Jihadin Danfodio

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
(an turo daga Jihadin Fulani)
Infotaula d'esdevenimentJihadin Danfodio

Iri rikici
Kwanan watan 21 ga Faburairu, 1804

Jahadin Sakkwato na 1804 – 1808, wanda kuma aka fi sani da Jihadin Jamaa ko Jihadin Usman dan Fodio, juyin juya hali ne a Najeriya da Kamaru a yau. Yaƙin ya fara ne a lokacin da wani babban malamin addinin musulunci kuma malami Usman Dan Fodiyo, daya daga cikin tsofaffin dalibansa Sarki Yunfa ya kore shi daga Gobir.

Usman Dan Fodiyo ya haɗa runduna ta Musulunci domin jagorantar jihadi da sarkin Gobir na Arewacin Najeriya. A hankali ne sojojin Usman Danfodiyo suka mamaye daular Gobir, inda suka kame Gobir a shekarar 1808, suka kuma kashe Yunfa. Yakin ya kuma haifar da kafa Daular Usmaniyya Sokoto, karkashin jagorancin Usman Danfodiyo, wadda ta zama daya daga cikin manyan dauloli a Afrika a ƙarni na 19. Nasarar da ya yi ta zaburar da irin wannan jihadi a yammacin Afirka.

Fage[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Daular Kanem-Bornu ta kuma kasance mai ƙarfi a yankin tun tsakiyar karni na 18. Sakamakon haka shi ne koma bayan wasu masarautun Hausa masu cin gashin kansu a fadin yankin. Wanda Sheikh Al'amin El-kanemi ya sha kaye a Masarautar Hausa guda biyu sune Gobir da Zamfara. [1] Haka nan daular Kanem-Bornu ta yi galaba a kan Usman Dan fodio tare da kame shi, to amma yaki tsakanin kasashen Hausa da sauran jahohin ya ci gaba da wanzuwa a karshen karni na 18, wanda ya haifar da tsangwama na shiga aikin soja da haraji. Kuma daga baya Sheik Al’amin Elkanemi Fulanin da galibinsu makiyaya ne, sun kasance masu fama da harajin Hausawa, sarrafa filaye, da sauran ayyukan ‘yan ta’adda.[2]

Kai har zuwa yaki[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Usman dan Fodio, wanda aka haife shi a shekara ta 1754, ya shiga cikin manyan malaman addinin musulunci masu tafiye-tafiye a cikin daular Hausa a shekarun 1770 kuma ya shahara a shekarun 1790.[1] Tun asali wa’azin dan Fodio ya samu goyon bayan shugabancin Gobir; duk da haka, yayin da tasirinsa ya karu kuma yayin da ya fara ba da shawarar kare kansa daga magoya bayansa, yardarsa ga jagoranci ya ragu. Sarkin Gobir Nafata, Sarkin Gobir, ya sanya takura wa wa’azin dan Fodio. [1] A 1801, Sarkin Gobir Yunfa, tsohon almajiri dan Fodio, ya maye gurbin Nafata a matsayin sarkin Gobir. Duk da haka, Yunfa ya kuma ƙara wa ɗan Fodio takunkumi tare da fitar da shi daga Gobir zuwa ƙauyen Degel.[1] Rikici ya taso daga baya a cikin shekarata 1803 lokacin da Yunfa ya kai hari tare da kama da yawa daga cikin mabiyan kungiyar da ke da alaka da dan Fodio. Daga nan sai Yunfa ya zarce da fursunoni ta hanyar Degel, inda ya fusata da yawa daga cikin mabiyan dan Fodio, inda suka far wa sojoji suka sako fursunonin. Yunfa ya baiwa ɗan Fodio zabin gudun hijira kafin ya halaka Degel, wanda ya kai ga yin hijira mai girma da al'ummar dan Fodio suka yi zuwa Gudu. Don haka mutane da yawa sun tafi tare da dan Fodio a duk fadin jihar cewa a ranar 21 ga watan Fabrairun shekarar 1804, Yunfa ya kuma ƙaddamar da yaki da dan Fodio tare da yin barazanar hukunta duk wanda ya shiga tare da shi. [1] Mabiyan dan Fodio sun bayyana shi a matsayin Amirul Muminin, kwamandan muminai, kuma sun yi tir da mubaya'arsu ga Gobir.

Yaƙe-yaƙe[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ƙananan gwabzawa da dama ne suka yi gabanin taron sojojin da suka yi a yakin Tsuntua. Duk da cewa Yunfa ya yi nasara kuma dan Fodio ya rasa mazaje da dama, amma yakin bai rage karfinsa ba. Ya kuma mayar da martani da kame kauyen Matankari, wanda kuma ya haifar da yakin Tafkin Kwattoa, wani babban mataki ne tsakanin dakarun Yunfa da dan Fodio. Duk da cewa sun fi yawa, amma sojojin dan Fodio sun iya hana Yunfa gaba da Gunu, kuma ta haka ne suka shawo kan dimbin jama'a su shiga rundunarsa.

A cikin shekarar 1805, sojojin dan Fodio, masu jihadi, sun kwace masarautar Hausa ta Kebbi. A shekara ta 1807 masu jihadi suka mamaye Katsina wanda sarkinsu Magajin Halidu ya kashe kansa bayan shan kaye.[3] Daga nan suka kwace masarautar Kano wadda aka tilastawa sarkinta ( Muhammad Alwali II ) ya gudu zuwa Zazzau, sai kauyen Burum-Burum inda nan da nan aka kashe shi a yaki.[4] A cikin shekarata 1808, masu jihadi suka far wa Gobir, inda suka kashe Yunfa a Yakin Alkalawa, tare da ruguza sassa da dama na birnin. Sannan kuma Abdullahi dan Fodio shi ma ya karbi ragamar masarautar Kebbi a wannan shekarar.

Da kame Gobir, masu jihadi suka ga cewa suna cikin faffadan gwagwarmayar yankin. Sun ci gaba da yakar sarakunan Hausawa da dama, kuma daular Sokoto ta fadada cikin shekaru biyu masu zuwa. Babban fadada na karshe na masu jihadi shi ne kifar da daular Sayfawa a shekara ta 1846.

Kafa Daular Sokoto[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Muhammed Bello, dan Usman ɗan Fodio, ya kuma mayar da sansanin zama na dindindin na Sokoto a shekarar 1809, a lokacin yakin Fulani. Ɗan Fodio ya yi sarauta daga Sakkwato a matsayin shugaban addini na Jihadin Fulani tun daga wancan lokacin har zuwa 1815, lokacin da ya yi ritaya daga aikin gudanarwa.[5] Halifanci ya nada sarakuna daban-daban don gudanar da jahohin daular. Su dai waɗannan mutanen sun kasance jiga-jigan yakin Fulani.

Gado[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Nasarar jihadin ya zaburar da wasu masu jihadi na yammacin Afirka daga baya, wadanda suka hada da wanda ya kafa Masarautar Massina Seku Amadu, wanda ya kafa Daular Toucouleur Umar Tall, wanda kuma ya kafa Daular Wassoulou Samori Ture, da kuma wanda ya kafa Masarautar Adamawa Modibo Adama.

Daular Sakkwato ta ci gaba har zuwa yanzu. Tun lokacin da Turawan mulkin mallaka na Ingila suka mamaye Halifanci a shekarar 1903, sannan daga bisani Najeriya ta samu ƴancin kai a ƙarƙashin gwamnatin tsarin mulki a shekarar 1960, ƙarfin siyasar Khalifanci ya ragu. Amma matsayin har yanzu yana da babban iko na ruhaniya.[2]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Hamza Muhammad Maishanu; Isa Muhammad Maishanu (1999). "The Jihad and the Formation of the Sokoto Caliphate" (PDF). Islamic Studies. 38 (1): 119–131. JSTOR 20837029. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 2, 2018.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Chafe, Kabiru Sulaiman (1994). "Challenges to the Hegemony of the Sokoto Caliphate: A Preliminary Examination". Paideuma. 40: 99–109.
  3. Forde, Daryll; Kaberry, P. M. (2018-10-10). West African Kingdoms in the Nineteenth Century (in Turanci). Routledge. ISBN 978-0-429-95851-9.
  4. Smith, M. G. (2021-12-13). Government In Kano, 1350-1950 (in Turanci). Routledge. ISBN 978-0-429-72118-2.
  5. Boyd, Jean (1986). Mahdi Adamu (ed.). Pastoralists of the West African Savanna. Manchester, UK: International African Institute.