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Usman Ibn Affan

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
(an turo daga Sayyadina Usman)
Usman Ibn Affan
3. Khalifofi shiryayyu

5 Nuwamba, 644 - 17 ga Yuni, 656 (Gregorian)
Sayyadina Umar - Sayyadina Aliyu
Rayuwa
Haihuwa Makkah, 574
ƙasa Hijaz
Khulafa'hur-Rashidun
Mutuwa Madinah, 17 ga Yuni, 656 (Gregorian)
Makwanci Al-Baqi'
Madinah
Yanayin mutuwa kisan kai (blunt trauma (en) Fassara)
Killed by Abd Allah bin Saba'
Ƴan uwa
Mahaifi Affan ibn Abi al-'As
Mahaifiya Urwa bint Kariz
Abokiyar zama Umm Amr Bandage Jundub (en) Fassara
Ramlya bint Shayba (en) Fassara
Umm al'-Banin bint Ayni (en) Fassara
Fatima Bint Al-Waleed (en) Fassara
Q68678851 Fassara
Ummu Kulthum  (624 -
Na'ila bint al-Farafisa (en) Fassara  (641 -  17 ga Yuni, 656)
Rukayyah  (unknown value -  624)
Yara
Ahali Umm Kulthum bint Uqba (en) Fassara, Walid ibn Uqba (en) Fassara, Khàlid ibn Uqba (en) Fassara, Aminah bint Affan (en) Fassara da Umara ibn Uqba (en) Fassara
Ƴan uwa
Karatu
Harsuna Larabci
Sana'a
Sana'a ɗan siyasa
Imani
Addini Musulunci

Uthman ibn Affan (larabci: عثمان بن عفان‎), Usman, Osman, Uthman. ya kasan ce yayi rayuwa ne daga shekara ta (577 zuwa 17ga watan Yunin shekara ta 656). An kuma haife shi ne a shekara ta 577 (45 BH) wanda ke garin ɗaif, dake a Saudiya, ya kuma rasu ne a shekara ta 17 ga watan wanda tayi dai dai da (17 Dhūl Al-Qa‘dah 35 AH) (shekara ta 656 ) (ya rayu tsawon shekaru 77) an birne shi ne a garin Madinah, wanda ake kira Jannatu al-Baqi dake Madinah. Yakasance sirikin Manzon Allah tsira da aminci su tabbata agareshi, wanda ya aura masa 'ya 'ya biyu daga cikin 'ya'yan sa, shine ake kiransa da suna (zunnuraini) wato me ma'abocin Haske 2, Halifan Musulunci na Uku, Ɗaya daga cikin Halifofi shiryayyu, Ɗaya daga cikin Sahabbai Goma 10 waɗanda akaiwa bushara da gidan Aljannah tin a nan gidan Duniya, ɗan zuri'ar Banu Umayyah daga ƙabilar Kurayshawa.[1] Sanda Sayyidina Umar yarasu da shekaru 59/60, ʿUthmān, yana da shekaru 64/65 a duniya sai ya gaji Umar bin Khaddab bayan rasuwarsa. Uthman ibn Affan Yayi Halifanci daga 6 ga watan Nuwamba shekara ta 644 zuwa 17 ga watan Yuni shekara ta 656.

Ƙarƙashin jagorancin Uthman, Khalifancin Rashidun ya faɗaɗa zuwa Fars ( Iran ta yau) a cikin 650, da wasu yankuna na Khorāsān ( Afganistan a yau) a shekara ta 651. An fara cin Armeniya a cikin 640s.[2] Haka kuma mulkinsa ya yi ta fama da zanga-zanga da tashe -tashen hankula wanda a karshe ya kai ga tayar da makamai da kuma kashe shi .[3]

Usman bin Affan yarasu ne sanadiyar farmaki da aka afka masa. An samu wasu yan tada kayar baya game da addinin Musulunci tare da kin shugabancin sa. Wanda suka afka masa alhali yana karatun alqurni. Tarihi ya nuna an kashe shi ne akan zalunci wanda hakan yasa aka haura katangar gidansa sannan aka kashe shi. Ali Ibn Abi-Talib ne ya gaje shi bayan rasuwarsa. Matayensa; "Ummu 'Amr; Asma'u bintu Abi Jahal, Ruqayyah bintu Muhammad, Ummu Kulthum bint Muhammad, Fakhitah bintu Ghazwan_ Ummu al-Banin bintu Uyayna, Fatima bintu al-Walid Daughter of Khalid ibn Asid Umm 'Amr Umm Najm bint Jundub Ramla bint Shayba, Bunana Na'ila bint al-Furafisa, Zaynab bintu Hayyan. Bakurayshe (Banu Umayya) Mahainfinsa: Affan ibnu Abi al-'As Mahaifiyarsa: Arwa bintu Kurayz.[4]

Uthman ya auri yar Manzon Allah Ruqayyah, kuma bayan ta rasune, Manzon Allah yasake aura masa yar'sa Umm Kulthum. Dukkaninsu sun kasance manyan ya'yan Manzon Allah Muhammad kuma yayye ga Fatimah yar Manzon Allah matar Aliyu bin Abi Dalib, saboda ya aura yayan Manzon Allah biyu ne yasa ake kiransa da Dhū al-Nurayn ("Wanda ya mallaki Haske biyu").

tarihin usman Ibn affhan khalifa na uku bayan wafati monzon allah saw an zabeshi bayan wafati sayyidina Umar r.t bayan ya rasu sai aka zabi sayyidina Ali Ibn abu dalib a tarihin sayyidina usman mutun ne mai imani mai tsoran allah Wanda malanmai sunyi fadi cewa yasamu kyautar aljanna har sau hudu sannan mutun ne mai tsananin kunya allah kabamu ikon fadin gaskiya kuma katsareni daga sharrin mai sharrin dan albarkacin sayidil anbiya ina kaunar rasulallahi da ahali da sahabai nai baki daya da duk Wanda yabi tafarkine ya allah ka tabbatar da mu akan addinin ka na musulumci damu da iyayanmu da kannan mu da iyalan mu da duk Wanda yake musulmi da kuma wadanda basuyi imani ba allah kashiresu albarkacin masu imani daga naku Hassan Salifou ango kunkuzutt

Hijira zuwa Madina[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A cikin 622, Uthman da matarsa, Ruqayya, suna cikin rukuni na uku na musulmi da suka yi hijira zuwa Madina . Da isarsa Usman ya zauna tare da Abu Talha bn Thabit kafin ya shige gidan da ya saya ba da jimawa ba. Uthman yana daga cikin hamshakan attajiran Makka, ba ya buqatar taimakon kuxi daga ‘yan’uwansa Ansari, domin ya kawo makudan dukiyar da ya tara masa zuwa Madina. Yawancin Musulmin Madina manoma ne da ba su da sha'awar kasuwanci, kuma Yahudawa sun fi yin ciniki a garin. Uthman ya fahimci cewa akwai babbar dama ta kasuwanci don inganta kasuwanci a tsakanin musulmi, kuma nan da nan ya kafa kansa a matsayin mai ciniki a Madina. Da aiki tukuru da gaskiya, kasuwancinsa ya bunkasa, wanda hakan ya sa ya zama daya daga cikin attajirai a Madina. [5]

Rayuwa a Madina[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Lokacin da Ali ya auri Fatimah, Usman ya sayi garkuwar Ali akan dirhami dari biyar . An ware dari hudu a matsayin mahar ( sadaki ) domin auren Fatimah, a bar dari a kan duk wasu abubuwan da aka kashe. Daga baya, Uthman ya mayar wa Ali sulke a matsayin kyautar aure.

Yaƙe-yaƙe[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A cewar RVC Bodley, a lokacin rayuwar Muhammad, Uthman ba wani fitaccen mutumi ba ne, ba a sanya shi ga kowace hukuma ba, kuma ba shi da wani bambanci a kowane yakin da Muhammadu ya yi. [6] A lokacin yakin Badar, Muhammadu ya ba wa Uthman uzuri don kula da Ruqayya bint Muhammad, wadda take fama da rashin lafiya. Uthman ya yi kaurin suna wajen fifita 'yan uwa. Wata hanyar da ya nuna haka ita ce dabi'arsa ta raba ganima a tsakanin 'yan uwansa ba tare da masu fada ba. A lokacin mamayar Hamra al-Asad an kama wani dan leken asirin Makka, Muawiyah bn Al Mugheerah, kani ga Uthman bn Affan. A cewar malamin musulmi Safiur Rahman Mubarakpuri, Uthman ya ba shi mafaka bayan samun izini daga Muhammad, kuma Muhammad ya gaya masa cewa idan aka sake kama shi bayan kwanaki 3 za a kashe shi. Don haka ne aka ba Muawiyah wa’adin kwanaki uku, sannan ya shirya raqumi da guzuri don komawar sa Makka. Uthman ya tafi tare da Muhammad zuwa Hamra-al-Asad, kuma Muawiyah ya wuce gona da iri. Ko da yake ya gudu a lokacin da sojoji suka dawo, Muhammad ya ba da umarnin a bi shi da kashe shi. An aiwatar da umarnin. [7]

shekarun Muhammad na karshe[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A shekara ta 632, shekarar da Muhammadu S.A.W ya rasu, Uthman ya halarci aikin Hajjin bankwana. Uthman kuma ya kasance a wajen taron Ghadir Khumm, inda a cewar majiyoyin Shi'a, yana cikin wadanda suka yi mubaya'a ga Ali . [8]

Zaman Halifa Abubakar (632-634)[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Uthman ya kasance yana da alaka ta kud da kud da Abubakar, domin a dalilinsa ne Uthman ya musulunta. Lokacin da aka zabi Abubakar a matsayin halifa, Usman ne farkon wanda ya yi mubaya’a bayan Umar . A lokacin yakin Ridda (yakin Ridda), Uthman ya kasance a Madina, yana mai ba Abubakar shawara. Akan mutuwarsa Abubakar ya yi wasiyya da Usman, yana mai cewa Umar ne zai gaje shi. [9]

Zaben Uthman[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Umar, a kan gadon rasuwarsa ya kafa kwamitin mutum shida domin zabar halifa na gaba a tsakaninsu. Wannan kwamiti ya kasance

  • Ali
  • Usman bin Affan
  • Abdurrahman bin Awf
  • Sa'ad bin Abi Waqqas
  • Zubayr bin al-Awwam
  • Talha
  • Umar ya ce bayan rasuwarsa kwamitin ya cimma matsaya ta karshe cikin kwanaki uku, sannan halifa na gaba ya yi rantsuwa a rana ta hudu. Idan Talha ya shiga cikin kwamitin a cikin wannan lokaci, zai shiga cikin shawarwarin, amma idan bai koma Madina a cikin wannan lokaci ba, sauran membobin kwamitin za su iya ci gaba da yanke shawara. Abd al-Rahman bin Awf ya janye cancantar nada shi a matsayin halifa domin ya zama mai gudanarwa ya fara aikinsa ta hanyar tattaunawa da kowane memba na kwamitin daban. Ya tambaye su wa za su kada kuri'unsu. Da aka tambayi Ali bai amsa ba. Da aka tambayi Uthman sai ya zabi Ali, Zubairu ya ce ga Ali ko Uthman, Saad ya ce ma Uthman . Usman hamshakin attajiri ne wanda ya yi amfani da dukiyarsa wajen tallafa wa Musulunci duk da haka babu wani lokaci kafin halifancinsa da ya nuna wani hali na shugabanci ko kuma ya jagoranci runduna. Amma duk da haka, masu zaɓe sun zaɓe shi a matsayin ɗan takara ɗaya tilo mai ƙarfi ga Ali kamar yadda shi kaɗai zai iya har ya kai ga abokin hamayyar Ali na kusa da Muhammad.

[10]. RVC Bodley ya yi imani da cewa bayan kashe Umar Ali ya yi watsi da halifanci kamar yadda ya saba da yin mulki bisa ka’idojin da Abubakar da Umar suka kafa, kuma Usman ya yarda da wadannan sharudda [11] wadanda ya kasa girmama su a lokacin halifancinsa na shekaru goma. [12]

Sarautar Halifa (644-656)[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

In about AD 650, Uthman began noticing slight differences in pronunciation of the Quran as Islam expanded beyond the Arabian Peninsula into Persia, the Levant, and North Africa. In order to preserve the sanctity of the text, he ordered a committee headed by Zayd ibn Thabit to use caliph Abu Bakr's copy and prepare a standard copy of the Qur'an. Thus, within 20 years of Muhammad's death, the Quran was committed to written form. That text became the model from which copies were made and promulgated throughout the urban centers of the Muslim world, and other versions are believed to have been destroyed.[13]

Yayin da ‘yan Shi’a ke amfani da Alkur’ani daya da Musulmi ‘yan Sunna, amma ba su yi imani da cewa Uthman ne ya fara hada shi ba. ‘Yan Shi’a sun yi imani da cewa Muhammadu ne ya tattara Alkur’ani kuma ya hada shi a lokacin rayuwarsa. [14]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Tabatabai, Sayyid M. H. (1987). The Qur'an in Islam : its impact and influence on the life of muslims. Zahra Publ. ISBN 978-0710302663.
  2. Ochsenweld, William; Fisher, Sydney Nettleton (2004). The Middle East: A History (6th ed.). New York: McGraw Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-244233-5.
  3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Musannaf_Ibn_Abi_Shaybah
  4. The Muslim Conquest of Persia by A.I. Akram. Ch:17 ISBN 0-19-597713-0
  5. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Uthman-ibn-Affan
  6. Uthman-ibn-Affan Error in Webarchive template: Empty url., Britannica
  7. Safiur-Rahman Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar Error in Webarchive template: Empty url., p. 183
  8. Asma Afsaruddin, Oliver (2009). "ʿUthmān ibn ʿAffān". In John L. Esposito (ed.). The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford: Oxford University Press
  9. The Early Islamic Conquests, Fred Donner, Princeton 1981.
  10. Empty citation (help)
  11. R. V. C. Bodley, The Messenger – the Life of Mohammed.
  12. R.V.C. Bodley, The Messenger – the Life of Mohammed, pgs.
  13. Empty citation (help)
  14. Empty citation (help)