Maya Angelou

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Simpleicons Interface user-outline.svg Maya Angelou
Maya Angelou visits YCP Feb 2013.jpg
Rayuwa
Cikakken suna Marguerite Annie Johnson
Haihuwa St. Louis (en) Fassara, 4 ga Afirilu, 1928
ƙasa Tarayyar Amurka
Mazaunin St. Louis (en) Fassara
ƙungiyar ƙabila Afirnawan Amirka
Mutuwa Winston-Salem (en) Fassara, 28 Mayu 2014
Yanayin mutuwa  (cuta)
Karatu
Makaranta George Washington High School (en) Fassara
California Labor School (en) Fassara
Harsuna Turanci
Sana'a
Sana'a ɗan siyasa, cali-cali, mai rawa, mai tsara fim, mai tsare-tsaren gidan talabijin, marubucin wasannin kwaykwayo, darakta, Farfesa, marubin wasannin kwaykwayo, marubuci, essayist (en) Fassara, mai rubuta waka, autobiographer (en) Fassara, mawaƙi, dan wasan kwaikwayon talabijin, stage actor (en) Fassara, ɗan jarida, novelist (en) Fassara da Mai kare ƴancin ɗan'adam
Employers third-person singular (en) Fassara
Wake Forest University (en) Fassara
Muhimman ayyuka I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings (en) Fassara
On the Pulse of Morning (en) Fassara
And Still I Rise (en) Fassara
Kyaututtuka
Ayyanawa daga
Wanda ya ja hankalinsa Charles Dickens (en) Fassara, Edgar Allan Poe (en) Fassara, penis (en) Fassara, James Weldon Johnson (en) Fassara, William Shakespeare (en) Fassara da Zora Neale Hurston (en) Fassara
Mamba Alpha Kappa Alpha (en) Fassara
Kayan kida voice (en) Fassara
IMDb nm0029723
mayaangelou.com

Maya Angelou ( /æ n dʒ ə l oʊ / ( link=| Game da wannan sauti / ) ; haihuwa Marguerite Annie Johnson ; Afrilu 4, 1928   - 28 ga Mayu, 2014) mawaƙiya Ba'amurkiya ce, mawaƙiya, mai ba da labari, mai fafutukar kare hakkin jama'a . Ta wallafa tarihin rayuwa (autobiographiesa0 guda bakwai, littattafai uku na tatsuniyoyi, littattafai na adabi da yawa, an kuma lasafta ta cikin jerin wasannin kwaikwayo, fina-finai, da kuma wasannin talabijin da ke gudana cikin sama da shekaru 50. Ta samu lambobin yabo da darajoji sama da 50. Angelou sanannu sanannu ne ga jerin batutuwa guda bakwai, waɗanda suka mayar da hankali ga ƙuruciyarta da kuma abubuwan da suka fara samu a kanta. Na farko, Na san Dalilin da yasa aka Saka Tsuntsu Tsuntsu (1969), tayi bayanin rayuwarta tun tana shekaru 17 wanda ya janyo mata yabo a duniya da daukaka.

Ta zama mawakiya, marubuciya bayan wasu ayyukan data yi ayayin samartakar ta wanda suka hada da dafa abinci, ma'aikaciyar jima'i, yar rawa, yin wasan kwaikwayo, memba na opera Porgy da Bess, mai gudanarwa a Taron Shugabannin Kiristocin Kudancin, da kuma 'yar jarida a Masar da Gana a lokacin mulkin Afirka . Ta kasance mai wasan kwaikwayo, marubuci, darekta, kuma mai gabatar da wasannin kwaikwayo, fina-finai, da shirye-shiryen talabijin na jama'a. A shekarar 1982, aka sanya mata suna Farfesa Reynolds na farko na Farfesa a Jami'ar Wake da ke Winston-Salem, North Carolina . Tana aiki a cikin Rightsungiyoyin Rightsungiyoyin andungiyoyin kuma ta yi aiki tare da Martin Luther King Jr. da Malcolm X. Tun daga shekarun 1990s, ta yi bayyani sau 80 a shekara a kan karatun lacca, wani abu da ta ci gaba har zuwa shekarun ta. A cikin 1993, Angelou ta karanta mawaƙinta mai taken " A kan Morning of Morning " (1993) a lokacin buɗe Bill Clinton na farko, wanda ya ba ta waka ta farko da ta fara karatun boko tun Robert Frost a lokacin buɗe John F. Kennedy a 1961.

Da wallafa (I know Why The Caged Bird Sings) Na Na San Abin da Ya Sa Tsararrun Tsuntsayen Birni, Angelou ta tattauna a fili dangane da rayuwar ta. An mutunta ta a matsayin kakakin baƙar fata ga baki da mata, kuma ayyukanta an ɗauke ta a matsayin kariya ga al'adar baƙar fata. Ayyukanta suna da amfani sosai a makarantu da jami'o'i a duk duniya, kodayake an yi ƙoƙarin hana littattafan ta daga wasu ɗakunan karatu na Amurka. Abubuwan da aka fi girmamawa na Angelou an sanya su azaman almara, amma masu sukar da yawa suna ɗauka cewa masu ra'ayin kansa ne. Ta yi yunƙurin yin ƙoƙari don ƙalubalanci tsarin rayuwar ɗabi'a ta hanyar zargi, canzawa da faɗaɗa nau'in sifa. Littattafan nata suna kan batutuwa kamar su wariyar launin fata, asalinsu, dangi da balaguro.

Farkon rayuwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Marguerite Annie Johnson an haife ta ne a St. Louis, Missouri, ranar 4 Afrilu, 1928, itace ta biyun yayan Bailey Johnson, ma'aikacin gadi, mai dafa abincin sojojin ruwa, da matarsa Vivian (Baxter) Johnson, ma'aikaciyar jinya ce kuma dilla ce. [1] dan uwan Angelou, Bailey Jr., wanda ake wa lakabi da Marguerite "Maya", an samo shi ne daga "My" ko "Mya Sister". [2] Lokacin da Angelou ta kasancean shekara uku da ɗanuwanta huɗu, "aure mai wahala" [3] ya ƙare, kuma mahaifinsu ya tura su zuwa Stamps, Arkansas, shi kaɗai ta jirgin ƙasa, don zama tare da kakanin mahaifinsu, Annie Henderson. A cikin "ban mamaki mai ban mamaki" ga matsanancin tattalin arziƙin Baƙin Amurkawa na lokacin, tsohuwar uwargidan Angelou ta sami wadatar kuɗi yayin Babban Bala'i da Yaƙin Duniya na II saboda babban shagon da ta mallaka ya buƙaci kayayyaki na yau da kullun kuma saboda "ta sanya hikima da gaskiya saka jari ". [bayanin kula 2] Template:Quote boxTemplate:Quote box Shekaru huɗu bayan haka, mahaifin yaran "ya zo Stamps ba tare da gargadi ba" [4] mayar da su zuwa kulawar mahaifiyarsu a St. Louis. Lokacin tana da shekara takwas, yayin da suke zaune tare da mahaifiyarta, Angelou ta fuskanci zarafi da yin lalata da ita daga wurin saurayin mahaifiyarta, wani mutum mai suna Freeman. Ta gaya wa dan uwanta, wanda ya gaya wa sauran danginsu. An samu Freeman da laifi amma kwana guda kawai aka daure shi. Kwana hudu bayan sakinsa, an kashe shi, mai yiwuwa ga iyayen Angelou. Angelou ta zama bata iya magana kusan shekara biyar, [5] tana ganin, kamar yadda ta bayyana, “Na yi tunani, muryata ta ce ta kashe shi; Na kashe wannan mutumin, saboda na fada sunansa. Kuma a lokacin na yi tunanin ba zan sake yin magana ba, saboda muryata za ta kashe kowa. " A cewar Marcia Ann Gillespie da takwarorinta, waɗanda suka rubuta tarihin rayuwar game da Angelou, a wannan lokacin ne lokacin shiru yayin da Angelou ta bunkasa ƙwaƙwalwar ajiyar ta, da ƙaunar littattafai da adabi, da kuma iya saurarenta da lura da duniyar da ke kewayenta. [6]

Ba da daɗewa ba bayan kisan Freeman, an sake dawo da Angelou da ɗanuwanta zuwa ga kakansu wurin kakansu. [7] Angelou ta yaba wa malama kuma abokiyar dangin ta, Mrs. Bertha Furanni, tare da taimaka mata da sake yin magana. Furanni sun gabatar da ita ga marubuta kamar su Charles Dickens, William Shakespeare, Edgar Allan Poe, Douglas Johnson, da James Weldon Johnson, marubutan da zasu shafi rayuwarta da ayyukanta, gami da bakaken mata mata kamar Frances Harper, Anne Spencer, da Jessie Fauset . [8] [9] [10]

Lokacin da Angelou ta kasance 14, ita da ɗan'uwanta sun sake komawa tare da mahaifiyarsu, wanda tun daga nan suka koma Oakland, California . A lokacin Yaƙin Duniya na II, Angelou ta halarci Makarantar Kwadago ta California . Lokacin da ta kai shekara 16, ta zama mace ta farko mace mai baƙon keken mota a San Francisco. [11] Tana son aikin da bai dace ba, tana sha'awar rigar masu aiki - har mahaifiyarta ta kirata da "aikin mafarkinta." Mahaifiyarta sun ƙarfafa shi don bin matsayin, amma ya gargaɗe ta cewa lallai tana buƙatar zuwa da wuri kuma ta yi aiki sosai fiye da sauran. A shekarar 2014, Angelou ta sami lambar yabo ta rayuwa a wurin taron na Ma’aikatan Harkokin Sufuri na oran tsira a zaman wani zaman da aka gabatar da taken "Matan da suka theaura Al'umma."

Makonni uku bayan kammala makaranta, a lokacin tana da shekara 17, ta haifi ɗanta, Clyde (wanda daga baya ya canza sunansa zuwa Guy Johnson). [12]

Aiki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Balaganta da aikin farko: 1951-61[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A shekara ta 1951, Angelou ta auri Tosh Angelos, mai gyaran wuta dan Girka, mai aikin injiniya, kuma mai son kide-kide, duk da la'antar dangantakar da ke tsakanin kabilu a lokacin da kuma rashin amincewa da mahaifiyarsa. [13] [14] [bayanin kula 3] Ta dauki azuzuwan rawa na zamani a wannan lokacin, kuma ta hadu da masu rawa da mawaka Alvin Ailey da Ruth Beckford. Ailey da Angelou sun kirkiro ƙungiyar rawa, suna kiran kansu "Al da Rita", kuma sun yi rawar zamani a ƙungiyoyin baƙar fata a cikin San Francisco amma ba su taɓa yin nasara ba. [15] Angelou, sabon mijinta, da ɗanta suka ƙaura zuwa New York City don ta yi nazarin rawar Afirka tare da ɗan wasan Trinidadiya Pearl Primus, amma sun sake komawa San Francisco bayan shekara guda. [16]

Bayan da auren Angelou ta kare a shekara ta 1954, ta yi rawar gani a kungiyoyi da ke kusa da San Francisco, gami da kidan da ake yi a gidan mai suna 'Purple Onion', inda ta rera waka da rawa da kida na calypso . [17] Har zuwa wannan lokacin ta kasance da sunan "Marguerite Johnson", ko "Rita", amma a cikin babbar shawarar kwastomominta da mataimakan ta a cikin Purple Onion, ta canza sunanta na zamani zuwa "Maya Angelou" (ta sunan barkwanci da sunan mahaifan aure da suka gabata). Wata 'sananniyar suna' [18] ce ta banbance ta kuma ta ji irin rawar da wasanninta na calypso ke yi. A tsakanin 1954 da 1955, Angelou ta zagaya Turai tare da samar da opera Porgy da Bess . Ta fara karatun ta na koyon yare na kowace ƙasa da ta ziyarta, kuma cikin yearsan shekaru kaɗan ta sami ƙwarewa a cikin yaruka da yawa. [19] A shekarar 1957, hawa a kan shahararsa ta calypso, Angelou rubuce ta farko album, Miss calypso, wanda aka sa a fitar a matsayin wani CD a 1996. [15] [20] Ta bayyana a wani Off-Broadway review cewa wahayi zuwa fim din Calypso Heat Wave na 1957, wanda Angelou ta rera kuma ta yi waƙoƙin nata. [bayanin kula 4] [bayanin kula 5]

Angelou ta hadu da mawaki John Oliver Killens a cikin 1959 kuma, bisa ga roƙonsa, ta koma New York don mai da hankali kan ayyukan rubuce-rubucen ta. Ta shiga cikin Harlem Writrs Guild, inda ta sadu da manyan marubutan Afirka-Ba-Amurka, wadanda suka hada da John Henrik Clarke, Rosa Guy, Paule Marshall, da Julian Mayfield, kuma an buga shi a karon farko. [21] A shekarar 1960, bayan haduwa da shugaban kare hakkin dan Adam Martin Luther King Jr. da sauraren shi yayi magana, ita da Killens sun shirya "almara" Cabaret for Freedom don amfana da Taron Shugabannin Kungiyar Kiristocin Kudancin (SCLC), kuma aka sanya mata suna mai gudanarwa na Arewa. . A cewar masanin Lyman B. Hagen, gudummawar da ta bayar ga haƙƙin ɗan ƙasa a matsayin mai ba da gudummawa da kuma mai tsara SCLC ya kasance mai nasara kuma "a hankali har abada". [22] Ita ma Angelou ta fara gwagwarmayar Castro ne da kuma nuna wariyar launin fata a wannan lokacin. [23]

Afirka to Caged Bird : 1961-69[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

View of Accra, Ghana from above.
Mafi yawan lokacin Angelou a Afirka an kashe su ne a Accra, Ghana, wanda aka nuna a cikin 2008.

A cikin 1961, Angelou ta yi wasa a cikin wasan kwaikwayon na Jean Genet The Blacks, tare da Abbey Lincoln, Roscoe Lee Brown, James Earl Jones, Louis Gossett, Godfrey Cambridge, da Cicely Tyson . [24] Hakanan a shekarar 1961, ta hadu da mai gwagwarmayar 'yanci na Afirka ta Kudu Vusumzi Make ; ba su yi aure bisa hukuma ba. [25] Ita da ɗanta Guy sun ƙaura tare da Make zuwa Alkahira, inda Angelou ta yi aiki a matsayin editan edita a jaridar Turanci na mako-mako The Arab Observer . [26] [27] A 1962, dangantakarta da Make ta ƙare, ita da Guy suka koma Accra, Ghana don ya halarci kwaleji, amma ya ji rauni sosai a wani hatsarin mota. [bayanin kula 6] Angelou ya ci gaba da zama a Accra don murmurewa kuma ya ƙare ya ci gaba da zama a nan har zuwa 1965. Ta zama ma'aikaciya a Jami'ar Gana, kuma ta kasance mai aiki a cikin kasashen Afirka da baƙi na kasashen waje. [28] Ta kasance edita ne mai taken The African Review, [29] marubuci mai zaman kansa ga Jaridar Ganawa, rubuta da watsa shirye-shiryen Rediyo Gana, kuma ta yi aiki da kuma yi wa gidan wasan kwaikwayo na Kasa. Ta yi ne a cikin farfadowa da The Blacks a Geneva da Berlin. [30]

A Accra, ta kasance abokiya na kud da kud da Malcolm X a yayin ziyarar tasa a farkon shekarun 1960. Angelou ta dawo Amurka a shekarar 1965 don ta taimaka masa wajen kafa sabuwar kungiyar kare hakkin dan adam, Kungiyar Hadin kan Amurkawa ; An kashe shi ba da daɗewa ba. Cikin takaici da rashin yarda, sai ta hada kai da dan uwanta a Hawaii, inda ta fara aikinta na raye-raye. Ta koma Los Angeles ne domin ta mai da hankali kan aikinta na rubutu. Yin aiki a matsayin mai binciken kasuwa a Watts, Angelou ya shaida tarzoma a lokacin bazara na 1965. Tana cikin rubuce-rubuce da wasannin kwaikwayo, sannan ta dawo New York a shekarar 1967. Ta sadu da abokiyar rayuwar ta Rosa Guy kuma ta sake sabunta abokantaka da James Baldwin, wanda ta sadu da ita a Paris a cikin shekarun 1950 kuma ta kira "ɗan'uwana", a wannan lokacin. Abokiyarta Jerry Purcell sun ba wa Angelou wani tallafi don tallafa wa rubuce-rubucen ta. [31]

A shekarar 1968, Martin Luther King Jr. ya nemi Angelou da ta shirya wata tafiya. Ta yarda, amma "sake jinkirtawa", kuma a cikin abin da Gillespie ya kira "macabre karkatar da makoma", [32] an kashe shi ranar haihuwar ta 40 (Afrilu 4). [bayanin kula 8] Jin daɗin sake, abokinta James Baldwin ya ƙarfafa ta saboda baƙin ciki. Kamar yadda Gillespie yake faɗi, "Idan 1968 shekara ce ta babban raɗaɗi, rashi, da baƙin ciki, wannan ma shekarar ce da America ta fara ganin zurfin zurfin ruhun Maya Angelou da hazikanci". Duk da kasancewa kusan babu gogewa, sai ta rubuta, samarwa, kuma aka ruwaito baƙar fata, Blues, Black!, [33] a goma-kashi jerin Documentaries game da dangantaka da take tsakanin Blues music kuma baki Amirkawa 'Afirka al'adunmu, da kuma abin da Angelou da ake kira "Africanisms har yanzu halin yanzu a Amurka" don National Educational Television, da precursor na PBS . Hakanan a shekarar 1968, wacce aka yi wahayi a wajen cin abincin dare da ta halarta tare da Baldwin, mai rubutun katuun Jules Feiffer, da matar sa Judy, kuma sun qalubalanci edita Random House Robert Loomis, ta rubuta tarihinta na farko, Na san Dalilin da yasa aka Kama Tsarin Bird Sings, wanda aka buga a shekarar 1969. Wannan ya kawo fitowar ta duniya da yabo.

Aikin baya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An sake a shekarar 1972, kamfanin Georgia na Georgia, Georgia, wanda kamfanin fina-finai na kasar Sweden ya kirkira kuma yayi fim a Sweden, shine fim din farko da wata mace bakuwa tayi. Ta kuma rubuta sautin fim din, duk da cewa ba karamin shigar da kara a cikin fim din ba. [34] [bayanin kula 9] Angelou ta auri Paul du Feu, maƙeran gidan Welsh kuma tsohon mijin marubuci Germaine Greer, a San Francisco a 1973. [bayanin kula 10] A cikin shekaru goma masu zuwa, kamar yadda Gillespie ya bayyana, "Ta [Angelou ] sun cimma abubuwan da masana fasaha da yawa ke fatan cimma cikin rayuwarsu. " [35] Angelou ta yi aiki a matsayin mawaki, tana yin rubutu don mawaƙa Roberta Flack, da kuma shirya finafinai. Ta rubuta kasidu, gajerun labarai, rubutun TV, rubuce-rubuce, tarihin rayuwa, da waƙoƙi. Ta samar da wasannin kwaikwayo kuma an ba ta suna farfesa a cikin kwalejoji da jami'o'i da yawa. Ita '' yar wasan kwaikwayo ce mai son jan hankali ', [36] kuma an ba ta lambar yabo ta Tony Award a 1973 saboda rawar da ta taka a Look Away . A matsayinta na darektan gidan wasan kwaikwayo, a 1988 ta fara yin wasan kwaikwayon Errol John na wasan Moon a kan bakan-gizon gidan wasan kwaikwayo na Almeida a London .

A 1977, Angelou bayyana a cikin wani wasan rawa a cikin talabijin mini-jerin Roots amatsayin mai taimako . An ba ta lambobin yabo da yawa a wannan lokacin, gami da sama da digiri talatin na girmamawa daga kwalejoji da jami'o'i daga duk duniya. A ƙarshen 1970s, Angelou ta sadu da Oprah Winfrey lokacin da Winfrey ya kasance mai amfani da telebijin a Baltimore, Maryland; Daga baya Angelou ta zama babban aminiyar Winfrey kuma mai ba da shawara. [bayanin kula 12] A shekara ta 1981, Angelou da du Feu sun sake su.

Ta dawo Kudancin Amurka a 1981 saboda tana jin dole ne ta zama abin da ta gabata a can kuma, duk da cewa ba ta da digiri na farko, ta yarda da rayuwar Farfesa a fannin Nazarin Amurka na Jami’ar Wake Forest a Winston-Salem, North Carolina, inda ta kasance ɗaya daga cikin esan furofesoshin Ba-Amurkan na cikakken lokaci. Daga nan, ta dauki kanta a matsayin "malami mai rubutawa". Angelou ta koyar da batutuwa da dama da suka nuna sha'awar ta, gami da falsafa, ɗabi'a, tiyoloji, kimiyya, wasan kwaikwayo, da rubutu. [37] Jaridar Winston-Salem Journal ta ba da rahoton cewa duk da cewa ta sami abokai da yawa a harabar jami'ar, "ba ta taba yin watsi da sukar da mutane suka yi mata ba. karshen karatun da ta koya a Wake Forest shine a shekarar 2011, amma tana shirin koyar da wani darasi a ƙarshen 2014. Kasancewarta ta karshe game da zancen jami'a a ƙarshen 2013. Tun daga shekarun 1990s, Angelou ta kasance cikin sahun gaba a cikin laccar koyarwa a cikin wata motar bas wacce aka saba, wani abu da ta ci gaba har zuwa shekarun ta. [38]

Maya Angelou tana magana ne a wurin wani taron gangami don Barack Obama, 2008

A shekarar 1993, Angelou ta karanta waken ta mai taken " On the Pulse of Morning " a lokacin bikin rantsar da Bill Clinton, ta zama mawaƙiya na farko da ta yi wake a bikin rantsar da shugaban kasa tun Robert Frost a ƙaddamarwar John F. Kennedy a 1961 Karatunta ya haifar da karin suna da girmamawa ga ayyukanta na baya, da kuma fadada karatunta "a fagen kabilanci, tattalin arziki, da ilimi". Rikodin waka ta lashe lambar yabo ta Grammy . [39] A watan Yuni na 1995, ta ba da abin da Richard Long ya kira shi da "waƙar jama'a na biyu" na jama'a ", [40] mai taken" Braar Amfani da Gaskiya ", wanda ke bikin tunawa da shekaru 50 na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya .

Angelou ta cimma burinta ne na jagorantar fim din fasali a shekarar 1996, Down a cikin Delta wanda ya fito da 'yan wasa kamar su Alfre Woodard da Wesley Snipes . [41] Hakanan a cikin 1996, ta yi aiki tare da masu fasahar R&amp;B Ashford &amp; Simpson akan waƙoƙi goma sha ɗaya na kundin su Been Find . Kundin kundin alhakin shi ne na uku na hotunan <i id="mwAX0">Billboard</i> kawai na Angelou. A cikin 2000, ta ƙirƙiri samfuran nasara don Hallmark, gami da katunan gaisuwa da abubuwa na kayan ado na gida. [42] Ta amsa wa masu sukar da suka tuhume ta da cewa sun yi ciniki sosai ta hanyar cewa "kamfanin ya yi daidai da kiyaye matsayinta na 'mawakan mutane'". Fiye da shekaru talatin bayan da Angelou ta fara rubuta tarihin rayuwarta, ta kammala tarihinta na shida.A Song Flung Up to Heaven Wani Waƙa ya Zuwa Sama, a 2002. [43]

Angelou da Hillary Clinton a wani taron a North Carolina a 2008

Angelou ta yi kamfe na Jam’iyyar Democrat a zabubbukan shugaban kasa na shekarar 2008, inda ta ba ta goyon bayan jama'a ga Hillary Clinton . A zagayen farko na zaben watan Janairu a South Carolina, yakin neman zaben Clinton ya gabatar da tallace-tallacen da ke nuna goyon baya ga Angelou. Tallace-tallacen wani ~ angare ne na yun} urin da aka yi na tattara goyon baya a cikin ba} ar fata; amma Barack Obama ya lashe ta Kudancin Carolina, inda ya kammala maki 29 a gaban Clinton da kuma samun kashi 80% na Bakar ƙuri'a. Lokacin da yaƙin neman zaɓe Clinton ya ƙare, Angelou ta ba da goyan bayanta ga Obama, wanda ya ci gaba da lashe zaɓen shugaban ƙasa kuma ya zama shugaban Afirka na farko na Amurkan. Bayan bikin rantsarwar Obama, ta bayyana cewa, "Mun girma fiye da yadda ake magana kan wariyar launin fata da kuma luwadi."

A ƙarshen 2010, Angelou ta ba da takaddun takardarta da abubuwan tunawa da aikinta ga Cibiyar Binciken Masana'antar Ba da Fata ta Al'adu ta Harlem . Sun ƙunshi akwatunan sama da 340 na takardu waɗanda ke nuna bayanan rubutun hannunta na rubutu akan aljihun doka don na san Me yasa Cged Bird Sings, wayar tarho daga 1982 daga Coretta Scott King, wasiƙar fan, da wasiƙar sirri da ƙwararru daga abokan aiki kamar edita Robert Loomis. A shekara ta 2011, Angelou ta kasance mai ba da shawara ga Martin Luther King, Jr Memorial a Washington, DC Ta yi magana da hamayya da wani kwatancin abin da King ya fada a lokacin tunawa, inda ta ce, "Faɗin ya sa Dr. Martin Luther Sarki yayi kama da mai girman kai ', nemi da a canza shi. A ƙarshe, an cire fasalin.

A cikin 2013, yayin da yake da shekaru 85, Angelou ta wallafa girma na bakwai na tarihin rayuwar kansa a jerin ta, mai taken Mama & Me & Mama, wanda ke mayar da hankali kan alaƙar da ke tsakanin mahaifiyarta.

Rayuwarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Template:Quote box Shaida ta nuna cewa Angelou yar wani bangare ne daga mutanen Mende na Yammacin Afirka. [b A shekara ta 2008, gwajin DNA ya nuna cewa a cikin dukkan magabatan Afirka, kashi 45 sun fito ne daga Kongo - yankin Angola kuma kashi 55 daga cikin Afirka ta Yamma ne . Wani bayanin da aka yi na PBS a 2008 ya gano cewa mahaifiyar mahaifiyar Angelou Mary Lee, wacce ta sami 'yanci bayan yakin basasa, ta sami juna biyu ta hannun tsohon maigidan nata, John Savin. Savin ya tilasta Lee ya sa hannu a wata sanarwa ta karya wacce ke zargin wani mutum da kasancewa mahaifin ɗanta. Bayan an tuhumi Savin da tilasta wa Lee yin zagon kasa, kuma duk da gano cewa Savin ya kasance uba, sai masu yanke hukunci suka same shi da laifi. An tura Lee zuwa gidan marassa kyau na Clinton County da ke Missouri tare da diyarta, Marguerite Baxter, wanda ya zama kaka ga uwar Angelou. Angelou ta bayyana Lee a matsayin "karamar yarinyar baƙar fata, a jiki da ta hankali".

Angelou tana da ɗa guda ɗaya, Guy, wanda haihuwar ta bayyana a tarihinta na farko; daya jikan, jikoki biyu, [44] kuma, a cewar Gillespie, babban rukunin abokai da dangi. [bayanin kula 14] Mahaifiyar Angelou Vivian Baxter ta mutu a 1991 da dan uwanta Bailey Johnson Jr., ta mutu a shekara ta 2000 bayan wasu jerin raunuka; Dukansu muhimman mutane ne a rayuwarta da littafanta. [45] [bayanin kula 15] A cikin 1981, mahaifiyar jikan ta ta bace tare da shi; neman shi ya ɗauki shekara huɗu. [bayanin kula 16]

A shekara ta 2009, gidan yanar gizon TMZ da ke tseguntawa ya ba da rahoton cewa an kwantar da Angelou asibiti a Los Angeles lokacin da take da rai kuma a cikin St. Louis, wanda ya haifar da jita-jita game da mutuwarta kuma, a cewar Angelou, damuwa tsakanin abokai da danginta a duk duniya. A cikin 2013, Angelou ta gaya wa kawarta Oprah Winfrey cewa ta yi karatuttukan darussan da Cocin Unityungiyar Unity ta ba da, waɗanda ke da mahimmanci a cikin ruhaniya. Ba ta sami digiri na digiri ba, amma a cewar Gillespie shi ne abin da Angelou ta fi son mutane su kira shi "Dr. Angelou" daga wajen iyalinta da kuma abokanta. Ta mallaki gidaje biyu a Winston-Salem, North Carolina, da kuma "lordly brownstone" a Harlem, wanda aka saya a 2004 kuma yana cike da "ɗakunan karatu" masu girma " [46] na littattafan da ta tattara a duk faɗin ta. rayuwa, zane-zane da aka tara tsawon shekarun da suka gabata, da kuma dafaffen abinci. Marubucin Guardian Gary Younge ya ba da rahoton cewa, a cikin gidan Harlo na gidan Angelou akwai wasu katangar bango na Afirka da tarin zane-zanenta, ciki har da na wasu mawaƙa da yawa, da mai ruwa na Rosa Parks, da kuma wani aiki mai suna Faith Ringgold mai suna "Maya's Quilt Of Life".

A cewar Gillespie, ta gudanar da bukukuwan da yawa a kowace shekara a babban gidanta na Winston-Salem; "Kwarewar da take dashi a girkin itace tatsuniya-daga abinci mai kyau har zuwa abinci mai ta'aziyya zuwa gida". [38] A Winston-Salem Journal ya fada cewa: "kullawa wani gayyatar zuwa daya daga Angelou ta Thanksgiving cin abinci, Kirsimeti itace Popular jam'iyyun ko ajon yana daga cikin mafi coveted gayyata a gari." Jaridar New York Times, wacce ke bayyana tarihin gidan Angelou a New York City, ta bayyana cewa ta saba yin bakuncin manyan ranar bikin Sabuwar Shekara. Ta haɗu da dafa abincirta da ƙwarewar rubuce-rubucenta a cikin littafanta 2004 Hallelujah! Teburin Maraba da aka gabatar, wanda ya ƙunshi girke-girke na 73, wanda yawancinsu suka koya daga kakarta da mahaifiyarta, tare da kayan maye 28. Ta bi sahu a cikin 2010 tare da littafinta na biyu, Babban Abinci, Duk Rana Ta Tsawon Lokaci : Cook Da Nishaɗi, Ku Ci Smart, wanda ya mayar da hankali kan asarar nauyi da kulawar yanki.

Farawa daga Na san Dalilin da yasa Tsararrun Tsuntsayen Birni, Angelou tayi amfani da "rubutun rubutun al'ada" [10] tsawon shekaru. Da sanyin safiya ta farka ta shiga ɗakin otal, inda aka umarci ma'aikatan su cire duk hotuna daga bangon. Tana yin rubutu a kan allunan doka yayin da take kwance a kan gado, tare da kwalbar sherry, da katunan katunan don wasa solitaire, Roget's Thesaurus, da kuma Littafi Mai-Tsarki, kuma za ta tashi da yamma. Tana yin matsakaita shafi na 12-12 na rubuce rubuce a rana, wanda ta yi rubutu sau uku ko hudu a maraice. [bayanin kula 17] Ta ci gaba da wannan hanyar don "yi maita" da kanta, kuma kamar yadda ta ce a cikin tattaunawa ta 1989 tare da Kamfanin Watsa Labarai na Burtaniya, "sake dawo da azabar, damuwa, Sturm und Drang ". Ta sanya kanta a cikin lokacin da ta rubuta game da, har ma da wahalhalu irin su fyade a cikin Cged Bird, don "faɗi gaskiyar ɗan adam" game da rayuwarta. Ita dai Angelou ta bayyana cewa ta buga katunan ne domin samun damar zuwa wannan wurin da ake sihiri kuma don samun damar tuno abubuwan tuna ta. Ta ce, "Ana iya ɗaukar sa'a ɗaya don shiga ciki, amma da zarar na kasance a ciki - ha! Yana da dadi sosai! " Ta ba ta sami cathartic tsari; a maimakon haka, ta sami kwanciyar hankali a “gaya gaskiya”.

Mutuwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Angelou ta mutu a safiyar ranar 28 ga Mayu, 2014 yana da shekara 86. Mahaifinta ne ya same ta. Kodayake an bayar da rahoton cewa Angelou tana cikin ƙoshin lafiya kuma ta soke wasannin da aka shirya kwanan nan, amma tana aiki a wani littafi, wani tarihin tarihin game da abubuwan da ta samu tare da shugabannin ƙasa da na duniya. Lokacin bikin tunawa da ita a Jami'ar Wake Forest, danta Guy Johnson ya bayyana cewa duk da kasancewa cikin azaba a koda yaushe saboda rawar rawa da gazawar numfashi, ta rubuta littattafai hudu a cikin shekaru goma na rayuwarta. Ya ce, "Ta bar wannan jirgi mai rai ba tare da asara mai wahala ba kuma ba asara a fahimta."

Kalamai ga Angelou da ta'aziyar da aka bayar ta hanyar masu zane-zane, masu ba da shawara, da shugabannin duniya, ciki har da Obama, wacce 'yar uwanta ta sanya wa suna Angelou, da Bill Clinton. Harold Augenbraum, daga Asusun Littattafai na kasa, ya ce "Gadoji na Angelou ɗaya ne wanda duk marubuta da masu karatu a duk faɗin duniya za su iya sha'awar su. Makon da ya mutu bayan mutuwar Angelou, Na san Dalilin da yasa Siyar Bird Sings ya tashi zuwa lamba 1 a jerin masu sayar da kayan sayarwa na Amazon.com .

A 29 ga Mayu, 2014, Dutsen Sihiyona Baptist Church a Winston-Salem, wanda Angelou ta kasance memba na shekaru 30, ta gudanar da bikin tunawa da jama'a don girmama ta. A ranar 7 ga Yuni, an gudanar da wani taron tunawa da masu zaman kansu a cikin Dutsen Sitel a harabar Jami'ar Wake da ke Winston-Salem. An nuna wannan bikin ne a tashoshin cikin gida a yankin Winston-Salem / Triad kuma an gabatar da jawabai kai tsaye a shafin yanar gizon jami'ar tare da jawabai daga danta, Oprah Winfrey, Michelle Obama, da Bill Clinton. A ranar 15 ga Yuni, an gudanar da taron tunawa a Cocin Glide Memorial da ke San Francisco, inda Angelou memba ce tsawon shekaru. Rev. Cecil Williams, Magajin gari Ed Lee, da tsohon magajin garin Willie Brown sun yi magana.

Ayyuka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Angelou ya rubuta jimlar tarihin rayuwa guda bakwai. A cewar masanin Mary Mary Lu Lupton, littafin tarihin Angelou na uku Singin 'da Swingin' da Gettin 'Merry Kamar Kirsimeti alama ce ta farko da sanannen ɗan Afirka-Amerikaniya ya rubuta littafi na uku game da rayuwarta. [47] Littattafan "suna shimfidawa a kan lokaci da wuri", daga Arkansas zuwa Afirka da kuma komawa Amurka, suna faruwa daga farkon Yaƙin Duniya na II zuwa kisan Martin Luther King, Jr. [48] A cikin tarihinta na biyar “Duk Allah Yara suna Bukatar Kayan tafiya ' Ta buga tarihinta na bakwai Mama & Me & Mama a cikin 2013, yana da shekaru 85. Masu sukar sun ci gaba da yin hukunci a kan abubuwan tarihin mai zuwa na Angelou "ta la'akari da farko", tare da Cged Bird suna karɓar yabo mafi girma. Angelou ta rubuta tarin littatafai guda biyar, wanda marubuciya Hilton Als ta kirata "littattafan hikima" da "girmamawa tare da rubuce-rubucen tarihin kansu". Angelou tayi amfani da edita iri ɗaya a duk lokacin aikinta na rubutu, Robert Loomis, editan zartarwa a Gidan Random ; ya yi ritaya a 2011 kuma an kira shi "daya daga cikin zauren wallafa mashahurin editocin." Angelou ya ce game da Loomis: "Muna da alaƙar da ta shahara a tsakanin masu wallafa." [49]

Dogo da tsufa na Angelou sun hada da wakoki, wasan kwaikwayo, allon hoton talabijin da fim, jagoranci, aiki, da kuma yin magana da jama'a. Ta kasance marubuciya mai salo ta shahara; herarata Kawai Kawo min Abincin Ruwa na Ruwa 'Nan aka Diiie (1971) aka ba ta lambar yabo ta Pulitzer, kuma Shugaban Amurka Bill Clinton ya zaɓe ta don ta maimaita wannan waka mai taken "On the Pulse of Morning" yayin bikin rantsuwarsa a 1993.

Angelou ta nasara addashin aiki hada da matsayin su a cikin da yawa kwaikwaiyo, fina-finai, da kuma talabijin shirye-shirye, ciki har da ta bayyanar a cikin talabijin mini-jerin Roots, a 1977. Hotunan wasan kwaikwayo, Georgia, Georgia (1972), ita ce rubutun farko da wata baƙar fata ta fito da ita, kuma ita ce mace ta farko ɗan ba-Amurke da ta jagoranci wani hoto mai motsi, Down a Delta, a cikin 1998. [41]

  • Na san Dalilin da yasa Sihirin Tsage Bird (1969): Zuwa 1944 (shekara 17)
  • Haduwa Tare Da Sunana (1974): 1944–48
  • Singin 'da Swingin' da Gettin 'Merry Kamar Kirsimeti (1976): 1949-55
  • Zuciyar Mace (1981): 1957-62
  • Dukkan 'Ya'yan Allah suna Bukatar takalmin Balaguro (1986): 1962-665
  • Waƙar da Aka Jefa Sama (aya (2002): 1965-68
  • Mama &amp; Ni &amp; Mama (2013): dubawa
Shugaban Amurka Barack Obama yana gabatar da Angelou tare da lambar yabo ta Shugaban Kasa na 'Yanci, a 2011

Lokacin da Na san Me Ya sa aka buga Siyar Bird Sings a cikin 1969, an yaba wa Angelou a matsayin sabon abin tunawa, ɗaya daga cikin matan Ba-Amurkan farko da suka sami damar tattauna rayuwarsu ta jama'a. A cewar masanin Hilton Als, har zuwa wannan lokacin, matan marubutan bakaken fata sun karkata ga lamarin har ya kai ga sun kasa gabatar da kansu a matsayin jigo a cikin littattafan da suka rubuta. Masanin ilimin harshe John McWhorter ya yarda, yana ganin ayyukan Angelou, wanda ya kira "tatsuniyoyi", a zaman "rubuce-rubuce na neman afuwa". Ya sanya Angelou a cikin al'adun adabin Baƙin Amurkan a matsayin kariya ga al'adun baƙar fata, wanda ya kira "bayyananniyar wallafe-wallafen alamomin da ke da tasiri a cikin malamin baƙar fata na lokacin". [50] Marubuci Julian Mayfield, wanda ya kira Caged Bird "aikin fasaha ne wanda ya ɓace da kwatanci", yi ishara da cewa tarihin rayuwar Angelou ya ba da misali ga baƙar fata marubutan mata kawai, har ma da baƙon tarihin Afirka-Ba'amurke gaba ɗaya. Als ya ce Caged Bird alama ce ta farkon lokacin da baƙar fata mai ba da izini zai iya, kamar yadda ya sanya shi, "rubuta game da baƙi daga ciki, ba tare da afuwa ko kariya ba". Ta hanyar rubuce-rubucen tarihinta, Angelou ta sami karbuwa sosai a matsayin mai magana da yawun bakaken fata da mata. [51] Hakan ya sanya ta "ba tare da wata shakka ba,   . . . Baƙon da aka fi sani da muryar Amurka ta Amurka wacce za a iya gani da kanta “,” da “babbar muryar magana ta zamani”. [52] Kamar yadda marubuci Gary Younge ya ce, "Wataƙila fiye da kowane marubuci da rai, rayuwar Angelou a zahiri aikinta ce."

Als ce cewa Caged Bird ya taimaka kara baki dandalin mata rubuce-rubucen a cikin 1970s, kasa ta hanyar da asali fiye da "ta rawa a cikin rinjaye zeitgeist ", ko a lokacin da aka rubuta cewa, a karshen da American Civil Rights Movement . Als ta kuma ce rubuce-rubucen Angelou, wadanda suka fi nuna sha'awar bayyana kansu fiye da siyasa ko mace, sun ‘yanto wasu marubutan mata don" buɗe kansu ba tare da kunya ga idanun duniya ba ". Mai sukar lamirin Angelou Joanne M. Braxton ta bayyana cewa Caged Bird "wataƙila ya fi dacewa da tarihin rayuwar" wacce mace Ba-Amurke ta rubuta a zamanin ta. [51] Labarin wakokin Angelou ya rinjayi al'umman kiɗan zamani na hip-hop, gami da masu zane-zane kamar Kanye West, Common, Tupac Shakur, da Nicki Minaj .

Liyafar maraba[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mai duba Elsie B. Washington, wataƙila sakamakon zaɓin Shugaba Clinton na Angelou ne don ta maimaita waka mai taken "A kan Mako na Morning" a lokacin bikin buɗe taron nasa na 1993, ya kira ta "baƙar fata mace baƙi". Sayar da talifin litattafai na litattafai da na waƙoƙi ya karu da kashi 300-600 cikin sati bayan karatun Angelou. Random House, wacce ta buga waka daga baya a waccan shekarar, dole ne ta sake buga kwafen 400,000 na dukkan litattafan nata domin ci gaba da biyan bukatar. Sun sayar da mafi yawan litattafan nata a watan Janairu na 1993 fiye da yadda suka yi a duk shekarar 1992, wanda ke karuwa da kashi 1200%. Ita dai Angelou ta ce, a martani ga zargi game da amfani da cikakken bayani game da rayuwarta a cikin ayyukanta, "Na yarda da Balzac da marubutan karni na 19, baki da fari, waɗanda suka ce, 'Na rubuta don kuɗi'." Younge, yayin da yake magana bayan buga littafin littatafai na uku na Angelou, Harafi ga 'yata (2008), ta ce, "A cikin shekarun da suka gabata, ta yi amfani da baiwarta ta fannoni daban-daban a wani fannin wasan kwaikwayo - na bayar da sakon sirri da inganta rayuwa ta hanyar hada wakoki, wakoki da hira. "

Littattafan Angelou, musamman Na san Dalilin da yasa Siyar Bird Sings, iyaye da yawa sun soki su, suna haifar da cire su daga tsarin makarantu da kuma ɗakunan ajiyar laburare. A cewar Kungiyar Hadin Kai ta Kasa, Sanatoci, iyaye da makarantu sun yi adawa da hotunan Cged Bird na ' yan madigo, da yin aure kafin aure, batsa, da kuma tashin hankali. Wasu sun yi Allah-wadai da yanayin bayyanar da labarin game da jima'i, amfani da yare, da kuma alamuran addini. Birgediya mai tsayi ya fito na uku akan jerin Libraryungiyar Makarantar Amurka (ALA) cikin Litattafai 100 Mafi Challeungiyoyin Matsaloli na 1990 - 2000 da na shida akan jerin ALA 2000-2009.

Kyauta da girmamawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Jami'o'i, kungiyoyi masu rubuce-rubuce, hukumomin gwamnati, da kungiyoyin kungiyoyi na musamman sun girmama Angelou. Ta karrama hada da wani Pulitzer Prize gabatarwa domin ta littafin wakoki, bani Cool sha ruwa 'fore na Diiie, wani Tony Award gabatarwa domin ta rawa a cikin 1973 play duba bãya, kuma uku Grammys mata magana maganar kundi. Ta yi aiki a kan kwamitocin biyu na shugaban kasa, kuma an ba ta lambar yabo ta Spingarn a 1994, lambar yabo ta kasa da kasa a 2000, da kuma lambar yabo ta shugaban kasa a 2011. An baiwa Angelou sama da digiri na daraja hamsin.

Yana amfani da ilimi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Anyi amfani da tarihin tarihin Angelou ta hanyar labarai da kuma hanyoyin al'adu da yawa na ilimin malamai . Jocelyn A. Glazier, malami a Jami'ar George Washington, ya horar da malamai yadda ake "magana game da tsere" a cikin ɗakunan karatun su tare da Na san Dalilin da Ya Sa Tsararrun Tsuntsu Tsararru da Haduwa Tare da Suna . A cewar Glazier, amfanin Angelou na rashin gaskiya, izgili, walwala, da baƙin ƙarfe ya sa masu karanta labarin tarihin Angelou ba su da tabbacin abin da ta bari da kuma yadda ya kamata su amsa ga abubuwan da ta bayyana. Misalin Angelou na abubuwan da ta samu game da wariyar launin fata sun tilasta wa masu karatu farat ɗaya ko dai su gano yadda suke ji game da tsere da kuma "matsayinsu na musamman", ko kuma a guji tattaunawar a matsayin wata hanya ta riƙe gatan su. Glazier ta gano cewa masu sukar sun mayar da hankali kan yadda Angelou ta dace da yanayin tarihin Afirka-Ba-Amurke da kuma dabarun rubuce-rubucen ta, amma masu karatu sun yi kokarin amsa tatsar labarinta tare da "mamaki, musamman idan suka shiga rubutu tare da wasu fata game da nau'in tarihin rayuwa ".

Mai Koyar da Daniyel kalubalanci, a cikin littafinsa na Tarihi na Resilience a cikin Yara, ya bincika abubuwan da suka faru a cikin Cged Bird don nuna kwatanci a cikin yara. Ya bayar da hujjar cewa littafin Angelou ya samar da "tsari mai amfani" don bincika matsalolin da yara da yawa kamar Maya suka fuskanta da kuma yadda al'ummominsu suka taimaka musu wajen samun nasara. Masanin ilimin halayyar dan Adam Chris Boyatzis ya ba da rahoton amfani da Caged Bird don haɓaka ka’idar kimiyya da bincike a cikin koyarwar batutuwan haɓaka yara kamar haɓakar akidar mutum da mutuncin kai, jigilar mutum, masana'antar da ƙaranci, illolin zagi, salon iyaye, ƙannen ɗan uwan da alakar abota, batutuwan da suka shafi jinsi, ci gaban wayewa, balaga, da kuma asalin zama cikin samartaka. Ya samo Caged Bird ya zama "ingantacciyar hanya" kayan aiki don samar da misalai na ainihi na waɗannan ra'ayoyin tunani.

ƙa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An san Angelou sanannun tarihin rayuwa guda bakwai, amma kuma ta kasance mawakiya ce mai nasara kuma mai nasara. An kira ta da "lafazin baƙar fata mace", kuma waƙoƙinta an kira shi da waƙoƙin Americansan Afirka na Afirka. Angelou tayi karatu kuma ta fara rubuta waƙoƙi tun yana ƙarami, kuma tayi amfani da waƙoƙi da sauran manyan littattafai don shawo kan fyaderta a matsayin yarinya, kamar yadda aka bayyana a cikin Birgediya Birged . [8] A cewar masanin Yasmin Y. DeGout, wallafe-wallafen su ma sun shafi kwarewar Angelou yayin mawaƙinta da marubucin da ta zama, musamman ma "jawabcin kwatancen da zai canza asali a cikin littafin tarihin wakoki." [53]

Da yawa daga masu sukar suna ganin tarihin Angelou da muhimmanci fiye da wakarta. Duk da cewa duk litattafan ta masu siye ne, amma ba a san adabinn ta da muhimmanci kamar yadda take ba kuma ba a kula da ita ba. [1] Waƙoƙin wakokinta sun fi ban sha'awa idan ta karanta da yin su, kuma masu sukar da yawa sun jaddada yanayin jama'a na waƙinta. [54] Rashin nuna yabo mai mahimmanci na Angelou an danganta shi ga yanayin jama'a na yawancin wakafuttukan nasa da kuma nasarar da Angelou ta samu, da kuma fifikon masu sukar larabci a matsayin rubutaccen rubutu maimakon magana ta baki, wanda aka yi. Zofia Burr ta gurfanar da masu sukar Angelou ta hanyar la’antar su da rashin yin la’akari da manyan manufofin Angelou a cikin rubuce-rubucen ta: "zama wakili maimakon mutum, mai iko maimakon rikon amana". [55]

Salo da salo iri-iri a tarihin rayuwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Amfani da Angelou na amfani da dabarun rubuta rubutu kamar tattaunawa, nunawa, da haɓaka jigo, saiti, tsari, da harshe sun haifar da sanya litattafan ta cikin yanayin almara na ainihi . [56] Angelou tayi wani yunƙuri da gaske a cikin litattafanta don ƙalubalanci tsarin tsarin rayuwar ta ɗabi'a, canji, da fadada nau'in. [57] Maryamu Mary Jane Lupton ta ce duk tarihin rayuwar Angelou sun dace da tsarin nau'ikan al'adu: marubuta guda ne suka rubuta su, suna cikin jerin abubuwan tarihi, kuma suna ɗauke da abubuwan halaye, fasaha, da jigo. [58] Angelou ta fahimci cewa akwai fannoni na almara zuwa litattafanta; Lupton ya yarda, yana mai bayanin cewa Angelou ya nuna "banbanci daga ra'ayi na al'ada game da tarihin rayuwa kamar gaskiya", [59] wanda ya yi daidai da babban taron tarihin Afirka-Ba'amurke wanda aka rubuta a lokacin ɓarnar tarihin tarihin Amurka, lokacin da Lupton da Afirka- Masanin Amurka Crispin Sartwell ya saka shi, an rufe gaskiya daga buƙatun kariyar kai. Masanin kimiyya Lyman B. Hagen ya sanya Angelou a cikin tsohuwar al'adar tarihin Bahaushe da Ba-Amurke, amma ya ce Angelou ta ƙirƙiri wata fassara ta musamman game da tarihin tarihin kansa. [60]

Angelou a Kwalejin York a watan Fabrairun 2013

A cewar masanin adabin Afirka bahaushe Pierre A. Walker, kalubalen galibin tarihin wallafe-wallafen Ba-Amurke shi ne cewa marubutan sa dole ne su tabbatar da matsayinsa a matsayin wallafe-wallafe kafin su cim ma burinsu na siyasa, wanda hakan ya sa editan Angelou Robert Loomis ya sami ikon yin iya ƙoƙarin ta don rubuta Caged Bird ta hanyar ƙalubalantar ta ta rubuta wani littafin tarihin da za a iya ɗauka a matsayin "babban fasaha". [61] Angelou ta yarda cewa ta bi al'adar bahaushe ta "magana da mutum-mutumin da ya fara magana game da jam'i na farko, koyaushe yana cewa Ina ma'anar 'mu'". Masanin kimiyya John McWhorter ya kira littattafan Angelou "tatsuniyoyi" [50] waɗanda ke kare al'adun Afirka da baƙi kuma suna yaƙar raini. A cewar McWhorter, Angelou ta tsara litattafanta, wanda ga alama kamar an rubuta shi fiye da yara fiye da na manya, don tallafawa kare al'adun bakaken fata. McWhorter tana ganin Angelou yayin da take bayyana kanta a cikin tarihin rayuwar ta "a matsayin wani babban mutum-mutun-mutumin-ba-Amurke a cikin Matsalar ''. McWhorter yana kallon ayyukan Angelou a matsayin kwanan wata, amma ya fahimci cewa "ta taimaka ta ba da hanya ga masu baƙar fata na zamani waɗanda suka sami damar jin daɗin jin daɗin kasancewa kawai mutane, ba wakilan tsere ba, kawai kansu". [62] Masanin Lynn Z. Bloom ya kwatanta ayyukan Angelou da rubuce-rubucen Frederick Douglass, yana mai cewa duka sun cika ɗayan manufa ɗaya: don bayyana al'adun baƙar fata da fassara shi don mafi yawan masu sauraronsu.

A cewar masanin Sondra O'Neale, ana iya sanya waƙar Angelou a cikin al'adar bakaken fata ta Afirka da baƙi, kuma takenta "yana bin wata dabara ta al'ada ce ta nau'ikan yammacin Afirka". [63] O'Neale ya bayyana cewa Angelou ta guji amfani da "harshen baƙar fata na duniya", [64] kuma an cimma shi, ta hanyar tattaunawa kai tsaye, abin da O'Neale ya kira "mafi tsammanin bayyanar ghetto". McWhorter ya ga yaren da Angelou tayi amfani da ita a tarihin rayuwar ta da kuma mutanen da ta nuna mara gaskiya ne, wanda ya haifar da rabuwa tsakanin ta da masu sauraro. Kamar yadda McWhorter ke faɗi, "Ban taɓa karanta rubuce-rubuce na kaina ba inda na sami irin wannan wahalar wajen tattaro ma'anar yadda tattaunawar take, ko kuma ma'anar wanene batun yake". [65] Misali, McWhorter ya ba da tabbaci, alal misali, manyan adadi a cikin littattafan Angelou, kamar ita, ɗanta Guy, da mahaifiyarta Vivian ba sa magana kamar yadda mutum zai zata, kuma cewa kalaman nasu “an tsaftace su” ne ga masu karatun ta. [66] Misali, Guy, wakiltar ƙaramar baƙar fata maza, yayin da Vivian wakiltar adadi na mahaifiyar da ta dace, da mahimmin yaren da suke amfani da shi, da kuma harshe a cikin rubutun Angelou, an yi niyya don tabbatar da cewa baƙar fata na iya amfani da ingantaccen Ingilishi daidai. [67]

McWhorter ya fahimci cewa yawancin dalilin salon salon Angelou shine yanayin "rashin yarda" na rubuce-rubucen ta. [50] Lokacin da Angelou ta rubuta Caged Bird a ƙarshen shekarun 1960, ɗayan abubuwan da ake buƙata da kuma karɓar littattafai a lokacin shine "haɗin kwayoyin", ɗayan burinta shine ƙirƙirar littafin da ya gamsar da wannan ra'ayin. [61] Abubuwan da suka faru a littattafanta sunyi kyau kuma an tsara su kamar jerin gajerun labarai, amma shirye shiryen su baya bin tsarin tarihi. Madadin haka, an sanya su don jaddada jigon littattafan ta, waɗanda suka haɗa da wariyar launin fata, asalinsu, dangi, da balaguro. Wani malamin koyar da adabin Ingilishi Valerie Sayers ya ba da tabbacin cewa "Waƙar da baƙon Angelou sun yi kama da juna". Dukansu suna dogara da “muryarta kai tsaye”, wacce ke canza launin madaidaiciya tare da tsarin da aka daidaita tare da amfani da misalai da metaphors (misali, tsuntsu da aka girka). A cewar Hagen, ayyukan Angelou sun rinjayi duka rubuce-rubucen al'ada da al'adun gargajiyar al'umman Afirka-Amurkan. Misali, ta yi rubutu kan haruffa rubuce-rubuce sama da 100 a cikin littattafanta da wakoki. [68] Kari akan haka, ta yi amfani da abubuwa na kade-kade, wadanda suka hada da aikin shaida yayin da ake maganar rayuwar mutum da gwagwarmaya, rashin fahimta, da kuma amfani da kalmomi na dabi'a, kida, da kuma fahimta. [69] Angelou, maimakon ta dogara da tarko, ta yi amfani da abubuwan tarihi da na tarihi don tsara littattafanta. [70]


Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Lupton, p. 4.
  2. Angelou (1969), p. 67.
  3. Angelou (1969), p. 6.
  4. Angelou (1969), p. 52.
  5. Lupton, p. 5.
  6. Gillespie et al., p. 22.
  7. Gillespie et al., pp. 21–22.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Angelou (1969), p. 13.
  9. Gillespie et al., p. 23.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Lupton, p. 15.
  11. Gillespie et al., p. 28.
  12. Angelou (1969), p. 279.
  13. Hagen, p. xvi.
  14. Gillespie et al., pp. 29, 31.
  15. 15.0 15.1 Angelou (1993), p. 95.
  16. Gillespie et al., pp. 36–37.
  17. Gillespie et al., p. 38.
  18. Gillespie et al., p. 41.
  19. Hagen, pp. 91–92.
  20. Gillespie et al., p. 48.
  21. Gillespie et al., pp. 49–51.
  22. Hagen, p. 103.
  23. Gillespie et al., p. 57.
  24. Gillespie et al., p. 64.
  25. Gillespie et al., p. 59.
  26. Gillespie et al., p. 65.
  27. Gillespie et al., p. 71.
  28. Gillespie et al., pp. 74, 75.
  29. Braxton, p. 3.
  30. Gillespie et al., pp. 79–80.
  31. Gillespie et al., pp. 85–96.
  32. Gillespie et al., p. 98.
  33. All 10 episodes of Blacks, Blues, Black! can be viewed online Bay Area Television Archive, diva.sfsu.edu, accessed 23 December 2019
  34. Gillespie et al., p. 105.
  35. Gillespie et al., p. 119.
  36. Gillespie et al., p. 110.
  37. Gillespie et al., p. 126.
  38. 38.0 38.1 Gillespie et al., p. 9.
  39. Gillespie et al., p. 142.
  40. Long, p. 84.
  41. 41.0 41.1 Gillespie et al., p. 144.
  42. Gillespie et al., p. 10.
  43. Gillespie et al., p. 175.
  44. Gillespie et al., p. 156.
  45. Gillespie et al., p. 155.
  46. Gillespie et al., p. 150.
  47. Lupton, p. 98.
  48. Lupton, p. 1.
  49. Tate, p. 155.
  50. 50.0 50.1 50.2 McWhorter, p. 40.
  51. 51.0 51.1 Braxton, p. 4.
  52. Long, p. 85.
  53. DeGout, p. 122.
  54. Burr, p. 181.
  55. Burr, p. 183.
  56. Lupton, p. 29–30.
  57. Lauret, p. 98.
  58. Lupton, p. 32.
  59. Lupton, p. 34.
  60. Hagen, pp. 6–7.
  61. 61.0 61.1 Walker, p. 92.
  62. McWhorter, p. 41.
  63. O'Neale, p. 32.
  64. O'Neale, p. 34.
  65. McWhorter, p. 39.
  66. McWhorter, p. 38.
  67. McWhorter, pp. 40–41.
  68. Hagen, p. 63.
  69. Hagen, p. 61.
  70. Lupton, p. 142.

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