Heinrich Barth

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Simpleicons Interface user-outline.svg Heinrich Barth
Barth Unterschrift.jpg
Rayuwa
Haihuwa Hamburg, 16 ga Faburairu, 1821
ƙasa Hamburg
Kingdom of Prussia (en) Fassara
Mutuwa Berlin, 25 Nuwamba, 1865
Yanayin mutuwa  (gastric perforation (en) Fassara)
Karatu
Makaranta Humboldt University of Berlin (en) Fassara
Harsuna Jamusanci
Sana'a
Sana'a mabudi, marubuci, historian (en) Fassara, geographer (en) Fassara, philologist (en) Fassara, university teacher (en) Fassara da archaeologist (en) Fassara
Employers Humboldt University of Berlin (en) Fassara
Kyaututtuka
Mamba German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina (en) Fassara

Johann Heinrich Barth ( /b ɑːr θ , b ɑːr t / ; German: [baɐ̯t] ; An haife Shi 16 ga watan Fabrairu a shekara ta 1821 zuwa 25 ga watan Nuwamban shekarar ta 1865) Ya kasan ce wani Bajamu shi ne mai bincike na Afirka kuma masani.

Barth ana tsammanin yana ɗaya daga cikin manyan Turawan Turai masu bincike a Afirka, kamar yadda karatunsa na ilimi, ya iya magana da rubutu da harshen larabci, kuma yana koyon yarukan Afirka, da halayensa yana nufin cewa ya yi cikakken bayani game da al'adun da ya ziyarta. Ya kasance yana daga na farko don fahimtar amfani da tarihin baka na mutane, kuma ya tattara da yawa. Ya kulla abota da masu mulkin Afirka da kuma masana a tsawon shekaru biyar da ya yi a shekara ta (1850-1855). Bayan mutuwar abokan Turai guda biyu, ya kammala tafiye-tafiyensa tare da taimakon ƴan Afirka. Bayan haka, ya rubuta kuma ya buga littatafin mujalladi biyar na tafiye-tafiyensa da Turanci da Jamusanci. Abu ne mai matuƙar mahimmanci ga malaman zamanin sa.

Rayuwar farko da ilimi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An haifi Heinrich Barth a Hamburg a ranar 16 ga watan Fabrairu shekarar ta 1821. Ya kasan ce Shi ne na uku ga Johann Christoph Heinrich Barth da matarsa Charlotte Karoline née Zadow. Johann ya fito ne daga asalin talauci amma ya inganta kasuwanci. Duk iyayen sun kasance masu bin addinin Lutheran ne kuma suna sa ran yaransu suyi daidai da tsauraran ra'ayoyinsu game da ɗabi'a da ladabtar da kai. [3] Tun yana ɗan shekara goma sha ɗaya Barth ya halarci babbar makarantar sakandare, Gelehrtenschule des Johanneums, a Hamburg. Ya kasance mai yawan son karatu amma bai shahara da abokan karatun sa ba. Ya kware a harsuna ya koyawa kansa wasu larabci. Barth ya bar makaranta yana da shekaru 18 a shekara ta 1839. kuma kai tsaye ya shiga Jami'ar Berlin inda ya halarci kwasa-kwasan da masanin ilimin ƙasa mai suna Karl Ritter, malamin gargajiya August Böckh da masanin tarihi Jakob Grimm suka bayar . Bayan shekararsa ta farko sai ya katse karatunsa ya kuma tafi yawon bude ido a Italiya inda ya ziyarci Venice, Florence, Rome, Naples da Sicily, ya dawo Jamus a tsakiyar Mayu shekara ta 1841. A hutun shekara mai zuwa ya ziyarci Rhineland da Switzerland. Ya kare karatuttukan digirin digirgir kan alakar kasuwanci ta tsohuwar Koranti a cikin watan Yulin a shekara ta 1844.

Ziyara zuwa Arewacin Afirka da Gabas ta Tsakiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ziyarar Barth ya ƙirƙiro wani shiri don gudanar da rangadi a arewacin Afirka da Gabas ta Tsakiya wanda mahaifinsa ya amince da bayarwa. Ya bar gidan iyayensa a ƙarshen watan Janairun shekarar ta 1845 kuma ya fara zuwa Landan inda ya kwashe watanni biyu yana koyon Larabci, ziyartar Gidan Tarihi na Burtaniya da kuma kare kariyar baƙi na Burtaniya don tafiyarsa. Yayin da yake Landan ya hadu da jakadan Prussia a Biritaniya, Christian von Bunsen, wanda daga baya ya taka muhimmiyar rawa a tafiyarsa zuwa tsakiyar Afirka. Ya bar Landan ya wuce Faransa da Spain. A ranar 7 ga watan Agusta ya kama jirgin ruwa daga Gibraltar zuwa Tangiers don ziyarar sa ta farko zuwa Afirka. Daga Tangier, ya yi hanyar wucewa ta duk faɗin Arewacin Afirka . Ya kuma yi tafiya ta cikin Masar, yana hawan kogin Nilu zuwa Wadi Halfa kuma ya ratsa hamada zuwa tashar Berenice da ke Bahar Maliya. Yayin da yake a Masar, ‘yan fashi sun kai masa hari tare da raunata shi. Ya tsallaka yankin Sinai, ya ratsa Falasdinu, Siriya, Asiya orarama, Turkiya da Girka, ko'ina yana bincika ragowar zamanin. Ya koma gidan iyayensa a Hamburg a ranar 27 watan Disamba shekara ta 1847 bayan tafiya kusan shekaru uku. Na ɗan lokaci yana aiki a can a matsayin Privatdozent . Ya bayyana wasu tafiye-tafiyen da ya yi a cikin juzu’in farko na littafinsa, Wanderungen durch die Küstenländer des Mittelmeeres, ( Walks through the coastal coasters of the Mediterranean ) wanda aka buga a cikin shekarar ta 1849. Kundin na biyu da aka yi niyya bai taɓa bayyana ba.

Balaguron da yayi zuwa Sudan, Sahara da Yammacin Afirka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hanyar tafiyar Barth ta cikin Afirka tsakanin 1850 da 1855
Heinrich Barth yana gabatowa Timbuktu a ranar Satumba 7th 1853 kamar yadda Martin Bernatz ya nuna .
Tabbacin tunawa a Barth-House a Agadez

Christian Bunsen, jakadan Prussia a Westminster, ya ƙarfafa naɗin masana, wadanda suka hada da Barth da Adolf Overweg, masanin tauraron dan Prussia, zuwa ziyarar James Richardson, mai binciken Sahara. Gwamnatin Burtaniya ce ta zabe shi don bude dangantakar kasuwanci da jihohin yankin tsakiya da yammacin Sudan. Ƙungiyar ta bar Marseilles a ƙarshen Shekara ta 1849, kuma ta tashi daga Tripoli a farkon shekara ta 1850. Da kyar suka haye saharar sahara . Ya isa garin Agadez a watan Oktoba shekara ta 1850 inda ya zauna na wasu kwanaki. A yau allon tunawa ya girmama shi a matsayin Bature na farko da ya taɓa shiga birni.

Mutuwar Richardson (Maris shekata ta1851) da Overweg (Satumba shekara ta 1852), waɗanda suka mutu saboda cututtukan da ba a sani ba, ya bar Barth don ci gaba da aikin kimiyya shi kaɗai. Barth shine Bature na farko daya ziyarci Adamawa a shekara ta1851. Lokacin da ya koma Tripoli a watan Satumba na shekarar 1855, tafiyarsa ta faɗi sama da 24 ° na latitude da 20 ° na longitude, daga Tripoli a arewa zuwa Adamawa da Kamaru a kudu, kuma daga Tafkin Chadi da Bagirmi a gabas zuwa Timbuktu (Satumba shekara ta 1853) a yamma - zuwa sama 12,000 miles (19,000 km) Ya yi karatun cikakken bayani game da yanayin kasa, tarihi, wayewa, harsuna, da albarkatun ƙasashen da ya ziyarta. Nasarar da ya samu a matsayin mai bincike da kuma tarihin Afirka ya dogara ne da halayen haƙuri da ilimi na ilimi.

Barth yana da sha'awar tarihi da al'adun mutanen Afirka, maimakon damar cinikin kasuwanci. Saboda matsayinsa na rubuce-rubuce, sai mujallar sa ta zama wata madogara mai mahimmanci ga nazarin Afirka ta Sudan a karni na 19. Kodayake Barth ba shine baƙon Bature na farko da ya mai da hankali ga al'adun gargajiyar gida ba, shi ne farkon wanda ya yi la'akari sosai da hanyoyinta da amfani da shi don binciken tarihi. Barth shine farkon malamin Bature na gaskiya da ya fara tafiya karatu a Afirka ta Yamma. Masu binciken farko kamar René Caillié, Dixon Denham da Hugh Clapperton ba su da ilimin ilimi.

Barth ya kware sosai a larabci da harsunan Afirka da yawa ( Fulani, Hausa da Kanuri ) kuma ya sami damar bincika tarihin wasu yankuna, musamman Daular Songhay . Ya kulla alaka ta kut-da-kut da wasu masana da sarakunan Afirka, tun daga Umar I ibn Muhammad al-Amin a Bornu, ta cikin yankunan Katsina da Sokoto har zuwa Timbuktu. A nan abokantakarsa da Ahmad al-Bakkai al-Kunti ta kai shi ga zama a gidansa; ya kuma samu kariya daga al-Kunti daga yunkurin kwace shi.

Gidan Heinrich Barth a Timbuktu (a cikin 1908 kafin rugujewa)

Bayan dawowarsa daga Landan Barth ya rubuta kuma ya wallafa kundin tafiyarsa lokaci guda cikin Ingilishi da Jamusanci, a ƙarƙashin taken Reisen und Entdeckungen a Nord- und Centralafrika ( Balaguro da Bincike a Arewacin da Tsakiyar Afirka; 1857-1858, juzu'i 5., Kimanin. Shafuka 3,500). Littattafan sun hada da faranti launuka masu launuka wadanda Martin Bernatz ya kirkira bisa asalin zane na Barth. Wannan aikin ana ɗaukarsa ɗayan mafi kyawu irin sa, wanda Darwin ya kawo shi. Har yanzu masana tarihin Afirka suna amfani da shi, kuma ya kasance muhimmin aiki na kimiyya kan al'adun Afirka na zamani. Hakanan ya bayar da hujja ta farko da wani Bature ya nuna cewa Sahara ta taɓa zama savanna . [1] [2]

Babban kabarin Heinrich Barth a Berlin

Barth ya dawo daga Burtaniya zuwa Jamus, inda ya shirya tarin kalmomin Afirka ta Tsakiya (Gotha, 1862-1866). A cikin shekarar ta 1858 ya sake yin wata tafiya a Asiya orarama, kuma a shekarar ta 1862 ya ziyarci lardunan Turkiyya a Turai. Ya rubuta lissafin waɗannan tafiye-tafiye da aka buga a Berlin a shekarar ta 1864.

A cikin shekara mai zuwa an ba shi farfesa a fannin ilimin ƙasa (ba tare da kujera ba ko kuma albashi na yau da kullun) a Jami'ar Berlin kuma an naɗa shi shugaban ƙungiyar Geoasa . Ba a yarda da shigarsa Kwalejin Kimiyya ta Prussia ba, kamar yadda aka yi iƙirarin cewa bai sami komai ba game da tarihin tarihi da ilimin harshe. Ba su gama fahimtar nasarorin nasa ba, wanda malamai suka amince da shi a kan lokaci.

Barth ya mutu a cikin Berlin a ranar 25 ga watan Nuwamba shekarar ta 1865 yana da shekaru 44. [lower-alpha 1] Kabarinsa an ajiye shi a Furotestaf III der Jerusalems- und Neuen Kirchengemeinde (Kabari Na III na ikilisiyoyin Cocin Urushalima da Sabuwar Coci ) a cikin Berlin- Kreuzberg, kudu da Hallesches Tor .

Kima da girmamawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Lambar Kirsimeti ta 1856 ta Royal Geographical Society don tafiye-tafiyensa na Afirka
  • 1862 Abokan wankan daga Gwamnatin Burtaniya.

Ana tunawa da Barth da sunan kimiyya na wani nau'in maciji mai dafi, Polemon barthii .

Zaɓaɓɓun wallafe-wallafe[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Don cikakken jerin duba Wilhelm Koner (1866).

  • Barth, Henricus (1844). Corinthiansiorum commercii et mercaturae historiae particula (Doctoral Dissertation) (cikin Latin). Berlin: Typis Unger.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Barth 1857, vol. 1, chapter IX, pp. 196–199. On p. 199, Barth said, about a petroglyph depicting ancient hunters in the Sahara, that it " … bears testimony to a state of life very different from that which we are accustomed to see now in these regions, … "
  2. de Menocal, Peter B. ; Tierney, Jessica E. (2012) "Green Sahara: African humid periods paced by Earth's orbital changes", Nature Education Knowledge 3(10): 12. Available at: Nature Education: Knowledge Project
  3. Kirk-Greene 1962, p. 42.
  4. Koner 1866, p. 28.
  5. Schubert 1897, p. 173.
  6. Kemper 2012, pp. 364, 390.

Majiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Barth, Heinrich". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  • This article incorporates text from a publication now in the
  • Darwin, Charles (1868). Bambancin dabbobi da tsirrai a karkashin gida, Volume 1 . London: John Murray.
  • Kemper, Steve (2012). Labyrinth na Masarautu: Miles 10,000 ta Afirka ta Musulunci . WW Norton & Kamfanin . ISBN Kemper, Steve (2012). Kemper, Steve (2012).
  • Kirk-Greene, A.H.M., ed. (1962). Balaguron Balaguro a Najeriya : kari daga mujallar tafiye-tafiyen Heinrich Barth a Najeriya, 1850-1855 . London: Jami'ar Oxford ta Latsa. OCLC 6083393 .
  • Koner, W. (1866). "Heinrich Barth: Vortrag gehalten in der Sitzung der geographischen Geselaschaft am 19 Januar 1866" . Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft für Erdkunde zu Berlin (a Jamusanci). 1 : 1-31.
  • Schubert, Gustav von (1897). Heinrich Barth, der Bahnbrecher des deutschen Afrikaforschung; ein Lebens- und Charakterbild auf Grund ungedruckter Quellen entworfen (a Jamusanci). Berlin: D. Reimer.

Ƙara karanta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Boahen, Albert Adu (1964). Birtaniyya, Sahara da Yammacin Sudan, 1788-1861 . Oxford: Claredon Latsa. ISBN Boahen, Albert Adu Boahen, Albert Adu
  • de Moraes Farias, Paulo Fernando; Diawara, Mamadou; Spittler, Gerd, eds. (2006). Heinrich Barth et l'Afrique (a Faransanci da Ingilishi). Köppe. ISBN de Moraes Farias, Paulo Fernando; Diawara, Mamadou; Spittler, Gerd, eds. (2006). de Moraes Farias, Paulo Fernando; Diawara, Mamadou; Spittler, Gerd, eds. (2006).
  • Fischer – Kattner, Anke (2018). « Mai bincike, ƙarancin ra'ayi, antihéros : vie et œuvre de Heinrich Barth », A cikin BEROSE - Encyclopaedia na Duniya na Tarihin Anthropology, Paris.
  • Kuba, Richard (2019). « Heinrich Barth, wanda ba shi da kyau », A cikin BEROSE - Encyclopaedia na Duniya na Tarihin Anthropology, Paris.
  • Masonen, Pekka (2000). An sake dawo da Negroland: Bincike da Kirkirar Zamanin Tsakiyar Sudan . Helsinki: Kwalejin Kimiyya da Haruffa ta Finnish. shafi. 397–418. ISBN Masonen, Pekka (2000). Masonen, Pekka (2000).
  • Murchison, Roderick I. (1866). "Tarihin mutuwa: Dr. Barth" . Ayyukan Royal Geographical Society na London . 10 : 201–203.
  • Petermann, Augustus, ed. (1854). Bayani game da ci gaban balaguro zuwa Afirka ta Tsakiya a cikin shekarun 1850, 1851, 1852, da 1853, a ƙarƙashin Richardson, Barth, Overweg da Vogel, wanda ya ƙunshi taswira da zane-zane tare da rubutattun bayanai (PDF) . London: Stanford. OCLC 257397111 .
  • Richardson, James (1853). Bayani game da manufa zuwa Afirka ta Tsakiya : yi a cikin shekarun 1850-51 : a ƙarƙashin umarni da kuma kuɗin gwamnatin Mai Martaba (kundin 2) . London: Chapman da Hall.
  • Schiffers, Heinrich (1967). "Heinrich Barth Lebensweg". In Schiffers, H. (ed.). Heinrich Barth. Ein Forscher a cikin Afirka. Leben - Werk - Leistung. Eine Sammlung von Beiträgen zum 100. Todestag am 25 Nuwamba 1965 (a Jamusanci). Wiesbaden: Steiner. shafi. 1-5. OCLC 5182712 .
  • Fischer ‑ Kattner, Anke, 2018. « Mai bincike, ƙarancin ra'ayi, antihéros : vie et œuvre de Heinrich Barth »A cikin Bérose - Encyclopédie internationale des histoires de l'anthropologie

Hanyoyin haɗin waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]


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