙasashen kakanninsu. Kungiyar ta Duniya ta kira waɗannan mutanen "wasu daga cikin mafiya rauni a duniya", da nufin kawar da abin da ta kira "ra'ayoyin" da ake amfani da su don ba da hujjar take haƙƙin ɗan Adam. Hakanan yana da manufar tallata abubuwan da ake hango na kasada da kabilu ke fuskanta daga ayyukan hukumomi da gwamnatoci. Vungiyar Tattalin Arziki ta Duniya ta ce tana da niyyar taimaka wa jama’ar ƙabila don cin gashin kansu .

Kungiyar Tattalin Arziki ta Duniya tana cikin haɗin gwiwa tare da Ma'aikatar Bayanin Jama'a na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya kuma a cikin shawarwari tare da Majalisar Economicungiyar Tattalin Arziƙi da Tattalin Arziki ta Majalisar Dinkin Duniya . Don tabbatar da 'yancin aiwatarwa, Tsira ba ta karɓar tallafin gwamnati. Memba ne mai kafa kuma kungiyar sanya hannu kan Yarjejeniyar Ba da Lamuni na Kungiyoyi na Kasa da Kasa ( Yarjejeniyar Kula da Inci ta INGO ). Tsira tana da ofis a Amsterdam, Berlin, London, Madrid, Milan, Paris da San Francisco .

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An kafa Survival International ne a shekarar 1969 bayan labarin da Norman Lewis yayi a cikin jaridar The Sunday Times Magazine [1] ya nuna yadda ake kashe-kashe, sace-sacen kasa da kisan kiyashi da ake yi a yankin Amazonia na Brazil. Kuma a cikin shekarata 1971, sabuwar ƙungiyar ta ziyarci Brazil don lura da hukumar gwamnatin Fundação Nacional do Índio (FUNAI) da ke da alhakin ƙabilun yankin. kungiyar Survival International da aka kafa a matsayin kamfanin ingilishi a cikin shekarar 1972 kuma an yi rajista a matsayin sadaka a cikin shekarata 1974. Dangane da tarihin rayuwar shugabanta na farko, mai binciken Robin Hanbury-Tenison, yayin tafiya tare da masanin ilimin kabilanci Conrad Gorinsky a cikin Amazon a 1968, [2]

Shi ne na farko a wannan fagen da ya yi amfani da rubuce-rubuce da yawa, bayan da ya tsara kamfe da yawa a wurare daban-daban a duk duniya, kamar Siberia, Kanada da Kenya . Yakin neman zabe da yawa sun sami damar kawo sauyi ga manufofin gwamnati game da hakkin 'yan asalin yankin. A shekarar 2000, wannan salon gwagwarmaya ya yi nasara wajen ingiza gwamnatin Indiya ta yi watsi da shirinsu na mayar da kabilar Jarawa wacce ta kebanta da ita, bayan ta karbi wasiku 150-200 a kowace rana daga magoya bayan Tsira a duk duniya. Jim kaɗan gabanin hakan, gwamnan yammacin Siberia ya kafa dokar hana duk lasisin mai a yankin Yugan Khanty cikin 'yan makonnin da Tsira ta fitar da sanarwa. Har ila yau, Tsira ita ce ƙungiya ta farko da ta jawo hankali game da tasirin ayyukan Bankin Duniya - wanda yanzu aka gane a matsayin babban abin da ke haifar da wahala a yawancin ƙasashe matalauta taron.

Tsira ita ce ƙungiya ta ƙungiyoyin ƙabilanci ta ƙasa da ƙasa da ta karɓi kyautar Kyauta ta Rayuwa, da Spanish 'Premio Léon Felipe' da 'Medaglia della Presidenza della Camera dei Deputati' na ƙasar Italiya.

Tsarin da manufofin[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kungiyar Tattalin Arziki ta Duniya tana aiki don haƙƙin al'ummomin kabilanci a matakan girma guda uku: ilimi, ba da shawara da kamfen. Har ila yau, yana ba wa kabilun dandamali don magance duniya, yayin haɗuwa da ƙungiyoyin asali na gida, tare da mai da hankali kan mutanen kabilun da ke fuskantar barazanar gaggawa daga tuntuɓar waje. Shirye-shiryen ilimin suna nufin mutane ne a cikin Yammacin duniya, da nufin "rusa labarin almara da ke cewa mutanen kabilu kayan tarihi ne, waɗanda aka ƙaddara su halaka ta hanyar 'ci gaba' '. Tsira tana neman inganta girmama al'adunsu da kuma bayyana dacewar su a yau wajen kiyaye hanyar rayuwarsu.

Kungiyar tana da magoya baya a ƙasashe 82. Ana buga littattafansa cikin harsuna da yawa a duk duniya. Kungiya ce ta rijista a Kingdomasar Ingila kuma daidai take a cikin Jamus, Faransa, Italia, Spain da Amurka, kuma tana iya karɓar gudummawar da ba haraji a cikin Netherlands .

Rayuwa ta ƙi tallafin gwamnati, ya dogara ne kawai da taimakon jama'a, don tabbatar da 'yancin aiwatarwa. Duk mutanen da aka turo filin sun kasance daga ma'aikatan International Survival International, babu ɗayan masu aikin sa kai ko baƙi na kowane nau'i. Ana aiwatar da ayyukan ƙasashen waje ta hanyar kabilu da kansu.

Kabilu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Akwai fiye da 150 miliyan kabilu a duk duniya, gami da aƙalla mutane 100 da ba a sadu da su ba a cikin ƙasashe 60. Vungiyar Survival International tana tallafawa waɗannan kabilun da ke cikin haɗari a matakin duniya, tare da kamfen da aka kafa a Amurka, Afirka da Asiya. Yawancinsu an tsananta musu kuma suna fuskantar kisan ƙare dangi ta hanyar cututtuka da wasu illolon, ƙaura daga gidajensu ta hanyar sare bishiyoyi da haƙar ma'adinai, da kuma korar mutanen da suka zauna.

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Rayuwa ta yi imanin cewa haƙƙin 'yan ƙasa na mallakar ƙasa, duk da cewa dokokin ƙasa sun yarda da shi, ba a mutunta su yadda ya kamata, tare da mamaye kabilu ta hanyar ayyuka kamar hakar mai da ma'adinai, sare bishiyoyi, kiwon shanu, basu damar zaman kansu ko shirin' ci gaban 'gwamnati kamar gina hanyoyi da madatsun ruwa, ko don wuraren ajiyar yanayi da wuraren shakatawa. Bayan waɗannan abubuwan tattalin arziki don mamayewar mamayewa, Tsira yana nuna jahilci da wariyar launin fata wanda ke ganin mutanen ƙabila a matsayin ci baya da dadadden tarihi. Tsira ta yi imanin cewa a cikin dogon lokaci, ra'ayin jama'a shine mafi tasiri ga canji.

An bayyana tasirin duniyar waje akan wanzuwar 'yan asalin ƙasar da al'adunsu a matsayin abin birgewa sosai. A Siberia, kashi 10 cikin 100 na mutanen kabilun suna rayuwa ne ta ƙaura ko ta ƙaura, idan aka kwatanta da kashi 70% shekaru 30 da suka gabata. A cikin Brazil - inda Survival ke imani da cewa yawancin kabilun duniya da ba a sadar da su ba, wataƙila sama da 50, ance suna rayuwa - akwai masu magana kusan 400 don harsuna 110. Ga marubuta kamar su Daniel Everett, wannan lamari yana wakiltar mummunan hari kan wanzuwar mutane, yayin da harshe ke bayyana yadda ƙungiyar mutane ke fuskantar gaskiya a wata hanya ta musamman, kuma yana daga cikin al'adunmu na yau da kullun. Ranka Bjeljac-Babic, malami kuma kwararre a fannin ilimin harshe, ya bayyana alaƙa ta asali da ta haddasawa tsakanin barazanar bambancin halittu da bambancin al'adu. An bayyana cin zarafin al'adun gargajiya da al'adun gargajiyar a matsayin wani ɓangare na cin zarafi mafi girma a kan rayuwa, tare da tushen tarihin mallaka . Rahoton Tsira da Ci gaba na iya Kashe haskakawa cewa mamayewar Amurka da Ostiraliya da Turawa suka yi ya kawar da kashi 90% na 'yan asalin ƙasar a waɗannan nahiyoyin. Barazanar kisan kare dangi na ci gaba.

Most fundamentally, Survival believes that it is the respect for the right to keep their land that may allow them to survive. The issues of human rights and freedom depend on the land on which they can subsist and develop according to their own culture. Interference with this basic need endangers their capacity to live sustainably.

In January 2019, the newly elected president of Brazil Jair Bolsonaro stripped the indigenous affairs agency FUNAI of the responsibility to identify and demarcate indigenous lands. He argued that those territories have very tiny isolated populations and proposed to integrate them into the larger Brazilian society. According to the Survival International, "Taking responsibility for indigenous land demarcation away from FUNAI, the Indian affairs department, and giving it to the Agriculture Ministry is virtually a declaration of open warfare against Brazil’s tribal peoples."

Gangamin[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kungiyoyin dan Tattalin Arziki na forasashen duniya don ƙabilun da ba a sadu da su ba a cikin yankin na Peru, da yawa daga cikin indan asali waɗanda ba a san su ba a cikin Brazil, Rasha, West Papua, da kusan kabilu 30 a ƙasashe da yawa a Kudancin Amurka, Afirka da Asiya. Suna zaɓar shari'arsu bisa la'akari da ma'aunin da ƙungiyar ta kafa, wanda ya dogara da abubuwa da dama, kamar aminci da ci gaba da bayanin, yanayin yanayin da ƙabilar da ake magana a kanta ke fuskanta, matakin da suka yi imani da shi ayyukansu na iya kawo canji na gaske, gwargwadon yadda ingantawa a wannan yanki zai haifar da tasiri ga wasu, ko akwai wata ƙungiya da ta riga ta fara aiki a kan lamarin, kuma ko suna da tabbacin abin da mutane da kansu suke so.

Babban barazana ga kabilun da yakin neman tsira shine mamaye ƙasashensu don bincika albarkatu. Wannan koyaushe yana haifar da ƙaura tilastawa, asarar dorewa da tilasta canje-canje ta hanyar rayuwarsu. Mati Yawancin lokaci, wannan yana tare da cututtuka daga haɗuwa da waɗanda ke waje waɗanda suke da tsarin rigakafi marasa shiri - wannan barazanar ita kaɗai na iya shafe ƙabilun baki ɗaya. Garkuwa da / ko masu kiwon shanu sun shafi mafi yawan waɗannan ƙabilun, daga Kudancin Amurka, Afirka zuwa Australasia. Arhuaco, a cikin Kolombiya, suna da gonakin magani, masu alaƙa da musayar wuta daga yaƙe-yaƙe tsakanin ƙungiyoyi da bukatun gwamnati. Ogiek, a Kenya, suna da gonakin shayi, kuma Amungme a Indonesia, San a Botswana, Dongria Kondh a Indiya, da Palawan a Philippines suna da wuraren hakar ma'adinai.

File:Survival-countries.PNG
Kasashe waɗanda ke da indan asali waɗanda foran tsira na kamfen ɗin su. Wannan taswirar tana wakiltar kusan indan asalin miliyan 5. Akwai 'yan asalin asali sama da miliyan 300 a duniya, tare da kimanin ƙabilu 100 da ba a taɓa tattaunawa da su ba.

Sauran sashen duniya masu tsira sun kuma nuna a cikin kamfen ɗin su game da cin zarafin da ake yi a kan hanyar su ta rayuwa sakamakon aikin mishan. Arhuaco, Ayoreo, Aborigines, Innu da kabilu da yawa a Yammacin Papua duk sun gamu da mummunan hari akan al'adunsu daga menene, za'a iya cewa a mahangar Tsira, na iya zama kyakkyawar niyya, amma duk da haka yana lalata rayuwar su. 'Ya'yan Khanty da Wanniyala-Aetto an sace su don su girma cikin addinai da al'adun kasashen waje. A cikin dogon lokaci, waɗannan ayyukan suna cin nasara cikin haɗuwa da lalata rukunin mutane.

Baya ga shan wahalar kisan kare dangi da aka kawo ta cuta da yunwa (wanda hakan ya samo asali ne sakamakon rasa muhallinsu da kuma sata ƙasa mai kyau daga gare su), Survival sun ce wasu kabilun sun sha fama da kamfen na kisan kai tsaye. Yawancin kabilun da ke Kudancin Amurka, kamar su Awá, Akuntsu, Guaraní da Yanomami, an kashe su ne a gaban ma’aikatan kasashe daban-daban, masu kiwo da ‘yan bindiga don haya, yayin da kabilun Afirka da Asiya suka sha fama da kisan gilla a hannun gwamnati. . Kungiyar vasa ta Duniya ta nuna ƙabilar Akuntsu, daga cikin mambobi biyar kawai suka rage, a matsayin misali na abin da wannan barazanar ke wakilta: a ƙarshe kisan ƙare dangi ga dukan mutane.

Kungiyar Tattalin Arziki ta Duniya ta yi kira ga hankali game da ƙaruwar kashe kansa a cikin kabilu kamar Innu, Aborigines na Australiya da Guarani, sakamakon tsoma baki a waje da al'adun kabilun da kuma tsanantawa kai tsaye. Cutuwa ko Wahalar da baƙin ciki na tilasta yin kaura, da yawa daga cikin kabilun sun sami kansu cikin yanke kauna suna rayuwa a cikin yanayin da ba su saba da shi ba, inda babu wani abu mai amfani da za a yi, kuma inda sabbin maƙwabta suke musu ƙyamar wariyar launin fata. Sauran illolin zamantakewar jama'a daga wannan kaura an nuna su ne ga shaye-shaye da tashin hankali, tare da kamfen ɗin da ke ba da rahoton ƙarar Innu, Mursi, Bodi, Konso da Wanniyala-Aetto . Mutanen ƙabilu kuma sun fi fuskantar matsalar yin lalata da su. Daga cikin kabilun da Survival International ta yi yakin neman zabe tare da su, an ba da rahoton fyade na ’yan mata da mata daga ma’aikatan kamfanoni masu mamaye yankin kabilun‘ yan asalin na Penan, Yammacin Papuan, Jummas da Jarawa .

Matsayin gwamnati a cikin waɗannan yankuna ya bambanta. Yawancin kabilun Brazil suna da kariya a ƙarƙashin doka, yayin da a zahiri akwai tsayin daka a cikin manufofi da ƙaƙƙarfan goyon baya ga kamfanonin da ke aiwatar da waɗannan barazanar game da rayuwarsu. A cikin Afirka, an tsananta wa kabilun San da sauran kabilu da duka da azabtarwa don tilasta ƙaura, da kisan kai a cikin Nuba, da cikin Bangladesh, Asiya, tare da Jummas. Wani loaci dole gwamnati ke bada diyya ga Survival suka yi imani da su ba wasu abubuwa ne da ba a so don ƙabilun, waɗanda aka nuna a matsayin "cigaba".

A watan Afrilu na shekarar 2012, kungiyar ta Survival International ta kaddamar da wani kamfen a duk duniya, tare da goyan bayan dan wasan kwaikwayo Colin Firth, don kare mutanen Awa-Guajá na Brazil, wanda kungiyar ke ganin su ne "kabilar da ta fi fuskantar barazana a duniya".

A ƙarshen shekarata 2015, Survival International ta fara yakin neman dakatar da Con, wanda ke neman wayar da kan jama'a game da mummunan tasirin manufofin kiyaye al'adun gargajiyar kan kabilun. Wannan kamfen din wani bangare ne na babbar yakin neman tsira a duniya game da kiyayewa.

Kulawa da 'yan jarida[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kungiyar Survival International ta sami ɗan kulawa a cikin kafofin watsa labarai tsawon shekaru tare da kamfen da aikin magoya bayan sa kai. Wasu daga cikin abubuwan da aka amince da su sun hada da Richard Gere, wanda ya yi magana game da Jumma na Bangladesh, Julie Christie, wacce ta ba da Rediyo 4 a madadin Khanty na Siberia, Judi Dench, wanda ya yi gargadin abubuwan da suka faru game da Arhuaco na Colombia, da Colin Firth, wanda yayi magana game da korar ƙabilar San, kuma don nuna goyon baya ga mutanen Awa-Guajá.

Koyaya, kafofin watsa labarai ba koyaushe suke tausayawa kungiyar ba. A cikin 1995, Hukumar Talabijin mai zaman kanta ta hana ɗayan tallace-tallace na vasashen Duniya na Tsira, ta ambaci Dokar Watsa Labarai ta 1990, wacce ta ce ƙungiyoyi ba za su iya tallata ayyukansu ba idan ya kasance cikakke ne ko kuma galibi na yanayin siyasa. An watsa tallan a tashar tashar kiɗa The Box da kuma tauraron dan adam na MTV wanda ke kan hanyar VH-1 . Richard Gere ya fitar da sanarwar yana kira ga masu kallo da su taimaka don dakatar da kisan mutane da kuma amfani da su da ake yi wa kabilu.

An sake samun sabani bayan wata kasida a cikin jaridar The Observer ta jefa shakku da tsoro a kan rahoton da Survival International ta bayar game da wata kabila da ba a sadu da ita ba a cikin Peru, wanda ya hada da hoto tare da 'yan kabilun suna harba kibiyoyi a jirgin sama. Bayan wani artabu mai zafi da aka kwashe watanni ana yi, tare da barazanar kai Survival International a kotu don yin batanci, The Observer ya ƙare da yarda a watan Agusta 2008 cewa labarin ya sa ba daidai ba. A cikin wani bayani, jaridar ta ce: "Duk da cewa The Observer ba za ta iya daukar nauyin bayanan wasu kafofin watsa labarai ba amma tana da aiki a karkashin Dokar Editocin kada ta buga 'bayanai marasa inganci, ko yaudara ko gurbatattu'. Ya fadi a cikin wannan aikin a nan. ”

Gwamnatin Botswana, wacce Survival International ta samu sabani na dogon lokaci tare da ita game da yadda gwamnati ke kula da mutanen San a Babban Tsibirin Tsari na Kalahari, ta koka game da yadda labarai ba daidai ba a manyan kafofin watsa labarai. 'Yan San sun kalubalanci gwamnati a kotu sau da yawa game da' yancinsu na ci gaba da kasancewa a yankinsu ba tare da tsangwama ba. Ian Khama, Shugaban kasar Botswana, ya bayyana cewa, Kungiyar Tattalin Arziki ta Duniya "tana hana su kuma musamman yaransu damar da za su iya girma tare da yadda ake amfani da su," wanda hakan ke tilastawa 'yan asalin su ci gaba da "rayuwa mai matukar koma baya". An yi zargin cewa gwamnatin Botswana "ta umarci dukkan shugabannin sashe a kafafen yada labaran kasar da su tabbatar da cewa duk wani rahoto mara kyau game da sauya wuraren da ake takaddama daga Central Kalahari Game Reserve (CKGR) ya kamata a bambanta shi sosai da bayanan gwamnati da ake nema yanzu." A cikin watan Mayu na 2013, Survival International ta zargi gwamnati da shirin korar San daga gidajensu a Ranyane . Wakilin gwamnati Jeff Ramsay ya Sha musanta wannan zargin kuma ya bayyana Survival International a matsayin "kungiyar ba da wariyar launin fata". Daga baya kungiyar ta 'Survival International' ta ruwaito cewa a ranar 28 ga watan Mayu, Babbar Kotun Botswana ta yanke hukuncin dakatar da korar mutanen har zuwa tsakiyar watan Yuni. An rawaito wani mai fafutukar kare hakkin dan adam na kungiyar ta Survival International yana cewa, "Ban san yadda gwamnati za ta ce babu shari'ar ba, kuma ba su shirin korar su a lokacin da Ranyane Bushmen ke kai gwamnatin kasar kotu don a daina cire ta. " Daraktan Majalisar Khwedom, Keibakile Mogodu, ya ce, "Mun yi ta tattaunawa a kan batun tare da jami'an gwamnati, eh zan iya tabbatar da cewa gwamnati ta kamata ta koma [Basarwa] dari shida a ranar Litinin, [27 ga Mayu]." An shigar da kara a madadin San.

A cikin shekarata 2005, Tsira ta buga littafin Akwai Ka Tafi! ( Oren Ginzburg ), wanda ke nuna al'umman ƙabila da ci gaban ya cutar da su. Duka a jumlar littafin, Stephen Corry ya rubuta: "'Ci gaban' mutanen kabilu ba tare da son ransu ba - da gaske don barin wasu su sami ƙasarsu da albarkatunsu - ya samo asali ne daga mulkin mallaka na ƙarni na 19 ('Mun sani mafi kyau') sun shiga cikin ƙarni na 20 ' siyasa daidai 'euphemism. Al’ummomin kabilu ba koma baya ba ne: al’umma ce masu zaman kansu kuma masu kuzari waɗanda, kamar kowane ɗayanmu koyaushe, koyaushe suna dacewa da canjin duniya. Babban bambanci tsakanin mutanen kabilu da mu shine mun dauki ƙasarsu da albarkatun su, kuma munyi imanin marasa gaskiya, har ma masu wariyar launin fata, suna da'awar cewa don amfanin kansu ne. Cin nasara, ba ci gaba ba. Idan da gaske kuna son fahimtar abin da ke faruwa, karanta wannan littafin. "

Kungiyar Survival International ta ƙarfafa magoya bayanta su yi amfani da kafofin watsa labarai da yawa don yada wayar da kan jama'a game da batun haƙƙin 'yan ƙasa. A cikin jagorar Walk your Talk, kungiyar tana ba da nasihu kan ayyuka daban-daban, daga rubuta wasiku zuwa gwamnatoci, zuwa yada maganar ta hanyar daukar nauyi, takardu, zanga-zanga, nuna finafinai, da karbar kudi daga abubuwa da dama.

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Rayuwar Al'adu
  • Sanarwa game da Hakkokin Indan Asalin
  • Abokan Mutanen Kusa da Yanayi
  • Waƙoƙi don Rayuwa

Bayani[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

 

Majiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  •   (first published by Granada, 1984)
  1. Norman Lewis, “Genocide,” Sunday Times Magazine, 23 February 1969, pp. 34–59.
  2. Hanbury-Tenison, 1991. pp 125–126