Lafiyar muhalli

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Lafiyar muhalli
academic discipline (en) Fassara, field of study (en) Fassara, specialty (en) Fassara da academic major (en) Fassara
Bayanai
Facet of (en) Fassara public health (en) Fassara
Karatun ta environmental health sciences (en) Fassara
Taswirar ra'ayi da ke nuna alaƙa tsakanin yanayin da ba ɗan adam ba, sabis na yanayin muhalli, xa'a na muhalli, adalcin muhalli, da lafiyar jama'a
Alamar lafiyar muhalli (2016). Ya ƙunshi nau'i uku: tasirin lafiya, ingancin iska, da ruwa da tsafta. Nau'in tasirin lafiya ya haɗa da alamar bayyanar haɗarin muhalli.

Lafiyar muhalli reshe ne na kiwon lafiyar jama'a da ke kula da duk wani nau'i na yanayin halitta da ginannen, yanayin da ke shafar lafiyar ɗan adam. Don sarrafa abubuwan da za su iya shafar lafiya yadda ya kamata, dole ne a ƙayyade buƙatun da dole ne a cika don ƙirƙirar yanayi mai kyau.[1] Manyan ƙananan ƙa'idodin kiwon lafiyar muhalli sune kimiyyar muhalli, toxicology, ilimin cututtuka na muhalli, da muhalli da likitancin sana'a.[2]

Ma'anoni[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ma'anar WHO[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An bayyana lafiyar muhalli a cikin takardar, A shekara ta 1989 ta Hukumar Lafiya ta Duniya (WHO) a matsayin: Waɗancan abubuwan da suka shafi lafiyar ɗan adam da cututtuka waɗanda abubuwan da ke cikin muhalli suka ƙaddara.[ana buƙatar hujja] Hakanan ana kiransa ka'idar da aiki na samun dama da sarrafa abubuwan da ke cikin yanayin da zai iya shafar lafiya.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Takardar WHO ta 1990 ta bayyana cewa lafiyar muhalli, kamar yadda Ofishin Yanki na WHO na Turai ya yi amfani da shi, "ya haɗa da duka tasirin cutar kai tsaye na sinadarai, radiation da wasu kwayoyin halitta, da kuma tasirin (sau da yawa kaikaice) kan lafiya da walwala na fa'ida. yanayin jiki, tunani, zamantakewa da al'adu, wanda ya hada da gidaje, ci gaban birane, amfani da filaye da sufuri." [3]

Kamar yadda na 2016 [sabuntawa], shafin yanar gizon WHO game da lafiyar muhalli ya bayyana cewa "Lafiyar muhalli tana magance duk abubuwan da ke cikin jiki, sinadarai, da kwayoyin halitta na waje ga mutum, da duk abubuwan da suka shafi abubuwan da suka shafi halayen halayen. Ya ƙunshi kima da kula da waɗannan muhalli.[4] abubuwan da za su iya yin tasiri ga lafiya, an yi niyya ne don hana cututtuka da samar da yanayi masu tallafawa kiwon lafiya, wannan ma'anar ya keɓance dabi'un da ba su da alaƙa da muhalli, da kuma halayen da suka shafi yanayin zamantakewa da al'adu, da kuma kwayoyin halitta."

Hukumar ta WHO ta kuma ayyana ayyukan kula da muhalli a matsayin “waɗanda ke aiwatar da manufofin kiwon lafiyar muhalli ta hanyar sa ido da ayyukan sarrafawa. Har ila yau, suna gudanar da wannan rawar ta hanyar inganta haɓakar sigogin muhalli da kuma ƙarfafa yin amfani da fasaha da halaye masu dacewa da muhalli. Har ila yau, suna da rawar da za su taka wajen haɓakawa da kuma ba da shawarar sabbin fannonin manufofi."[5][6]

Sauran la'akari[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ana iya ganin kalmar maganin muhalli a matsayin ƙwararrun likitanci, ko reshe na fage na fannin lafiyar muhalli. [7][8]

Ƙididdiga ba ta cika cika ba, kuma a yawancin ƙasashen Turai ana amfani da su tare.[9]

Kiwon lafiyar muhalli na yara shine horo na ilimi wanda ke nazarin yadda bayyanar muhalli a farkon rayuwa-sunadarai, abinci mai gina jiki, da zamantakewa-tasirin lafiya da ci gaba a lokacin ƙuruciya da duk tsawon rayuwar ɗan adam.[10]

Sauran sharuɗɗan da ke magana ko game da lafiyar muhalli sun haɗa da lafiyar jama'a da kare lafiya.

Ladabi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Daban-daban na asali guda biyar gabaɗaya suna ba da gudummawa ga fannin kiwon lafiyar muhalli: cututtukan muhalli, toxicology, kimiyyar fallasa, injiniyan muhalli, da dokar muhalli . Kowane ɗayan waɗannan fannoni biyar suna ba da gudummawar bayanai daban-daban don bayyana matsaloli da mafita a cikin lafiyar muhalli. Duk da haka, akwai wasu jeri a tsakanin su.

  • Ilimin cututtukan muhalli yana nazarin alaƙar da ke tsakanin abubuwan da ke tattare da muhalli (ciki har da fallasa ga sinadarai, radiation, magungunan ƙwayoyin cuta, da sauransu) da lafiyar ɗan adam. Nazarin lura, wanda kawai ke lura da fallasa da mutane suka rigaya suka fuskanta, sun zama ruwan dare a cikin ilimin cututtukan muhalli saboda ba za a iya fallasa ɗan adam cikin ɗabi'a ga jami'an da aka sani ko ake zargin suna haifar da cuta ba. Yayin da rashin iya amfani da zane-zane na gwajin gwaji shine iyakancewar cututtukan cututtukan muhalli, wannan horo kai tsaye yana lura da tasiri akan lafiyar ɗan adam maimakon ƙididdige tasirin daga nazarin dabbobi. Kwayar cuta ta muhalli ita ce nazarin tasirin lafiyar ɗan adam na abubuwan da ke tattare da lafiyar jiki, ilimin halitta, da sinadarai a cikin muhallin waje, wanda aka ɗauka gabaɗaya. Har ila yau, nazarin takamaiman al'ummomi ko al'ummomin da aka fallasa ga mahallin yanayi daban-daban, Cutar cututtuka a cikin muhallinmu na da nufin fayyace dangantakar da ke tsakanin abubuwan jiki, ilimin halitta ko sinadarai da lafiyar ɗan adam.[11]
  • Toxicology yana nazarin yadda bayyanar muhalli ke haifar da takamaiman sakamakon kiwon lafiya, gabaɗaya a cikin dabbobi, a matsayin hanyar fahimtar yiwuwar sakamakon lafiya a cikin mutane. Toxicology yana da damar samun damar gudanar da gwaje-gwajen da bazuwar da sauran nazarin gwaji saboda suna iya amfani da abubuwan dabba. Koyaya, akwai bambance-bambance masu yawa a cikin ilimin halittar dabbobi da na ɗan adam, kuma ana iya samun rashin tabbas sosai yayin fassara sakamakon binciken dabbobi don tasirin su ga lafiyar ɗan adam.
  • Kimiyyar fallasa tana nazarin fallasa ɗan adam ga gurɓataccen muhalli ta hanyar ganowa da ƙididdige fallasa. Za a iya amfani da kimiyyar fallasa don tallafawa cututtukan cututtukan muhalli ta hanyar mafi kyawun kwatanta bayyanar muhalli wanda zai iya haifar da wani sakamako na kiwon lafiya, gano abubuwan da aka saba gani waɗanda sakamakon lafiyar su za a iya fahimtar su ta hanyar binciken toxicology, ko kuma ana iya amfani da su a cikin kima na haɗari don sanin ko halin yanzu matakan fallasa na iya wuce matakan da aka ba da shawarar.[12]Kimiyyar fallasa tana da fa'idar kasancewa iya ƙididdige bayyanannun bayanai ga takamaiman sinadarai, amma ba ta haifar da wani bayani game da sakamakon lafiya kamar cututtukan muhalli ko toxicology.[13]
  • Injiniyan muhalli yana amfani da ka'idodin kimiyya da injiniya don kariya ga yawan jama'a daga illolin muggan abubuwan muhalli; kariya daga mahalli daga abubuwan da za su iya halakar da ayyukan halitta da na ɗan adam; da ingantaccen ingancin muhalli gabaɗaya.
  • Dokokin muhalli sun haɗa da hanyar sadarwa na yarjejeniyoyin, dokoki, ƙa'idodi, dokokin gama gari da na al'ada waɗanda ke magance tasirin ayyukan ɗan adam akan yanayin yanayi.[14]

Ana iya haɗa bayanai daga ilimin cututtuka, toxicology, da kimiyyar fallasa don gudanar da kimanta haɗarin takamaiman sinadarai, gaurayawan sinadarai ko wasu abubuwan haɗari don sanin ko fallasa yana haifar da babban haɗari ga lafiyar ɗan adam (wataƙila fallasa zai iya haifar da haɓakar gurɓatawa- cututtuka masu alaka ). Hakanan za'a iya amfani da wannan don haɓakawa da aiwatar da manufofin kiwon lafiyar muhalli waɗanda, alal misali, ke daidaita fitar da sinadarai, ko kuma sanya ƙa'idodi na tsaftar muhalli.[15] Ayyukan aikin injiniya da doka za a iya haɗa su don samar da haɗarin haɗari don ragewa, saka idanu, da kuma sarrafa tasirin tasiri don kare lafiyar ɗan adam don cimma manufofin manufofin kiwon lafiyar muhalli.[16]

Damuwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Bayanin babban illolin kiwon lafiya a kan mutane daga wasu nau'ikan gurɓatawa na gama gari
FEMA / EPA M Materials Team kawar da hatsarorin da suka bar bayan guguwar Katrina, 2005
Lecture of Joyeeta Gupta (University of Amsterdam) on environmental health

Kiwon lafiya na muhalli yana magance duk abubuwan da suka shafi lafiyar ɗan adam na muhallin halitta da ginin muhalli. Abubuwan da ke damun lafiyar muhalli sun haɗa da:

  • Biosafety .
  • Shirye-shiryen bala'i da martani.
  • Amintaccen abinci, gami da a cikin noma, sufuri, sarrafa abinci, jigilar kayayyaki da rarrabawa da siyarwa.
  • Gidaje, ciki har da rashin ingancin gidaje da kuma duba gidajen yari da gidajen yari .
  • Rigakafin cutar da gubar ƙuruciya.
  • Shirye-shiryen amfani da ƙasa, gami da haɓaka mai wayo .
  • Zubar da sharar ruwa, gami da masana'antar sarrafa ruwan sharar birni da tsarin zubar da ruwan sharar gida, kamar tsarin tankin ruwa da bandakunan sinadarai .
  • Gudanar da sharar likita da zubar.
  • Lafiyar sana'a da tsaftar masana'antu .
  • Lafiyar radiyo, gami da fallasa zuwa ionizing radiation daga radiyon X ko isotopes na rediyoaktif .
  • Rigakafin rashin lafiyar ruwa na nishaɗi, gami da daga wuraren waha, wuraren shakatawa da teku da wuraren wanka na ruwa .
  • Sarrafa shara mai ƙarfi, gami da wuraren zubar da ƙasa, wuraren sake yin amfani da su, takin zamani da tashoshi masu ɗorewa.
  • Bayyanar sinadarai mai guba ko a cikin samfuran mabukaci, gidaje, wuraren aiki, iska, ruwa ko ƙasa.
  • Kula da vector, gami da sarrafa sauro, rodents, kwari, kyankyasai da sauran dabbobin da zasu iya yada cututtuka.[17]

Dangane da alkaluma na baya-bayan nan, kusan kashi 5 zuwa 10 cikin 100 na shekarun da suka daidaita nakasa (DALYs) sun rasa su ne saboda dalilai na muhalli a Turai. Ya zuwa yanzu mafi mahimmancin al'amari shine gurɓataccen ƙwayar cuta a cikin iskar birane.[18] Hakazalika, an yi kiyasin ficewar muhalli zai ba da gudummawar mutuwar mutane miliyan 4.9 (8.7%) da kuma DALY miliyan 86 (5.7%) a duniya.[19] A Amurka, an gano wuraren Superfund da kamfanoni daban-daban suka kirkira suna da illa ga lafiyar dan adam da muhalli a cikin al'ummomin da ke kusa. Wannan barazana ce da aka yi hasashe, da ta daɗa kallon zubar da ciki, maye gurbi, lahani na haihuwa, da ciwon daji wanda ya fi firgita jama'a. [20]

ingancin iska[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ingancin iska ya haɗa da ingancin iska na waje da ingancin iska na cikin gida . Babban damuwa game da ingancin iska sun haɗa da hayaƙin taba muhalli, gurɓataccen iska ta nau'ikan sharar sinadarai, da sauran damuwa.

ingancin iska na waje[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Gurbacewar iska ita ce ke haifar da mutuwar mutane sama da miliyan 6.5 a duk duniya. [21] Gurbacewar iska ita ce gurbatar yanayi saboda kasancewar abubuwa masu illa ga lafiyar halittu masu rai, muhalli ko yanayi. [22] Wadannan abubuwa sun shafi jami'an kiwon lafiya na muhalli tun da gurɓataccen iska sau da yawa yana haifar da haɗari ga cututtuka da ke da alaka da gurɓata, kamar ciwon huhu, cututtuka na numfashi, fuka, cututtukan zuciya, da sauran nau'o'in cututtuka masu alaka da numfashi. [23] Rage gurɓataccen iska, da haɓaka ingancin iska, an gano yana rage yawan mace-macen manya. [24]

Wani masana'anta na Mumbai dake fitar da gurbacewar iska.

Kayayyakin gama gari da ke da alhakin fitar da hayaki sun haɗa da zirga-zirgar ababen hawa, samar da makamashi, konewar gida, zirga-zirgar jiragen sama da motocin motsa jiki, da sauran nau'ikan gurɓatattun abubuwa. [25] [26] Wadannan gurbatacciyar iska ce ke haifar da konewar man fetur, wanda zai iya fitar da barbashi masu cutarwa zuwa cikin iskar da mutane da sauran halittu suke shaka ko sha. [27]

Gurbacewar iska tana da alaƙa da illar lafiya kamar cututtukan numfashi da cututtukan zuciya, ciwon daji, cututtukan da ke da alaƙa, har ma da mutuwa. [28] Haɗarin gurɓataccen iska yana ƙayyade haɗarin gurɓataccen iska da kuma yawan fallasa da ke shafar mutum. [29] Alal misali, yaron da ke buga wasanni a waje zai sami mafi girman yuwuwar bayyanar gurɓataccen iska a waje idan aka kwatanta da babban mutum wanda ke son yin karin lokaci a cikin gida, ko a wurin aiki ko kuma a wani wuri. [29] Jami'an kiwon lafiya na muhalli suna aiki don gano mutanen da ke cikin haɗari mafi girma na cinye gurɓataccen iska, aiki don rage bayyanar su, da gano abubuwan haɗari da ke cikin al'ummomi. [30]

ingancin iska na cikin gida[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Gurbacewar iska na gida yana ba da gudummawa ga cututtuka da ke kashe kusan mutane miliyan 4.3 a kowace shekara. [31] Gurɓataccen iska na cikin gida yana ba da gudummawa ga abubuwan haɗari ga cututtuka kamar cututtukan zuciya, cututtukan huhu, bugun jini, ciwon huhu, da sauran cututtuka masu alaƙa. [31] Ga mutane masu rauni waɗanda ke ciyar da lokaci mai yawa a cikin gida, kamar yara da tsofaffi, ƙarancin ingancin iska na cikin gida na iya zama haɗari. [32]

Kona mai kamar gawayi ko kananzir a cikin gidaje na iya haifar da fitar da sinadarai masu haɗari a cikin iska. [31] Danshi da gyaɗa a cikin gidaje na iya haifar da cututtuka suma, amma kaɗan an yi nazari akan ƙura a makarantu da wuraren aiki. [33] Ana ɗaukar hayakin taba a matsayin babban mai ba da gudummawa ga gurɓataccen iska na cikin gida, tun da fallasa hayaki na biyu da na hannu na uku abu ne na gama gari. [34] Hayakin taba ya ƙunshi fiye da 60 carcinogens, inda kashi 18% aka sani da carcinogens na ɗan adam. [35] Bayyana wadannan sinadarai na iya haifar da cutar asma, haɓaka cututtukan zuciya, cututtukan zuciya, da haɓaka yiwuwar haɓakar ciwon daji. [36]

Sauyin yanayi da illolinsa ga lafiya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Canjin yanayi yana sa al'amuran yanayi masu tsananin gaske, gami da abubuwan da suka faru na smog na ozone, guguwar ƙura, da haɓakar matakan aerosol, duk saboda tsananin zafi, fari, iska, da ruwan sama. [37] [38] Wadannan matsanancin yanayin yanayi na iya ƙara yuwuwar rashin abinci mai gina jiki, mace-mace, rashin abinci, da cututtuka masu saurin yanayi a cikin mutane masu rauni. [39] Tasirin sauyin yanayi duk duniya ne ke ji, amma bai dace ba yana shafar al'ummomin da ba su da galihu waɗanda ke fuskantar matsalar sauyin yanayi . [40]

Rikicin ruwa a Maryland, Amurka.

Tasirin yanayi na iya yin tasiri ga kamuwa da cututtukan da ke haifar da ruwa ta hanyar karuwar yawan kwararar ruwa, yawan ruwan sama mai yawa, da kuma tasirin guguwa mai tsanani. [41] Matsanancin yanayi da guguwa za su iya zarce ƙarfin abubuwan samar da ruwa, wanda zai iya ƙara yuwuwar cewa al'umma za su iya kamuwa da waɗannan gurɓatattun abubuwa. [41] [42] Ana iya kamuwa da waɗannan gurɓatattun abubuwa a cikin al'ummomi masu ƙarancin kuɗi, inda ba su da isassun kayan aikin da za su iya magance bala'o'in yanayi kuma ba sa iya murmurewa daga lalacewar ababen more rayuwa cikin sauri. [43]

Matsaloli kamar asarar gidaje, ƙaunatattuna, da hanyoyin rayuwa na baya, galibi su ne abin da mutane ke fuskanta bayan bala'in yanayi. Abubuwan da ke faruwa na iya haifar da rauni a cikin nau'in damuwa na araha na gidaje, ƙananan kuɗin shiga gida, rashin haɗin kai, baƙin ciki, da damuwa a kusa da wani bala'i da ke faruwa. [40]

Wariyar launin fata ta muhalli[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ana iya sanya wasu ƙungiyoyin mutane cikin haɗari mafi girma don haɗarin muhalli kamar iska, ƙasa da gurɓataccen ruwa. Wannan sau da yawa yana faruwa saboda warewar jama'a, tsarin tattalin arziki da siyasa, da wariyar launin fata. Wariyar kabilanci ta musamman tana shafar ƙungiyoyi daban-daban a duniya, duk da haka galibin ƙungiyoyin da aka fi sani da kowane yanki ana shafa. Waɗannan ƙungiyoyin da aka ware galibi ana sanya su kusa da tushen gurɓata kamar manyan tituna, wuraren sharar guba, wuraren share ƙasa, da tsire-tsire masu guba. [44] A cikin wani bincike na 2021, an gano cewa ƙungiyoyin ƙabilanci da ƙabilanci a Amurka suna fuskantar ƙazamin gurɓataccen iska. [45] Manufofin gidaje na kabilanci da ke wanzuwa a Amurka suna ci gaba da ƙara ƙara ƙazamar ƙabilar ƙabilanci ga gurɓacewar iska a daidai gwargwado, duk da cewa gabaɗayan matakan gurɓatawa sun ragu. [45] Hakazalika, a cikin wani bincike na 2022, an nuna cewa aiwatar da sauye-sauyen manufofin da ke ba da damar sake rarraba dukiya na iya ninka matsayin matakan rage sauyin yanayi. [46] Ga al'ummomin da ba su da matakan rarraba dukiya, wannan yana nufin ƙarin kuɗi za su shiga cikin al'ummominsu yayin da ake rage tasirin yanayi. [45] [46]

Gurbacewar hayaniya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Jirgin sama yana shawagi a kan gundumar zama.

Gurbacewar amo yawanci ba muhalli ba ne, sautin na'ura da aka kirkira wanda zai iya rushe ayyuka ko sadarwa tsakanin mutane da sauran nau'ikan rayuwa. [47] Bayyanawa ga gurɓacewar amo na dindindin na iya haifar da cututtuka kamar nakasa ji, damuwa barci, matsalolin zuciya da jijiyoyin jini, bacin rai, matsaloli tare da sadarwa da sauran cututtuka. [48] Ga ƴan tsirarun Amurkawa waɗanda ke zaune a unguwannin da ba su da matsayi na tattalin arziƙin ƙasa, galibi suna fuskantar gurɓatacciyar amo idan aka kwatanta da takwarorinsu na tattalin arziki. [49]

Gurbacewar amo na iya haifar da ko kuma ta'azzara cututtuka na zuciya da jijiyoyin jini, wanda zai iya ƙara shafar manyan cututtuka, ƙara matakan damuwa, da kuma haifar da tashin hankali . [49] Gurbacewar amo kuma tana da alhakin lamurra na asarar ji, tinnitus, da sauran nau'ikan rashin jin daɗi ko rashin sauti. [49] Waɗannan sharuɗɗan na iya zama haɗari ga yara da matasa waɗanda ke fuskantar gurɓacewar amo akai-akai, saboda yawancin waɗannan yanayi na iya haɓaka zuwa matsaloli na dogon lokaci. [49]

Yaran da ke zuwa makaranta a yankunan zirga-zirgar ababen hawa sun nuna cewa suna da ƙarancin haɓakar ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya 20% idan aka kwatanta da sauran ɗaliban da suka halarci makarantu a wuraren zirga-zirgar ababen hawa, in ji wani binciken Barcelona. [50] Wannan ya yi daidai da binciken da ke nuna cewa yaran da ke fuskantar hayaniyar jirgin sama na yau da kullun "suna da ƙarancin aiki akan daidaitattun gwaje-gwajen nasara." [51]

Fitarwa ga gurɓacewar amo na dindindin na iya sa mutum ya sami nakasuwar ji, kamar tinnitus ko rashin nuna wariyar magana. [52] Daya daga cikin manyan abubuwan da ke haifar da tabarbarewar lafiyar kwakwalwa saboda gurbatar surutu shine bacin rai . [53] [54] An gano bacin rai saboda dalilai na muhalli don haɓaka halayen damuwa da kuma ji na damuwa a tsakanin manya. [55] Matsayin bacin rai da mutum ke ji ya bambanta, amma yana ba da gudummawa ga tabarbarewar lafiyar kwakwalwa sosai. [54]

Har ila yau, bayyanar da surutu yana haifar da rikicewar barci, wanda zai iya haifar da barcin rana da rashin barci gaba daya, wanda ke haifar da tabarbarewar lafiya. [56] [54]

Amintaccen ruwan sha[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Sanya rijiya don tsaftataccen ruwan sha.

Samun tsaftataccen ruwan sha ana ɗaukarsa a matsayin "tushen buƙatun ɗan adam don lafiya da walwala" ta Majalisar Dinkin Duniya . [57] A cewar rahotannin su, sama da mutane biliyan 2 a duniya suna rayuwa ba tare da samun tsaftataccen ruwan sha ba. [58] A cikin 2017, kusan Amurkawa miliyan 22 sun sha daga tsarin ruwa wanda ya saba wa ka'idojin kiwon lafiyar jama'a. [59] A duk duniya, sama da mutane biliyan 2 suna shan gurɓataccen ruwa, wanda ke haifar da babbar barazana ga amincin ruwan sha. [60] Gurbataccen ruwan sha na iya yada cututtuka irin su kwalara, dysentery, typhoid, gudawa da polio . [60]

Magunguna masu cutarwa a cikin ruwan sha na iya yin mummunan tasiri ga lafiya. Hanyoyin kula da ruwa marasa tsafta na iya ƙara yawaitar cututtukan da ke haifar da ruwa da kuma cututtukan da ke da alaƙa da tsafta. [61] [62] Makarantu a Amurka doka ba ta bukaci su yi gwajin tsaftataccen ruwan sha ba, wanda hakan ke nufin cewa yara da yawa za su iya shan gurbatacciyar ruwa kamar gubar dalma a cikin ruwansu a makaranta. [63] [43] Rashin isasshen tsabtace ruwan datti a cibiyoyin masana'antu da noma na iya cutar da daruruwan miliyoyin mutane da gurbataccen ruwa. [60] Sinadarai irin su fluoride da arsenic na iya amfanar ɗan adam idan ana sarrafa matakan waɗannan sinadarai, amma sauran, wasu sinadarai masu haɗari kamar gubar da karafa na iya zama cutarwa ga ɗan adam. [60]

A Amurka, al'ummomin masu launi na iya zama ƙarƙashin rashin ingancin ruwa. [64] A cikin al'ummomi a Amurka da ke da yawan al'ummar Hispanic da baƙar fata, ana samun haɓaka mai alaƙa da take haƙƙin lafiyar SDWA . [64] Al'ummar da suka fuskanci rashin tsaftataccen ruwan sha, kamar al'ummar Flint, Michigan, sun fi amincewa da ruwan famfo a cikin al'ummominsu. [43] Yawan jama'ar da za su fuskanci wannan yawanci ƙananan kuɗi ne, al'ummomi masu launi. [65]

Gudanar da kayan haɗari[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Sarrafa abubuwa masu haɗari, gami da sarrafa sharar gida mai haɗari, gurɓataccen gurɓataccen wuri, rigakafin ɗigogi daga tankunan ajiya na ƙasa da hana fitar da abubuwa masu haɗari ga muhalli da martani ga yanayin gaggawa sakamakon irin wannan sakin. Lokacin da ba a sarrafa abubuwa masu haɗari yadda ya kamata, sharar gida na iya gurɓata hanyoyin ruwa da ke kusa da kuma rage ingancin iska. [66]

A cewar wani binciken da aka yi a Ostiriya, mutanen da ke zaune kusa da wuraren masana'antu "sun fi yawan rashin aikin yi, suna da ƙananan matakan ilimi, kuma suna iya zama baƙi sau biyu. [67] Tare da sha'awar lafiyar muhalli a zuciya, an ƙaddamar da Dokar Kare Albarkatu da Farfaɗowa a cikin Amurka a cikin 1976 wanda ya shafi yadda ake sarrafa datti mai haɗari yadda ya kamata.

Bayani da taswira[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Shirin Toxicology and Environmental Health Information Programme (TEHIP) cikakken bincike ne na toxicology da gidan yanar gizon lafiyar muhalli, wanda ya haɗa da buɗe damar samun albarkatun da hukumomin gwamnatin Amurka da ƙungiyoyi suka samar, kuma ana kiyaye shi ƙarƙashin inuwar Sabis ɗin Bayanai na Musamman a Laburare na Magunguna na Amurka . TEHIP ya haɗa da hanyoyin haɗi zuwa bayanan fasaha, litattafai, koyawa, da albarkatu masu dacewa. TEHIP ne ke da alhakin Cibiyar Bayanan Toxicology (TOXNET), tsarin haɗin gwiwar toxicology da bayanan lafiyar muhalli ciki har da Bankin Bayanai na Abubuwa masu haɗari, waɗanda ke buɗe damar shiga, watau samuwa kyauta. TOXNET ya yi ritaya a cikin 2019.

Akwai kayan aikin taswirar lafiyar muhalli da yawa. TOXMAP tsarin bayanan yanki ne (GIS) daga Sashen Sabis na Sabis na Musamman [68] na Cibiyar Nazarin Magunguna ta Amurka (NLM) wacce ke amfani da taswirar Amurka don taimaka wa masu amfani su gano bayanan gani daga Hukumar Kare Muhalli ta Amurka. EPA _ TOXMAP wata hanya ce ta gwamnatin tarayya ta Amurka. Ana ɗaukar bayanan sinadarai da lafiyar muhalli na TOXMAP daga Cibiyar Bayanan Toxicology ta NLM (TOXNET) da PubMed, kuma daga wasu tushe masu ƙarfi.

Sana'ar kula da muhalli[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ana iya sanin ƙwararrun lafiyar muhalli da jami'an kiwon lafiyar muhalli, masu duba lafiyar jama'a, ƙwararrun lafiyar muhalli ko masu aikin kiwon lafiyar muhalli. Masu bincike da masu tsara manufofi kuma suna taka muhimmiyar rawa a yadda ake aiwatar da lafiyar muhalli a fagen. A yawancin ƙasashen Turai, likitoci da likitocin dabbobi suna shiga cikin lafiyar muhalli.[ana buƙatar hujja]A cikin United Kingdom, masu aikin dole ne su sami digiri na digiri a cikin lafiyar muhalli kuma takaddun shaida kuma su yi rajista tare da Cibiyar Kiwon Lafiyar Muhalli ta Chartered ko Cibiyar Kiwon Lafiyar Muhalli ta Royal na Scotland. A Kanada, ana buƙatar masu aiki a cikin lafiyar muhalli don samun takardar shaidar digiri na farko a cikin lafiyar muhalli tare da takardar shaidar ƙwararrun ƙasa, Takaddun shaida a Binciken Kiwon Lafiyar Jama'a (Kanada), CPHI(C) . Yawancin jihohi a Amurka kuma suna buƙatar daidaikun mutane su sami digiri na farko da lasisi na ƙwararru don yin aikin kiwon lafiyar muhalli.[ana buƙatar hujja] Dokar jihar California ta bayyana iyakar aikin kiwon lafiyar muhalli kamar haka: [69]

"Irin yin aiki a cikin lafiyar muhalli" yana nufin aikin lafiyar muhalli ta kwararrun kiwon lafiyar muhalli masu rijista a cikin jama'a da kamfanoni masu zaman kansu a cikin ma'anar wannan labarin kuma ya haɗa da, amma ba'a iyakance ga, ƙungiya, gudanarwa, ilimi, tilastawa, tuntuɓar ba. da kuma ba da agajin gaggawa don manufar rigakafin haɗarin lafiyar muhalli da haɓakawa da kare lafiyar jama'a da muhalli a cikin waɗannan fagage: kariya ta abinci; gidaje; lafiyar muhalli na hukumomi; amfani da ƙasa; kula da hayaniyar al'umma; wuraren shakatawa da ruwaye; electromagnetic radiation iko; m, ruwa, da kuma kayan sarrafa abubuwa masu haɗari; kula da tanki na karkashin kasa; na kansite septic tsarin; sarrafa vector; ingancin ruwan sha; tsaftar ruwa; shirye-shiryen gaggawa; da kuma tsaftar madara da kiwo bisa ga sashe na 33113 na dokar abinci da noma.

Sana'ar kula da lafiyar muhalli ta samo asali ne na zamani a harkar tsafta da lafiyar jama'a na Burtaniya. Sir Edwin Chadwick ne ya kwatanta wannan, wanda ya taka rawa wajen soke dokokin da ba su da kyau, kuma a cikin 1884 shi ne shugaban kungiyar masu sa ido na tsaftar jama'a, wanda yanzu ake kira Cibiyar Kiwon Lafiyar Muhalli ta Chartered .[ana buƙatar hujja]

Lafiyar muhalli a cikin kafofin watsa labaru da wallafe-wallafe[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ayyuka na asali kamar Dr. Seuss 'The Lorax sun ba da damar shigar da ilimin muhalli a cikin iliminmu. Daraktoci sun ƙara ɗaukar matakai kuma sun ba da umarnin littafin yara zuwa fim ɗin da ya sami lambar yabo - yana yin hanya mafi sauƙi don ɗaukar hankalin matasa masu sauraro. [70] Hakazalika tallace-tallace, waɗannan fina-finai sun baje kolin abubuwa masu kyau na ilimi don lafiyar muhalli da dorewa yayin da suke zage-zage cikin batutuwan da yara za su iya danganta su kamar abokantaka, dangi, ban dariya, da ƙari.

Lafiyar muhalli ya zama dacewa a cikin al'adun mu na pop tare da fina-finai kamar The Lorax (wanda Dokta Seuss ya yi wahayi zuwa gare shi: Littafin asali na Lorax ), WALL-E, Free Willy, Happy Feet, da Hoot wanda ke nuna bukatar jin dadin jin dadi. yanayi. Fina-finai masu zuwa suna ba da damar samari don fahimtar lafiyar muhalli da mahimmancin dorewa ta hanyar ruwan tabarau na hangen nesa mai narkewa.[71]

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  71. Barbaro, Adriana; Earp, Jeremy (October 30, 2009). "Consuming Kids: The Commercialization of Childhood". imdb.com.