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Fasahar Afirka

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Fasahar Afirka
art of an area (en) Fassara
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na art of the Earth (en) Fassara
Bangare na Al'adun Afirka
Facet of (en) Fassara Afirka
Significant person (en) Fassara Fathi Hassan (en) Fassara, Ben Enwonwu da El Anatsui
Nahiya Afirka

Fasahar Afirka ta bayyana zane-zane na zamani da na tarihi, siffofi, shigarwa, da sauran al'adu na gani daga ƴan asalin Afirka ko ƴan asalin Afirka da nahiyar Afirka. Ma'anar na iya haɗawa da fasahar Afirka, kamar: Afirkawan-Amurka, Caribbean ko fasaha a cikin al'ummomin Kudancin Amurka waɗanda al'adun Afirka suka yi wahayi zuwa gare su. Duk da wannan bambancin kuma, akwai jigogi na fasaha da ke tattare da juna yayin la'akari da dukkan al'adun gani daga nahiyar Afirka.[1]

Ginin tukwane, aikin ƙarfe, zane-zane, gine-gine, zane-zanen masana'antu da zane-zanensa sune mahimman siffofin zane-zane a duk faɗin Afirka kuma ana iya haɗa su a cikin nazarin fasahar Afirka. Kalmar "Fasahar Afirka" yawanci ba ta haɗa da fasahar yankunan Arewacin Afirka a bakin tekun Bahar Rum, saboda irin waɗannan yankuna sun kasance wani ɓangare na al'adu daban-daban. Fiye da shekaru dubu, fasahar irin waɗannan yankuna sun zama wani ɓangare na Berber ko fasahar Islama, kodayake suna da halaye da yawa na gida.

Fasahar Habasha, tare da kuma doguwar al'adar Kirista, ta bambanta da na mafi yawan Afirka, inda addinin gargajiya na Afirka (tare da Islama a arewa) ya kasance mai rinjaye har zuwa karni na 20.[2] Fasahar Afirka ta haɗa da fasahar prehistoric da tsohuwar, fasahar Islama ta Yammacin Afirka, fasahar Kirista ta Gabashin Afirka, da kayan gargajiya na waɗannan da sauran yankuna. Yawancin siffofin Afirka sun kasance a tarihi a cikin itace da sauran kayan halitta waɗanda ba su tsira daga baya fiye da ƴan ƙarni da suka gabata ba, kodayake ana iya samun tukwane da adadi na ƙarfe a wasu yankuna. Wasu daga cikin kayan ado na farko, kamar su beads na harsashi da shaidar fenti, an gano su a Afirka, tun daga Zamanin Tsakiya.[3][4][5] Masks abubuwa ne masu mahimmanci a cikin fasahar mutane da yawa, tare da kuma siffofin mutane, kuma galibi suna da Stylized sosai. Akwai nau'o'i daban-daban, sau da yawa suna bambanta a cikin wannan mahallin asalin kuma dangane da amfani da abu, amma yanayin yanki mai yawa a bayyane yake; zane-zane ya fi yawa a tsakanin "ƙungiyoyin manoma da suka zauna a yankunan da kogin Nijar da Kongo suka zubar" a Yammacin Afirka.[6] Hotuna kai tsaye na alloli ba su da yawa, amma masks musamman ana yin su ko kuma ana yin su ne don bukukuwan al'ada. Tun daga ƙarshen ƙarni na 19 an sami karuwar fasahar Afirka a cikin tarin Yamma, mafi kyawun sassan da aka nuna a matsayin wani ɓangare na tarihin mulkin mallaka.

Fasahar Afirka tana da muhimmiyar tasiri a kan fasahar zamani ta Turai, wanda aka yi wahayi zuwa gare shi ta hanyar sha'awar su ga zane-zane.[7] Wannan godiya ce ga siffofin Afirka da aka danganta da ainihin manufar "fasahar Afirka", kamar yadda masu zane-zane da masana tarihi na Turai da Amurka suka gani.[8][9]

Al'adun Yammacin Afirka sun haɓaka gyaran tagulla don zane-zane, kamar sanannun Benin Bronzes, don yin ado da manyan gidaje da kuma shugabannin sarauta masu kyau daga kusa da garin Bini na Benin City, Jihar Edo, da kuma a cikin terracotta ko ƙarfe, daga ƙarni na 12th. Nauyin zinare na Akan wani nau'i ne na ƙananan siffofin ƙarfe da aka samar a cikin shekara ta 1400-1900; wasu a bayyane suke wakiltar karin magana, suna ba da gudummawa ga wani labari mai ban sha'awa a cikin siffofin Afirka; kuma sarauta sun haɗa da abubuwa masu ban sha'awar zinariya.[10] Ana kuma amfani da adadi da yawa na Yammacin Afirka a cikin al'adun addini kuma galibi ana rufe su da kayan da aka sanya a kansu don hadayu na bikin. Mutanen da ke magana da Mande na wannan yankin suna yin ɓangarori daga itace tare da fadi, shimfidar wurare da makamai da kafafu masu kama da cylinders. A Afirka ta Tsakiya, duk da haka, manyan halaye masu banbanci sun haɗa da fuskoki masu kama da zuciya waɗanda aka lankwasa zuwa ciki kuma suna nuna alamun da'irori da dots.[11][12]

Abubuwan da ke tattare da jigogi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • A cikin fasahar Yammacin Afirka, akwai mayar da hankali kan kasancewa mai bayyanawa da na musamman yayin da har yanzu fasahar waɗanda suka zo kafin ke rinjayar su. Fasahar mutanen Dan misali ne na wannan, kuma ya bazu zuwa al'ummomin Yammacin Afirka a waje da nahiyar.
  • Ƙaddamarwa akan adadi na ɗan adam: Adadin ɗan adam koyaushe shine babban batun ga yawancin fasahar Afirka, kuma wannan jaddadawa har ma ya rinjayi wasu al'adun Turai.[7] Misali, a cikin karni na goma sha biyar, Portugal ta yi ciniki tare da al'adun Sapi kusa da Ivory Coast a Yammacin Afirka, wanda ya kirkiro kayan gishiri na hauren hauren hawan hawan hauren halayen hawan halayen halayen halayyar hawan hawar hawan halayyar. Siffar mutum na iya nuna alamar masu rai ko matattu, na iya ambaton shugabannin, masu rawa, ko sana'o'i daban-daban kamar masu bugawa ko mafarauta, ko ma yana iya zama wakilcin mutum na allah ko kuma yana da wasu ayyuka na rantsuwa. Wani batu na yau da kullun shine inter-morphosis na mutane da dabba.
  • Bayanan gani: Ayyukan zane-zane na Afirka suna son abubuwan gani a kan wakilcin halitta. Wannan shi ne saboda yawancin zane-zane na Afirka suna da ka'idojin salo.[13]

Yankin da ake ciki[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Nazarin fasahar Afirka har zuwa kwanan nan ya mayar da hankali kan fasahar gargajiya na wasu sanannun kungiyoyi a nahiyar, tare da mai da hankali kan zane-zane na gargajiya, abin rufe fuska da sauran al'adun gani daga Afirka ta Yamma, Afirka ta Tsakiya, da kuma Kudancin Afirka tare da mai mai da hankali ga ƙarni na 19 da 20.[14] Kwanan nan, duk da haka, an sami motsi tsakanin masana tarihi na fasaha na Afirka da sauran malaman don haɗawa da al'adun gani na wasu yankuna da lokutan lokaci. Manufar ita ce ta hanyar hada dukkan al'adun Afirka da al'adunsu na gani a tsawon lokaci a cikin fasahar Afirka, za a sami kyakkyawar fahimta game da kyawawan abubuwan gani na nahiyar a duk tsawon lokaci. A ƙarshe, zane-zane na mutanen Afirka, a Brazil, Caribbean da kudu maso gabashin Amurka, suma sun fara shiga cikin nazarin fasahar Afirka.

Kayan aiki[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kwando-kwandon Sudanese, tabar na fiber na tsire-tsire na halitta, launi a launuka daban-daban

Ana samar da fasahar Afirka ta amfani da kayan aiki iri-iri kuma tana ɗaukar siffofi daban-daban.[15] Saboda itace abu ne na yau da kullun, siffofin katako sun zama mafi yawan fasahar Afirka. Gishiri sanannen nau'in fasaha ne kuma ana amfani dashi don nuna matsayi, alaƙa da rukuni, ko kuma kyawawan abubuwa. Ana yin kayan ado na Afirka daga irin waɗannan kayan da suka bambanta kamar dutsen ido na Tiger, haematite, sisal, kwalba na kwakwa, beads da itacen ebony. Abubuwan da aka zana na iya zama katako, yumbu ko sassaƙa daga dutse kamar sanannun siffofin Shona, kuma kayan ado ko kayan kwalliya sun fito ne daga yankuna da yawa. Ana yin nau'ikan tufafi daban-daban ciki har da chitenge, zane-zane da zane-zane. Mosaics da aka yi da fuka-fukan malam buɗe ido ko yashi mai launi sun shahara a yammacin Afirka. Ana iya gano siffofin Afirka na farko kamar yadda aka yi da terracotta da tagulla.

Addinai na gargajiya na Afirka[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Addinan gargajiya na Afirka sun kasance da tasiri sosai a kan siffofin fasahar Afirka a duk faɗin nahiyar. Fasahar Afirka sau da yawa ta samo asali ne daga jigogi na alamomin addini, aiki da amfani, kuma an halicci abubuwa da yawa na fasaha don ruhaniya maimakon dalilai masu ban sha'awa. Yawancin al'adun Afirka suna jaddada muhimmancin kakanninmu a matsayin matsakaici tsakanin masu rai, alloli, da babban mahalicci, kuma ana ganin fasaha a matsayin hanyar tuntuɓar waɗannan ruhohin kakanninmu. Hakanan ana iya amfani da fasaha don nuna alloli, kuma ana darajarsa don manufar aiki. Koyaya, yana da mahimmanci a lura cewa isowar Kiristanci da Islama sun yi tasiri sosai ga fasahar nahiyar Afirka, kuma an haɗa al'adun duka biyu cikin imani da zane-zane na addinin gargajiya na Afirka.[16]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Nok male figure; 500 BC-500 AD; terracotta; 49.5 × 22.2 × 16.8 cm (19.4 × 8.7 × 6.6 in); from northern Nigeria; Kimbell Art Museum (Fort Worth, Texas, USA)
Benin plaque; 16th-17th century; bronze; from the Kingdom of Benin; Ethnological Museum of Berlin (Germany)
Head from Ife (Nigeria); 14th-15th century AD; bronze; height: 36 cm (14Page Samfuri:Fraction/styles.css has no content.1⁄8 a cikin); Gidan Tarihin Burtaniya (London)

Asalin fasahar Afirka ya kasance tun kafin tarihin da aka rubuta. Tsohon beads da aka sani a yankin an yi su ne daga harsashi na Nassarius kuma an sa su azaman kayan ado na mutum shekaru 72,000 da suka gabata.[3] A Afirka, shaidar yin fenti ta hanyar tsari mai rikitarwa ta wanzu daga kimanin shekaru 100,000 da suka gabata da kuma amfani da Sinadaran pigments daga kimanin shekaru 320,000 da suka gabata.[4][5] Hotunan dutse na Afirka a cikin Sahara a Nijar suna adana zane-zane masu shekaru 6,000. Tare da Afirka ta kudu da Sahara, zane-zanen al'adu na yamma, zane-zane da kayan tarihi na Masar na dā, da kuma sana'o'in kudancin asali suma sun ba da gudummawa sosai ga fasahar Afirka. Sau da yawa yana nuna yawan yanayin da ke kewaye da shi, zane-zane sau da yawa fassarar dabbobi ne, rayuwar shuka, ko ƙirar halitta da siffofi. Masarautar Nubian ta Kush a Sudan ta zamani tana cikin kusanci kuma sau da yawa tana da ƙiyayya da Masar, kuma ta samar da siffofi masu ban mamaki galibi waɗanda suka samo asali ne daga salon da ba su kai ga arewa ba. A Yammacin Afirka, siffofin da aka fi sani sun fito ne daga al'adun Nok wanda ya bunƙasa tsakanin 1,500 BC da 500 AD a Najeriya ta zamani, tare da siffofin yumɓu yawanci tare da jiki mai tsawo da siffofin kusurwa.

Tarihin fasahohin Afrika daga kabilu[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tarihin fasahar Afirka yana da sarƙaƙiya kuma iri-iri, yana nuna al'adu daban-daban da suka wanzu a nahiyar tsawon ƙarnuka. Ga taƙaitaccen bayani na wasu manyan al'adun fasaha na Afirka:

  • Al'adar Nok (500 BC - 200 AD): Al'adun Nok, wanda yake a Najeriya a yanzu, an san shi da zane-zanen terracotta na mutum, dabbobi, da abin rufe fuska. Waɗannan sassaƙaƙƙen an yi su sosai kuma suna da fasalin fuska da ƙima da ƙima.[17]


  • Fasahar Masarawa ta dā (3100 BC - 30 BC): Fasahar tsohuwar Masar ta shahara don gine-ginen gine-ginenta, ƙaƙƙarfan zane-zane, da zane-zane da sassaƙaƙƙen gaske. Fasahae Masar tana nuna aƙidar addini, tatsuniyoyi, da al'adun zamantakewa na lokacin.
  • Fasahar Ife (ƙarni na 12-15): Fasahar Ife, tun daga yanzu Nijeriya, tana da siffofi na zahiri da na dabi’a na mutane, wanda galibi ana nuna su a tsarin sarauta ko na sarauta. An yi waɗannan sassaƙaƙe da jan ƙarfe, tagulla, ko terracotta kuma suna da daraja sosai don ƙwarewar fasaha.
  • Fasahar Benin (ƙarni na 13 - 19): Sana'ar Benin, tun daga Najeriya a yanzu, an santa da tsattsauran ra'ayi na tagulla na mutane, dabbobi, da kayan ado. Waɗannan sassake-zanen galibi suna nuna abubuwan da suka faru daga rayuwar kotu da kuma bukukuwan addini.
  • Fasahar Yarabawa (ƙarni na 15 - 20): Fasahar Yarabawa, daga yanzu Nigeria da Benin, ana siffanta ta da amfani da alamar alama da tauhidi don wakiltar tunanin ruhaniya da falsafa. Wannan fasaha ta haɗa da abin rufe fuska, sassaka-tsalle, da yadi, galibi suna nuna alamu masu launi da ƙira.
  • Fasahar Ashanti (ƙarni na 17 - 19): fasahar Ashanti, daga kasar Ghana a yanzu, an santa da kayan adon zinare da kayan kwalliya, da kuma sassakaken katako da kayan masaku. Sana'ar Ashanti galibi tana fasalta zane-zane na geometric da abubuwan alama, suna nuna dabi'u da imani na mutanen Ashanti.
  • Fasahar Kuba (ƙarni na 19-20): fasahar Kuba, daga ƙasar da ake kira Jamhuriyar Dimokuraɗiyyar Kwango a yanzu, ana siffanta shi da tsattsauran ra'ayi da sarkakkun zane, galibi ana yin su ta amfani da rigar raffia ko kwalliya. Fasahar Kuba ta haɗa da abin rufe fuska, yadi, da kwanduna, kuma tana da ƙima sosai don ƙwarewar fasaha da kyawunta.
  • Aikin Dogon (ƙarni na 13 - yanzu): Aikin Dogon, daga abin da yake a yanzu Mali, yana da siffofi na katako na mutane, dabbobi, da siffofi na geometric. Wadannan sassake-zanen suna wakiltar tatsuniyoyi da akidar kabilar Dogon, wadanda ke da tsarin addini da al'adu masu sarkakiya.
  • Senufo art (ƙarni na 17 - yanzu): Senufo art, daga abin da yake a yanzu Ivory Coast, an san shi da zane-zane na katako da abin rufe fuska, wanda sau da yawa yakan kwatanta dabbobi da mutane a cikin salo da siffofi. Ana daraja fasahar Senufo don ikon bayyanawa da kuma ikon sa na isar da ma'anoni masu sarkakiya.
  • Baule art (ƙarni na 18 - yanzu): Baule art, daga abin da yake a yanzu Ivory Coast, an siffanta ta da katako sculptures na mutum Figures, sau da yawa nuna a cikin salo da kuma manufa hanya. Fasahar Baule sau da yawa tana wakiltar ra'ayoyin addini da al'adu, kuma ana daraja ta sosai don ƙwarewar fasaha da kyawunta.
  • Aikin Luba (ƙarni na 19 - yanzu): fasahar Luba, daga kasar Jamhuriyar Dimokaradiyyar Kwango a yanzu, an san ta da sassakaki na katako da abin rufe fuska, wanda galibi ke nuna kimar dan Adam cikin yanayin dabi'a da bayyananniyar salo. Fasahar Luba galibi tana wakiltar ra'ayoyi na siyasa da na addini, kuma tana da kima sosai saboda muhimmancinta na ruhaniya da kyakkyawa.
  • Makonde art (karni na 20 - yanzu): Makonde art, daga abin da yake Tanzaniya da Mozambik a yanzu, ana siffanta shi da zane-zane na katako na siffofi na mutum da kuma siffofin da ba a iya gani ba, sau da yawa ana yin su ta hanyar amfani da fasaha mai zurfi da cikakkun bayanai. Fasahar Makonde tana nuna al'adun al'adu da sauye-sauyen zamantakewar al'ummar Makonde, kuma ana daraja ta saboda mahimmancin fasaha da tarihi.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Suzanne Blier: "Africa, Art, and History: An Introduction", A History of Art in Africa, pp. 15–19
  2. Breunig, Peter (2014), Nok: African Sculpture in Archaeological Context, Frankfurt: Africa Magna Verlag, 08033994793.ABA.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Mitchell, Peter and Lane, Paul (2013) The Oxford Handbook of African Archaeology.
  4. 4.0 4.1 . etal Invalid |url-status=219–222 (help); Cite journal requires |journal= (help); Missing or empty |title= (help) Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Henshilwood et al. 2011" defined multiple times with different content
  5. 5.0 5.1 Empty citation (help) Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "McBrearty Brooks 2000" defined multiple times with different content
  6. Honour & Fleming, 557
  7. 7.0 7.1 Murrell, Denise.
  8. Empty citation (help)
  9. Mark, Peter (1999). "Is There Such a Thing as African Art?". Record of the Art Museum, Princeton University. 58 (1/2): 7–15. doi:10.2307/3774788. JSTOR 3774788.
  10. Honour & Fleming, 556–561
  11. Yong, Ed (15 March 2018). "A Cultural Leap at the Dawn of Humanity - New finds from Kenya suggest that humans used long-distance trade networks, sophisticated tools, and symbolic pigments right from the dawn of our species". The Atlantic. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  12. ""New" Giraffe Engravings Found". The 153 Club. Archived from the original on 12 June 2007. Retrieved 2007-05-31.
  13. Suzanne Blier, "Africa, Art, and History: An Introduction", A History of Art in Africa, p. 16
  14. Art of central africa Retrieved 28 April 2022
  15. Art of central africa Retrieved 28 April 2022
  16. Empty citation (help)
  17. Fagg, Bernard. 1969. Recent work in west Africa: New light on the Nok culture. World Archaeology 1(1): 41–50.
  18. 32,000 YEARS OF ART (in Turanci). Phaidob. 2007. p. 302. ISBN 978-0-7148-7729-7.