Abun Rufe Fuska Na Gargajiya

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Kasashen Afirka inda ake amfani da abin rufe fuska a al'adance

Abubuwan rufe fuska na gargajiya na Afirka suna taka muhimmiyar rawa a wasu al'adu da bukukuwan gargajiya na Afirka.

Masks suna taka muhimmiyar rawa a cikin al'adu ko bukukuwa tare da dalilai daban-daban kamar tabbatar da gurbi mai kyau, magance bukatun kabilanci a lokutan zaman lafiya ko yaƙi, ko isar da kasancewar ruhaniya a cikin al'adar dake faraway ko bikin binnewa. Wasu abin rufe fuska suna wakiltar ruhin kakanni da suka mutu. Wasu suna wakiltar dabbobin totem, halittu masu mahimmanci ga wani dangi ko rukuni. A wasu al'adu, kamar wasu al'adun kuba na Jamhuriyar Dimokaradiyyar Kwango, abin rufe fuska na wakiltar takamaiman mutane a tatsuniyar kabilanci, kamar sarki ko kishiya ga mai mulki.

An yi imanin wanda ya sa abin rufe fuska sau da yawa zai iya yin magana da wanda aka kwatanta da shi, ko kuma ya mallaki wanda ko abin da abin rufe fuska yake wakilta.

Dogon bikin mask a amfani

Al'adu da abin rufe fuska wani muhimmin fasali ne na al'adun gargajiya na al'ummar wani yanki na Afirka kudu da hamadar Sahara, misali tsakanin Sahara da hamadar Kalahari . Sannan kuma Yayin da takamaiman abubuwan da ke tattare da abin rufe fuska na al'ada sun bambanta a cikin al'adu daban-daban, wasu halaye sun zama ruwan dare ga yawancin al'adun Afirka . Misali, abin rufe fuska yawanci yana da ma’ana ta ruhaniya da ta addini kuma ana amfani da su a cikin raye-rayen al’ada da al’amuran zamantakewa da na addini, kuma ana danganta matsayi na musamman ga masu fasaha da ke yin abin rufe fuska ga masu sanya su a cikin bukukuwa. Kuma A mafi yawan lokuta, yin abin rufe fuska wata fasaha ce da ake yadawa daga uba zuwa ɗa, tare da sanin ma'anar ma'anar da waɗannan masks ɗin ke bayarwa. Sannan Masks na Afirka sun zo cikin kowane launi daban-daban, kamar ja, baƙar fata, orange, da launin ruwan kasa.

A yawancin al'adun Afirka na gargajiya, mutumin da ya sa abin rufe fuska a zahiri ya rasa ransa na ɗan adam kuma ya koma ruhun da abin rufe fuska yake wakilta. [1] Wannan canji na mai abin rufe fuska zuwa ruhi yawanci yakan dogara ne da wasu ayyuka, kamar takamaiman nau'ikan kiɗa da raye-raye, ko kuma kayan ado na al'ada waɗanda ke ba da gudummawa ga zubar da ainihin ɗan adam mai rufe fuska. Don haka mai sanya abin rufe fuska ya zama wani nau'in matsakaici wanda ke ba da damar tattaunawa tsakanin al'umma da ruhohi (yawanci na matattu ko ruhohin da ke da alaƙa). Kuma raye-rayen da aka rufe fuska wani bangare ne na yawancin bukukuwan gargajiya na Afirka da ke da alaka da bukukuwan aure, jana'izar, bukukuwan qaddamarwa, da kuma sauransu. Wasu daga cikin mafi sarkakiya da masana suka yi nazari a kansu, ana samun su a al’adun Nijeriya irin na Yarabawa da na Edo, al’adun da ke da kamanceceniya da ra’ayin wasan kwaikwayo na yammacin Turai. [2]

Tunda kowane abin rufe fuska yana da takamaiman ma'ana ta ruhaniya, yawancin al'adun sun ƙunshi masarukan gargajiya daban-daban. Addinin gargajiya na mutanen Dogon na Mali, alal misali, ya ƙunshi manyan ƙungiyoyin asiri guda uku ( Awa ko ƙungiyar matattu, Bini ko ƙungiyar sadarwa da ruhohi, da Lebe ko ɗabi'a); kowane ɗayan waɗannan yana da ruhohin ruhohi, wanda ya dace da nau'ikan masks guda 78 gabaɗaya. Kuma Sau da yawa yakan faru cewa ingancin zane-zane da rikitarwa na abin rufe fuska yana nuna mahimmancin dangi na ruhun da aka kwatanta a cikin tsarin imani na wasu mutane; alal misali, abin rufe fuska mafi sauƙi kamar su kple kple mutanen Baoulé na Cote d’Ivoire (ainihin da’irar da ke da ƙananan idanu, baki da ƙaho) suna da alaƙa da ƙananan ruhohi. [3]

Masks na ɗaya daga cikin abubuwan manyan fasahar Afirka waɗanda a bayyane suka yi tasiri ga fasahar Turai da Yammacin Turai gabaɗaya ; kuma a cikin karni na ashirin, ƙungiyoyin fasaha irin su cubism, fauvism da kuma expressionism sau da yawa sun ɗauki wahayi daga ɗimbin al'adun gargajiya na Afirka. [4] Hakanan ana iya samun tasirin wannan gadon a cikin wasu al'adu kamar su Kudu- da Amurka ta tsakiya da abin rufe fuska na Carnival .

Maudu'i da salo[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Masks na Afirka galibi ana yin su ne da siffar fuskar mutum ko wani lankwasa na dabba, duk da cewa ana yin su ta wani nau'i na musamman. Kuma Rashin hakikanin gaskiya a cikin abin rufe fuska na Afirka (da fasahar Afirka gabaɗaya) ya cancanta ta hanyar gaskiyar cewa yawancin al'adun Afirka sun bambanta ainihin batun a fili daga kamanninsa, na farko, maimakon na ƙarshe, sannan kasancewar ainihin batun wakilcin fasaha. Kuma An ba da misali mai matuƙar ƙaƙƙarfan abin rufe fuska na nwantantay na mutanen Bwa ( Burkina Faso ) waɗanda ke wakiltar ruhohin dajin; tun da ana ganin waɗannan ruhohin ba za su iya gani ba, mashin ɗin da ya dace suna da siffa bayan m, siffofi na geometric zalla.

Abubuwa masu salo a cikin kamannin abin rufe fuska an tsara su ta al'adar kuma suna iya gano takamaiman al'umma ko kuma su ba da takamaiman ma'ana. Misali, mutanen Bwa da Buna na Burkina Faso duka suna da abin rufe fuska na shaho, tare da kuma siffar baki da ke nuna abin rufe fuska kamar Bwa ko Buna. Kuma A cikin duka biyun, an ƙawata fikafikan shaho da sifofi na geometric waɗanda ke da ma'anar ɗabi'a; Layukan da aka yi da gani suna wakiltar tafarki mai wuyar da kuma kakanni ke bi, yayin da sifofi da aka duba suna wakiltar mu'amalar abokan gaba (namiji-mace, daren dare, da sauransu) [5]

Ana samun halaye masu wakiltar ɗabi'u a cikin al'adu da yawa. Masks daga mutanen Senufo na Ivory Coast, alal misali, idanunsu sun rufe rabin rabi, suna nuna halin zaman lafiya, kamun kai, da haƙuri. A Saliyo da sauran wurare, ƙananan idanu da baki suna wakiltar tawali'u, kuma faffadan gaban goshi mai faɗi yana wakiltar hikima. Kuma A Gabon, manyan haɓɓaka da baki suna wakiltar iko da ƙarfi. [5] Grebo na Ivory Coast ya sassaƙa abin rufe fuska tare da zagaye idanu don wakiltar faɗakarwa da fushi, tare da madaidaiciyar hanci yana wakiltar rashin son ja da baya. [5]

Dabbobi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Mashin giwaye da raye-rayen gargajiya zuwa Oku, Kamaru

Dabbobi batutuwa ne na gama gari a cikin abin rufe fuska na Afirka. Abin rufe fuska na dabba yana iya wakiltar ruhin dabbobi, ta yadda mai saka abin rufe fuska ya zama mai magana da dabbobi da kansu (misali don neman namomin daji su nisanci ƙauyen); kuma a yawancin lokuta, duk da haka, dabba ma (wani lokaci galibi) alama ce ta takamaiman kyawawan halaye. Sannan kuma Abubuwan dabbobi na yau da kullun sun haɗa da buffalo (yawanci yana wakiltar ƙarfi, kamar yadda yake a cikin al'adun Baoulé), [6] kada, shaho, hyena, warthog da tururuwa . Antelopes suna da muhimmiyar rawa a yawancin al'adu na yankin Mali (misali a cikin al'adun Dogon da Bambara ) a matsayin wakilan noma . [7] Dogon tururuwa masks ne sosai m, tare da gaba ɗaya siffar rectangular da yawa ƙaho (wakilta mai yawa girbi. Mashin bambara (wanda ake kira chiwara ) suna da dogayen ƙahoni da ke wakiltar bunƙasar gero, ƙafafu (suna wakiltar tushen), dogayen kunnuwa (waɗanda ke wakiltar waƙoƙin da mata masu aiki suka rera a lokacin girbi), da kuma layi mai siffa wanda ke wakiltar hanyar da aka bi. by Rana tsakanin solstices . [6] Wani bangon bango na karni na 12/13 daga Old Dongola, babban birnin masarautar Nubian na Makuria, sannan kuma yana nuna abin rufe fuska na raye-raye da aka yi wa ado da harsashi na cowrie suna kwaikwayon wasu dabbobi masu dogon hanci da manyan kunnuwa. [8]

Bambance-bambancen gama gari akan jigon abin rufe fuska shine nau'in halayen dabbobi daban-daban a cikin abin rufe fuska guda ɗaya, wani lokacin tare da halayen ɗan adam. Sannan Haɗa nau'ikan dabbobi daban-daban tare wani lokaci hanya ce ta wakiltar wani sabon abu, kyawawan halaye na musamman ko babban matsayi. Alal misali, ƙungiyoyin asirin Poro na mutanen Senufo na Ivory Coast suna da abin rufe fuska waɗanda ke nuna kyakkyawan ikon al'umma ta hanyar haɗa alamomin "haɗari" daban-daban guda uku: ƙahonin tururuwa, haƙoran kada, da kuma ɓangarorin warthog. [9] Wani sanannen misali shi ne na kifwebe masks na mutanen Songye ( Kongo basin ), waɗanda ke haɗa ratsi na zebra (ko okapi ), haƙoran kada, idanun hawainiya, bakin aardvark, bakin zakara, gashin mujiya da sauransu. [6]

Kyawun mata[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Wani batu na yau da kullun na abin rufe fuska na Afirka shine fuskar mace, yawanci bisa ƙayyadaddun al'ada na kyawawan mata . Kuma Makullin mata na mutanen Punu na Gabon, alal misali, suna da dogon gashin idanu masu lanƙwasa, idanu masu siffar almond, siraran haɓɓaka, da kayan ado na gargajiya a kumatunsu, domin duk waɗannan ana ɗaukarsu halaye masu kyau. [3] Makullin mata na mutanen Baga suna da tabo na ado da nono. A yawancin lokuta, sanya abin rufe fuska da ke wakiltar kyawun mata an keɓe shi sosai ga maza. [5]

Ɗaya daga cikin sanannun wakilcin kyawawan mata shine Idia mask na Benin . Kuma An yi imanin cewa Sarkin Benin Esigie ne ya ba da umarnin tunawa da mahaifiyarsa. Domin girmama mahaifiyarsa da ta mutu, sarki ya sanya abin rufe fuska a kugunsa a lokacin bukukuwa na musamman. [10]

Masks na matattu (mask na matattu)[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Da yake girmama kakanni da suka mutu wani muhimmin abu ne na yawancin al'adun gargajiya na Afirka, kuma ba abin mamaki ba ne cewa matattu kuma batun gama gari ne na abin rufe fuska. Masks da ke magana game da matattun kakanni ana yin su ne da siffar kwanyar mutum . Wani sanannen misali shi ne mwana pwo (a zahiri, "mace mace") na mutanen Chokwe ( Angola ), wanda ke haɗuwa da abubuwa masu magana da kyau na mace (daidaitaccen fuska mai kyau, ƙananan hanci da chin) da sauran suna nufin mutuwa ( dusar ƙanƙara na idanu, fashewar fata, da hawaye; yana wakiltar kakanin mace da ya mutu yana ƙarami, wanda aka girmama a cikin ayyukan ibada kamar kaciya da bukukuwan da ke da alaƙa da sabunta rayuwa. [11] Kamar yadda ake danganta girmama matattu da haihuwa da kuma haifuwa, kuma yawancin abin rufe fuska na kakanni ma suna da alamun jima'i; abin rufe fuska na ndeemba na mutanen Yaka (Angola da DR Congo ), alal misali, kuma ana yin su ne bayan kwanyar da aka cika da hanci mai siffar fata. [12]

Wani nau'i na musamman na abin rufe fuska na kakanni sune waɗanda ke da alaƙa da sanannun mutane, tarihi ko almara. Mashin mwaash amboy na mutanen Kuba (DR Congo), alal misali, yana wakiltar almara wanda ya kafa Masarautar Kuba, Woot, yayin da mgady amwaash mask ke wakiltar matarsa Mweel. [13]

Kayan aiki da tsari[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Abubuwan da aka fi amfani da su don masks shine itace, ko da yake ana iya amfani da nau'i-nau'i iri-iri na sauran abubuwa, ciki har da dutse mai haske kamar steatite, karafa irin su jan karfe ko tagulla, nau'in masana'anta daban-daban, tukwane, da kuma sauransu. Ana fentin wasu abin rufe fuska (misali ta amfani da ocher ko wasu masu launin halitta). Kuma Za a iya amfani da abubuwa masu yawa na kayan ado a saman abin rufe fuska; misalan sun haɗa da gashin dabba, ƙaho, ko hakora, bawo na teku, tsaba, bambaro, harsashi kwai, da fuka-fukan. Sannan kuma Ana yawan amfani da gashin dabba ko bambaro don gashin abin rufe fuska ko gemu.

Tsarin gaba ɗaya na abin rufe fuska ya bambanta dangane da yadda ake son sawa. Kuma Nau'in da aka fi sani da shi ya shafi fuskar mai sawa, kamar yawancin abin rufe fuska na yamma (misali, carnival). Wasu kuma ana sawa kamar hula a saman kan mai sawa; Misalai sun hada da na mutanen Ekhoi na Najeriya da na Bwa na Burkina Faso, da kuma shahararrun mashin chiwara na mutanen Bambara. [6] Wasu abin rufe fuska (misali na al'ummar Sande na Laberiya da na Mende na Saliyo, waɗanda aka yi da kututturen bishiya) ana sawa kamar kwalkwali da ke rufe kai da fuska. Wasu al'adun Afirka suna da kayan ado masu kama da abin rufe fuska waɗanda ake sawa a ƙirji maimakon kan fuska; kuma sannan wannan ya hada da wadanda mutanen Makonde na Gabashin Afirka ke amfani da su wajen bukukuwan ndimu . [14]

Masks da aka samar da kasuwanci[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kamar yadda Turawa ke amfani da abin rufe fuska na Afirka, ana sayar da su sosai kuma ana sayar da su a mafi yawan kasuwanni da shagunan yawon buɗe ido a Afirka (da kuma shagunan "ƙabilanci" a Yammacin duniya ). Kuma Sakamakon haka, fasahar yin abin rufe fuska ta gargajiya a hankali ta daina zama gata, al'adar da ke da alaƙa, kuma yawan samar da abin rufe fuska ya yaɗu. Duk da yake, a mafi yawan lokuta, masks na kasuwanci sune (mafi ko žasa da aminci) haifuwa na kayan masarufi na gargajiya, wannan haɗin yana raguwa a tsawon lokaci, kamar yadda dabaru na samar da taro ya sa ya fi wuya a gano ainihin asalin yanki da al'adu na masks da aka samu a ciki. wurare kamar shagunan curio da kasuwannin yawon bude ido. Misali, kasuwar Okahandja a Namibiya galibi tana sayar da abin rufe fuska da ake samarwa a Zimbabwe (saboda suna da rahusa da sauki fiye da abin rufe fuska na gida), kuma, bi da bi, kuma masu yin abin rufe fuska na Zimbabwe suna haifar da abin rufe fuska daga kusan ko'ina a Afirka maimakon daga nasu. nasu gadon gida.

Duba wasu abubuwan[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

 

  • Fasahar kabilanci
  • Fasahar Afirka
  • sassaken Afirka
  • Zaman Picasso na Afirka
  • FESTIMA, biki ne na bikin al'adun gargajiya
  • Toloy

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. This idea has been literally portrayed in the well-known novel Things Fall Apart by Nigerian writer Chief Chinua Achebe. While the author hints at the importance of the masks themselves in the same novel, masked elders are particularly hostile towards the missionaries, a symbolic representation of the opposition of traditional Nigerian culture (as represented by the mask-spirits) and the new values brought along by European Christians.
  2. Analogies between Nigerian ceremonies and the theatre of Ancient Greece (as well as the Western theatre in general) have been developed by the Nobel Prize winning Nigerian writer Chief Wole Soyinka. Soyinka wrote dramas based on the Yoruba traditions and, conversely, he has "africanized" classical works of the Western theatre such as Euripides' The Bacchae or Bertolt Brecht's The Threepenny Opera.
  3. 3.0 3.1 See Faces of the Spirit
  4. Fauvism Archived 2011-08-11 at the Wayback Machine at Art Snap
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 See African Masks Symbolism
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 See African Masks
  7. Many agricultural societies and associations in Mali have a stylized representation of an antelope in their symbols.
  8. Martens-Czarnecka 2008.
  9. See Icons of Power
  10. See Bortolot
  11. A male variant of this mask is called cihongo.
  12. See Images of Ancestors
  13. See Portraits of Rulers
  14. See Physical characteristics of African Tribal Masks

Manazartai[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Hanyoyin haɗi na waje[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

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