Daular Ashanti

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Globe icon.svgDaular Ashanti
Flag of Ashanti.svg Ashanti Empire Emblem.svg

Wuri
Asante map.jpg
 5°27′N 0°58′W / 5.45°N 0.97°W / 5.45; -0.97

Babban birni Kumasi
Yawan mutane
Faɗi 3,000,000 (1874)
• Yawan mutane 11.58 mazaunan/km²
Labarin ƙasa
Yawan fili 259,000 km²
Bayanan tarihi
Ƙirƙira 1670
Rushewa 1902
Tsarin Siyasa
Tsarin gwamnati absolute monarchy (en) Fassara

Daular Asante ( Asante Twi : Asanteman ) ta .xc.asance masarautar Akan da masarauta daga shekarar 1701 zuwa 1957, a cikin kasar ta Ghana ta yanzu . Ta fadada daga Ashanti ta hada da Yankin Brong-Ahafo, Yankin Tsakiya, Yankin Gabas da Yammacin Ghana na yanzu da kuma wasu yankuna na Ivory Coast da Togo . Dangane da ƙarfin soja na masarautar, wadata, gine-gine, tsarin sarauta da al'adu, masarautar Ashanti an yi nazari mai yawa kuma tana da littattafai da Turawa, musamman marubutan Burtaniya suka rubuta fiye da kowane al'adun asali na Sahar hirka . [1]

Farawa a ƙarshen karni na 17, da Ashanti sarki Osei Tutu ( c. 1695 – 1717) da mai ba shi shawara Okomfo Anokye sun kafa Masarautar Ashanti, tare da Zinariyar ta Asante a matsayin wata alama ta haɗin kai. Osei Tutu ya lura da fadada yankin Ashanti da yawa, gina sojoji ta hanyar gabatar da sabuwar kungiyar da kuma mayar da rundunar da ta dace da masarauta zuwa injin fada. [1] A cikin 1701, sojojin Ashanti sun ci Denkyira da yaƙi, suna ba Ashanti damar zuwa Tekun Gini da kasuwancin Tekun Atlantika tare da Turawa, musamman Dutch . Tattalin arzikin Daular Ashanti ya ta'allaka ne akan kasuwancin zinare da bayi. Sojojin sun kasance kayan aiki mai inganci don sayan kamammun.

Masarautar Ashanti ta yi yaƙe-yaƙe da yawa tare da masarautun maƙwabta da ƙananan kabilu masu tsari kamar Fante . Ashanti ta ci nasarar mamaye Masarautar Birtaniyya a farkon biyun farkon yaƙe-yaƙe Anglo-Ashanti huɗu, inda suka kashe janar na sojan Burtaniya Sir Charles MacCarthy kuma suka riƙe ƙwoƙwan kansa a matsayin kofin shan giya mai zinare a 1824. Saboda bunkasar Burtaniya game da fasahar makamai, kone-kone da kwasar babban birnin Kumasi da shan kashi na ƙarshe a Yaƙin Anglo-Ashanti na biyar, masarautar Ashanti ta zama wani ɓangare na mulkin mallakar Gold Coast a ranar 1 ga Janairu, 1902.

A yau, Masarautar Ashanti ta wanzu a matsayinta na mai kiyaye kundin tsarin mulki, ƙasa mai zaman kanta tare da Jamhuriyar Ghana. Sarkin masarautar Ashanti na yanzu shine Otumfuo Osei Tutu II Asantehene . Masarautar Ashanti gida ce ga Tafkin Bosumtwi, tafkin ƙasar ta Ghana kaɗai. Kudaden da jihar ke samu ta fuskar tattalin arziki ya samo asali ne daga kasuwancin gwal, koko, goro da kuma noma . [2]

Tarihi da asalin[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

File:KenteCloth.jpg
Yadin Kente , tuffafin gargajiyar da masarautar Ashanti ke sawa, an karɓe shi ko'ina cikin Masarautar Ashanti.

Sunan Asante yana nufin "saboda yaƙi". Kalmar ta samo asali ne daga kalmomin Twi ɔsa ma'anaKent's "yaƙi" kuma nti ma'ana "saboda". Wannan sunan ya fito ne daga asalin Asante a matsayin masarauta da aka kirkira don yaƙi da masarautar Denkyira.

Sunan banbancin "Ashanti" ya fito ne daga rahotannin Biritaniya wadanda ke fassara "Asante" kamar yadda Turawan ingila suka ji shi, as-hanti. Daga baya aka sake sakin lafazin kuma sunan Ashanti ya kasance, tare da haruffa daban-daban ciki har da Ashantee gama gari a farkon karni na 20.

Tsakanin ƙarni na 10 da na 12 AD al'umman kabilar Akan sun yi ƙaura zuwa cikin belin gandun daji na Kudancin Ghana kuma suka kafa ƙasashen Akan da yawa:

Kafin Masarautar Ashanti ta yi hulɗa da Turawa, tana da kyakkyawar kasuwanci tare da wasu ƙasashen Afirka saboda arzikin gwal na Ashanti. Ciniki tare da jihohin Turai ya fara ne bayan tuntuɓar Turawan Fotigal a ƙarni na 15 AD. [3] Lokacin da ma'adanan gwal a yankin Sahel suka fara taka rawa, Masarautar Ashanti ta zama babba a fagen cinikin gwal. [2] A tsayin Masarautar Ashanti, mutanen Ashanti sun zama masu arziki ta hanyar kasuwancin gwal da aka haƙa daga yankin su.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Gidauniya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kujerun Zinare ( Sika dwa ) a cikin Masarautar Ashanti, 1935.

Kungiyar siyasa ta Ashanti ta kasance asalinsa ga dangi waɗanda ke ƙarƙashin jagorancin babban sarki ko Amanhene. Wata kabila, Oyoko, ta zauna a yankin gandun daji na Ashanti, inda suka kafa cibiya a Kumasi . Ashanti sun zama bayin wata jihar Akan, Denkyira amma a tsakiyar karni na 17th Oyoko karkashin Cif Oti Akenten sun fara karfafa dangin Ashanti zuwa cikin hadaddiyar kungiyar adawa da Denkyira.

Gabatar da Zinariyar Zinare ( Sika dwa ) wata hanya ce ta daidaitawa a ƙarƙashin Osei Tutu. A cewar tatsuniya, an kira taron dukkanin shugabannin dangi na kowane yanki Ashanti tun kafin a bayyana samun 'yanci daga Denkyira . A wannan ganawa da Kujerar zinare aka umarce saukar daga sama daga Okomfo Anokye wanda yake, sarki-firist, ko Mai bada shawara ga Asantehene Osei Tutu na da ita tanã gudãna saukar daga sama a cikin cinyan Osei Tutu I. Okomfo Anokye wanda yake ayyana da Kujerar ta zama alamar ta sabon hadn kan Asante ( Masarautar Ashanti ), kuma an yi rantsuwa da biyayya ga kujera da Osei Tutu a matsayin Asantehene. Sabuwar ƙungiyar da aka bayyana ta Ashanti daga baya ta yi yaƙi da Denkyira kuma ta kayar da ita. [4] Matsayin ya kasance mai tsarki ga Ashanti kamar yadda aka yi imanin cewa ya ƙunshi Sunsum - ruhu ko ruhun mutanen Ashanti.

'Yanci[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin 1670s shugaban dangin Oyoko , Osei Kofi Tutu I, ya fara sake karfafa mutanen Akan cikin sauri ta hanyar diflomasiyya da yaki. [5] Sarki Osei Kofu Tutu I da babban mai ba shi shawara, Okomfo Kwame Frimpong Anokye sun jagoranci gamayyar manyan jihohin Ashanti masu adawa da danniyar juna, Denkyira wanda ke riƙe da Masarautar Ashanti a cikin ta. Masarautar Ashanti ta ci su da yaƙi kwata-kwata a yakin Feyiase, suna shelar samun 'yancinta a cikin 1701. Bayan haka, ta hanyar karfi da karfi na makamai da diflomasiyya mai kyau, su biyun sun sa shugabannin sauran biranen Ashanti sun ayyana biyayya da bin Kumasi, babban birnin Ashanti. Tun daga farko, Sarki Osei Tutu da firist Anokye sun bi mai faɗaɗawa da kuma manufofin ƙasashen waje na mulkin mallaka. A cewar tatsuniya, an yi amannar Okomfo Anokye ya ziyarci Agona-Akrofonso .

Karkashin Osei Tutu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Fahimtar karfin kungiyar hadin kan jihohin Akan, Osei Tutu ya karfafa hadin kan kungiyoyin Akan da ke kewaye da shi tare da fadada karfin tsarin shari'a a cikin gwamnatin. Wannan dunƙulen ƙungiyar ta ƙananan-biranen birni ta zama masarauta kuma daga ƙarshe masarauta tana neman faɗaɗa kan iyakokinta. Sabbin yankuna da aka ci nasara suna da zabin shiga daular ko zama jihohin masu biyan haraji. [6] Opoku Ware I, magajin Osei Tutu, ya faɗaɗa kan iyakoki, tare da karɓar yawancin yankunan Ghana. [7]

Saduwa da Bature[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Saduwa da Turai da Asante a yankin Tekun Gulf na Guinea yankin Afirka ya fara ne a cikin karni na 15. Wannan ya haifar da fataucin zinare, hauren giwa, bayi, da sauran kayayyaki tare da Turawan Fotigal, wanda ya haifar da daula irin ta Ashanti. A ranar 15 ga Mayu, 1817, Baturen Ingila Thomas Bowdich ya shiga Kumasi. Ya kasance a can har tsawon watanni, abin ya burge shi, kuma lokacin da ya dawo Ingila ya rubuta wani littafi, Ofishin Jakadancin daga Cape Coast Castle zuwa Ashantee. Yabonsa ga masarautar bai gaskata ba saboda ya saba da nuna wariya. Joseph Dupuis, karamin jakadan Ingila a Kumasi, ya isa Maris 23, 1820. Dukansu Bowdich da Dupuis sun kulla yarjejeniya tare da Asantehene. Amma, gwamna, Hope Smith, bai sadu da tsammanin Ashanti ba. [8]

Bauta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bautar gargajiya al'ada ce a Daular Ashanti, tare da bawa galibi waɗanda aka ɗauka a matsayin fursunoni daga abokan yaƙi. Masarautar Ashanti ba kawai babbar ƙasa ce ta mallakar bayi ba a cikin ƙasar ta Ghana a yanzu amma har ila yau ita ce babbar 'yar kasuwa a yankin don samar da cinikin bayi na Atlantic . Jindadin bayinsu ya banbanta daga iya samun dukiya da yin auri tare da dangin maigida zuwa sadaukarwa a bikin jana'iza. Ashanti sunyi imani cewa bayi zasu bi iyayen gidansu zuwa lahira. Bayi wasu lokuta na iya mallakar wasu bayi, kuma suna iya neman sabon maigidan idan bawan ya yarda ana wulakanta shi ko ita. [9]

Ashanti na zamani tana ikirarin cewa ba safai ake cin zarafin bayi ba, [10] kuma mutumin da ya wulaƙanta bawa ya kasance mai raini ta hanyar jama'a . Suna kare '' bil'adama '' na bautar Ashanti ta hanyar lura cewa an ba wa waɗannan bayin damar yin aure. Idan maigida ya ga baiwar mace abin so ce, zai iya auren ta. Ya fĩfĩta irin wannan tsari zuwa cewa wani yanta mace a al'ada aure, domin aure zuwa wani bautar mace a yarda da yara gãdar da wasu daga cikin mahaifin ta dukiya da kuma matsayi. [1] Koyaya, abin da ya faru na sadaukarwar bayi a cikin daular Ashanti yana ba da wani hoto daban sai kuma tunanin bautar '' mutuntaka '' da masu neman gafara ke nema.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Wannan tsarin da aka fi so ya faru ne da farko saboda abin da wasu maza suka ɗauki rikicinsu da tsarin haihuwa. A karkashin wannan tsarin dangin, ana daukar yara a cikin dangin uwa kuma sun dauki matsayinsu daga dangin ta.[ana buƙatar hujja] Kullum ta Babbansu wa aiki a matsayin shawarta to ta yara, musamman ga yara maza. 'Yan uwanta sun kiyaye ta.[ana buƙatar hujja] Wasu mazajen Ashanti sun fi jin daɗin ɗaukar kuyanga ko matar aure a cikin aure, saboda ba za ta sami wata ƙungiya ba (babba namiji, uba, kawu ko ɗan’uwa) da za su yi roƙo a madadin ta yayin da ma’auratan suka yi faɗa. Tare da matar da aka bautar, maigida da maigidan suna da cikakken ikon kula da 'ya'yansu, tunda ba ta da dangi a cikin jama'a.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Dangantakar Birtaniyya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sojojin Burtaniya sun yiwa gidan wani karamin sarki fyade a Fomena a cikin 1874 akan hanya zuwa Kumasi

A watan Disamba 1895, Turawan Burtaniya sun bar Cape Coast tare da sojojin tafiya. Ya isa Kumasi a cikin Janairu 1896 a ƙarƙashin umarnin Robert Baden-Powell . Asantehene (sarki) ya umurci Ashanti da kada su ƙi, saboda yana tsoron kisan kare dangi . Jim kaɗan bayan haka, Gwamna William Maxwell ya isa Kumasi shi ma.

Birtaniyya ta hade yankunan Ashanti da Fanti kuma ta zama masarautar Ashanti Crown a ranar 26 Satumba 1901. [11] An cire Asantehene Agyeman Prempeh an kama shi, kuma an tura shi da sauran shugabannin Ashanti gudun hijira a cikin Seychelles . Sanungiyar Asante ta narke[ana buƙatar hujja] . An sanya Mazaunin Birtaniyya na dindindin a cikin garin Kumasi, kuma jim kaɗan bayan an gina sansanin Birtaniyya a can[ana buƙatar hujja] .

Dagowa daga 1900 tun daga 1935[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A matsayin matakin karshe na juriya, sauran kotun Asante da ba a yi kaura zuwa Seychelles ba ta ci gaba da kai hare-hare kan Mazaunan Birtaniyya a Kumasi Fort. Sarauniyar Asante Yaa Asantewaa, Sarauniya-Uwar Ejisu ce ta jagoranci gwagwarmaya. Daga Maris 28 zuwa ƙarshen Satumba 1900, Asante da Birtaniyya sun tsunduma cikin abin da za a sani da Yakin Zinari na Zinare . A ƙarshe, Turawan ingila sun yi nasara; sun kori Asantewaa da sauran shugabannin Asante zuwa Seychelles don shiga Asante King Prempeh I.

A cikin watan Janairun 1902, a ƙarshe Biritaniya ta sanya Masarautar Ashanti a matsayin mai kariya . aka maido da masarautar Ashanti don cin gashin kanta a ranar 31 ga Janairun 1935. An maido da Asante King Prempeh II a 1957, kuma Masarautar Ashanti ta shiga cikin hadaddiyar jihar da Ghana kan samun 'yencin kai daga Burtaniya. [2]

Tsarin tarihin yankin ƙasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Template:History Timeline of Ashanti

Gwamnati da siyasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yankin Ashanti yanki ne mai hadewa wanda ya kunshi jerin jigajigan shugabannin da suka fara daga " Abusua Panyin" wanda yake shugaban iyali ko nasaba. Iyali sune asalin rukunin siyasa a daular. Iyali ko tsatson sun bi ƙungiyar ƙauye wacce Odikro ke jagoranta . Duk ƙauyuka an haɗa su wuri ɗaya don kafa ƙungiyoyi wanda shugaban yanki ya kira Ohene . An rarraba bangarorin daban-daban a siyasance don kafa jihar wacce Omanhene ko Amanhene ke shugabanta . A ƙarshe, duk jihohin Ashanti sun kafa Daular Ashanti tare da Asantehene a matsayin sarkin su.

Gwamnatin Ashanti an gina ta ne a kan ingantaccen tsarin mulki a Kumasi, tare da ma'aikatu daban-daban don kula da al'amuran jihar. Babban abin lura shi ne Ofishin Harkokin Wajen Ashanti wanda ke Kumasi; duk da ƙaramarta, ta ba jihar damar ci gaba da tattaunawa mai rikitarwa tare da ikon ƙasashen waje. Ofishin ya kasu kashi zuwa sassan don kula da alaƙa daban da Turawan Ingila, Faransa, Dutch, da Larabawa . Malaman tarihin Ashanti, irin su Larry Yarak da Ivor Wilkes, ba su yarda da ikon wannan masarrafar ba idan aka kwatanta da Asantehene, amma sun yarda cewa hakan alama ce ta ci gaban ƙasa sosai tare da hadaddun tsarin bincike da daidaito .

Gudanarwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Asantehene[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A saman tsarin ikon Ashanti shine Asantehene, Sarkin Ashanti. Kowane Asantahene an nada shi a kan Dutsen Zinare mai tsarki, Sika 'dwa, abin da ya zo don nuna ainihin ikon Sarki. Osei Kwadwo (1764-1777) ya fara tsarin cancanta na nada manyan jami'ai gwargwadon ikon su, maimakon haihuwarsu. [12]

A matsayinsa na Sarki, Asantehene yana da babban iko a cikin Ashanti, amma bai ji daɗin cikakken ikon sarauta ba . Ya zama dole ya raba manyan dokoki da ikon zartarwa tare da ingantaccen tsarin mulki na Ashanti. Amma Asantehene shine kawai mutumin da ke Ashanti wanda aka ba da izinin yin hukuncin kisa a yayin aikata laifi. A lokacin yakin, Sarki ya kasance a matsayin Babban Kwamandan rundunar Ashanti, kodayake a cikin karni na 19, Ma'aikatar Yaki a Kumasi ta ci gaba da gudanar da yakin. Kowane memba na ƙungiyar ma ya wajaba ya aika da girmamawa ta shekara-shekara ga Kumasi.

Ashantihene (Sarkin duk Ashanti) ya mallaki duka kuma shine Sarki na rarraba Kumasi, babban birnin ƙasar, da daular Ashanti. An zabe shi ne kamar yadda aka yi wa sauran sarakuna. A cikin wannan tsari na tsari, kowane sarki ko Sarki ya rantse ga wanda ke sama da shi - tun daga ƙauye da yanki, zuwa rarrabuwar kai, zuwa ga shugaban Kumasi, kuma a ƙarshe Ashantihene ya yi rantsuwa a kan jihar .

Dattawan sun kewaye ikon Ashantihene, kuma shugabannin sauran bangarori sun duba ikon Sarki sosai. Wannan a cikin sakamako mai amfani ya haifar da tsarin bincike da daidaito. A matsayin alama ta al'umma, Ashantihene ya sami girmamawa ta al'ada, domin mahallin ya kasance addini ne kasancewar shi alama ce ta mutane a cikin jiki: mai rai, matacce ko kuma har yanzu ana haihuwarsa. Lokacin da sarki ya aikata abin da shawarar dattawa ko ta mutane ba ta yarda da shi ba, za a iya tsige shi, kuma a mayar da shi ga talakawa.

A zama na aristocratic kungiyoyi da kuma majalisar dattawa ne shaida na oligarchic hali a Ashanti rayuwar siyasa. Ko da yake dadadde maza kula ga monopolize siyasa ikon, Ashanti kafa wata kungiya da samari, da nmerante, cewa kula ga democratize da liberalize siyasa a cikin daular. Majalisar dattawa ta aiwatar da ayyuka ne kawai bayan sun tuntubi wakilin nmerante . An dauki ra'ayoyinsu da mahimmanci yayin da suke halartar yanke shawara a cikin masarautar.

Mazaunin[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Gidan Asantehene na yanzu shine Fadar Manhyia da Burtaniya ta gina a 1925 kuma aka gabatar da ita ga Prempeh I a matsayin kyauta bayan dawowarsa daga gudun hijira.

Turawan mulkin mallaka sun kona asalin gidan Asantehene a Kumasi a 1875. Daga asusun Turai, ginin ya kasance mai girma kuma an tsara shi da kyau. A cikin 1819, ɗan Ingilishi matafiyi kuma marubuci, Thomas Edward Bowdich ya bayyana fadar a matsayin

... babban gini na manyan kotuna masu tsawo da kuma murabba'ai na yau da kullun [tare da] abubuwanda aka ƙawata tare da nuna kwarjini da ado na mutunci da halayen mutanan Egypt. Suna da ɗakin ɗakuna a saman su, tare da ƙananan tagogi na ƙyallen katako, na aiki mai wuya amma na sassaka na yau da kullun, kuma wasu suna da katako waɗanda aka zana da zinare siriri. Murabba'ai suna da babban ɗaki a kowane gefe, a buɗe a gaba, tare da ginshiƙai masu goyan baya guda biyu, waɗanda suka lalata ra'ayi kuma suka ba shi dukkannin fasikancin ko gaban matakin tsofaffin gidajen wasan kwaikwayon na Italiya. Suna da tsayi kuma na yau da kullun, kuma ginshiƙan aikin kara kuzari a cikin alto-relievo. An dakatar da labulen labulen gwangwani mai ban sha'awa a gaba, kuma a cikin kowane, mun lura da kujeru da kujeru waɗanda aka zana da zinariya, da gadaje na alhariri, tare da kayan ado masu warwatse.

Winwood Reade ya kuma bayyana ziyarar tasa zuwa Fadar Masarautar Ashanti ta Kumasi a shekarar 1874: “Mun je fadar sarki, wacce ta kunshi farfajiyoyi da yawa, kowannensu ya kewaye shi da kayan shaye-shaye da verandah, kuma muna da kofofi biyu ko kofofi, ta yadda kowane yadi ya kasance hanya. . . Amma bangaren fadar da ke gaban titi gidan ne na dutse, Moorish a cikin salo. . . tare da rufin kwano da shimfiɗa, da kuma ɗakunan benaye a hawa na farko. Fanti masons ne suka gina shi shekaru da yawa da suka gabata. Dakunan da ke saman bene suna tuna min titin Wardour. Kowane cikakken Shagon Sha'awa ne. Littattafai a cikin harsuna da yawa, gilashin Bohemian, agogo, farantin azurfa, tsofaffin kayan ɗaki, katifu na Farisa, Katifu na Kidderminster, hotuna da zane-zane, akwatuna da akwatuna marasa adadi. Takobi mai ɗauke da rubutu Daga Sarauniya Victoria zuwa Sarkin Ashantee. Kwafin Times, 17 Oktoba 1843. Tare da wadannan akwai samfuran aikin hannu na Moorish da Ashanti da yawa. ” [13]

Majalisar Asanteman[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Wannan ma'aikatar ta taimaka wa Asantehene kuma ta kasance mai ba da shawara ga sarki. Majalisar ta kasance ta Amanhene ko manyan sarakuna wadanda suka kasance shugabannin wasu jihohin Ashanti. Majalisar ta kuma hada da wasu shugabannin larduna. A doka, Asantehene bai taɓa yin watsi da shawarar majalisar Asanteman ba. Yin hakan na iya sa a sake shi daga kan gadon sarauta.

Amanhene[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Daular Ashanti ta kasance daga cikin manyan birane da jihohin lardi. Metasashen birni sun kasance daga hanan Ashanti waɗanda aka sani da amanfo. Jihohin lardin wasu masarautu ne da suka mamaye masarautar. Kowace jihar Ashanti tana karkashin jagorancin Amanhene ko kuma babban sarki. Kowane ɗayan waɗannan manyan sarakunan sun yi aiki a matsayin shugabannin gwamnatocin jihohinsu, inda suke yin zartarwa, ikon doka da na shari'a.

Ohene[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ohene sune manyan shugabannin bangarori karkashin Amanhene. Babban aikin su shine ba da shawarar Amanhene. Manyan shugabannin sun kasance mafi girman tsari a bangarorin jihar Ashanti daban-daban. Rabobin sun kasance daga ƙauyuka daban-daban da aka haɗu. Misalan sarakunan rarrabuwa sun hada da Krontihene, Nifahene, Benkumhene, Adontenhene da Kyidomhene.

Odikuro[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kowane ƙauye a cikin Asante yana da sarki wanda ake kira Odikro wanda shine mamallakin ƙauyen. Odikro shine ke da alhakin kiyaye doka da oda. Ya kuma yi aiki a matsayin matsakaici tsakanin mutanen mulkin sa, kakannin sa da kuma alloli. A matsayinsa na shugaban ƙauyen, Odikro ya jagoranci majalisar ƙauyen.

Sarauniya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sarauniya Yaa Asantewaa ta jagoranci jiharta, Ejisu, a yakin zinare na zinare da Bature .

Sarauniya ko Ohenemaa ta kasance muhimmiyar alama a tsarin siyasar Ashanti. Ta kasance mace mafi iko a cikin Daular. Tana da damar da za a nemi shawararta yayin aiwatar da nadin sarki ko sarki, tunda ta taka rawar gani a nadin da zaɓin. Ta sasanta rikice-rikicen da suka shafi mata kuma tana cikin yanke shawara tare da Majalisar Dattawa da sarakuna. Ba wai kawai ta shiga cikin ayyukan shari'a da na dokoki ba ne, har ma da sanyawa da yin yaki, da kuma rarraba kasa. [14]

Obirempon[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An kasuwar da suka yi nasara waɗanda suka tara dukiya da maza gami da rarrabe kansu ta hanyar ayyukan jarumta an ba su lambar yabo ta zamantakewa da siyasa ta hanyar kiransu "Abirempon" ko "Obirempon" wanda ke nufin manyan mutane. Zuwa karni na goma sha takwas da sha tara AD, sunan kira "Abirempon" ya tsara kuma ya sanya siyasa don rungumar waɗanda ke gudanar da kasuwanci wanda duk jihar ke amfana. Jiha ta sakawa yan kasuwar da suka samu irin wannan nasarar da Mena (wutsiyar giwa) wanda shine "alamar sanarwa" Obirempon s yana da karfin ikon yin doka a yankunansu, sama da manyan masu mulkin Dahomey amma basu kai gwamnonin yankin ba. na Daular Oyo. Baya ga kula da lamuran mulki da tattalin arziki na yankin, obirempon ya kuma yi aiki a matsayin Babban Alkalin yankinsu, yana jagorantar kararrakin kotu.

Kotoko majalisa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kotoko ta kasance majalisar gwamnati a cikin gwamnatin Ashanti. A siyasance, majalisar kotoko tayi aiki a matsayin mai aunawa ga majalisar dattawa ta sarki kuma a zahiri tana kunshe da jam'iyyar masu fada aji a cikin gwamnati. Majalisar ta kafa majalisar dokoki ta tsarin gwamnati na Ashanti. [15] Ya kasance daga Asantehene, uwar Sarauniya da kuma shugabannin jihar da ministocinsu.

Zabe[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Zaɓen Sarakuna da Asantehene ( Sarkin Sarakuna ko sarki ) kansa ya bi tsari. Babbar mace daga zuriyar sarki ta zabi mazajen da suka cancanta. Wannan babbar mace sannan ta nemi dattawa, maza da mata, na wannan layin. Sannan an zabi dan takarar karshe. An gabatar da wannan zaɓen ga majalisar dattawa, waɗanda ke wakiltar wasu layin a cikin garin ko gundumar . Daga nan Dattawan suka gabatar da nadin ga mutanen da suka hallara.

Idan 'yan ƙasa da aka haɗu ba su yarda da wanda aka zaɓa ba, an sake aiwatar da aikin. Zaɓaɓɓu, sababbin Sarakuna dattawa sun ba da izini, waɗanda suka yi masa gargaɗi da tsammanin. Sarakunan da aka zaba sun rantse da babbar baiwar Allah da kakanninsa don su cika aikinsu yadda ya dace inda ya “sadaukar da” kansa da rayuwarsa don ci gaban jihar.

Wannan zaɓaɓɓen Sarki mai cikakken iko da jin daɗi ya yi farin ciki da babban bikin mai girma tare da kallo da biki da yawa. Ya yi mulki tare da yawa umarci ikon, ciki har da ikon yin farillai na rayuwa da mutuwa a kan talakawansa. Koyaya, bai ji daɗin cikakken mulki ba . A kan kursiyin, Sarki yana da tsarki. Ya kasance a matsayin tsaka-tsakin matsakaici tsakanin mutane da kakanni. Ikon fahimtarsa a bayyane ya kasance fiye da na ainihi kuma yana dogara ga shawara da yanke shawara na Majalisar Dattawa.

Tsigewa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sarakunan daular Ashanti wadanda suka keta duk wata rantsuwar da aka yi yayin shigar sa, ta hanyar masu yin Sarki. Misali, idan sarki ya hukunta 'yan kasa ba da son rai ba ko kuma aka fallasa shi a matsayin mai cin hanci da rashawa, za a sanya shi cikin gida. Rushewar ruwa ya jawo masu sarauta cire sandar sarki tare da dunkule gindi a kasa sau uku. Da zarar an sauko daga ofis, tsarkakansa da haka girmamawarsa sun ɓace, saboda ba zai iya amfani da kowane iko da yake da shi ba a matsayin sarki; wannan ya hada da Babban mai gudanarwa, Alkali, da Kwamandan Soja. Sarki da ya gabata a yanzu an ƙwace masa Stool, takuba da sauran kayan sarauta waɗanda ke alamta ofishi da ikonsa. Ya kuma rasa matsayinsa na mai kula da ƙasar. Koyaya, koda an fita daga ofis, sarki ya kasance memba na gidan sarauta wanda aka zaɓe shi. Tsige shi ya faru a lokacin mulkin Kusi Obodom, wanda ya faru sakamakon gazawar mamayewar Dahomey . [16]

Tsarin doka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tsofaffi shugabanni daular Ashanti c. 1873, Hoton Kayayyakin Jules Gros .

Asasar Ashanti, a zahiri, ta kasance tsarin mulki ne . Yana yin kira ga addini, maimakon na zamani - wanda aka tsara na doka. Abin da yanayin zamani ke ɗauka a matsayin laifi, Ashanti yana ɗaukar kusan zunubai . Ayyukan da ba su dace ba na mutunta magabata, kuma suna da illa ga jama'a ne kawai . Idan shugaba ko Sarki ya kasa hukunta irin waɗannan ayyukan, sai ya roƙi fushin magabata da alloli, don haka yana cikin haɗarin tsige shi . Hukuncin wasu laifuka (zunubai) shine kisa, amma wannan ba safai ake zartarwa ba; wani hukuncin da yafi na kowa shine kora ko ɗauri .[ana buƙatar hujja]

Sarki yawanci yana yin aiki ko sauya duk wasu manyan lamuran . Waɗannan jimlolin sauƙaƙe na Sarki da shugabanni wani lokaci suna faruwa ta fansa ko rashawa ; suna kayyade a cikin irin wannan hanyar da ya kamata su ba zama kuskure domin tara, amma suna dauke a matsayin kudaden shiga ga jihar, wanda ga mafi part maraba da husuma, da jayayya, da kai kara . Sauyin ra'ayi yana da yawa fiye da kisa .[ana buƙatar hujja]

Ashanti ana kyamar kisan kai, kuma kashe kai ana daukar sa a matsayin kisan kai. Suna yanke kan waɗanda suka kashe kansu, hukuncin al'ada na kisan kai. Kashe kansa saboda haka ya raina kotu, don Sarki kawai zai iya kashe Ashanti.[ana buƙatar hujja]

A shari’ar kisan kai, dole ne a tabbatar da niyya. Idan kisan kai da gangan, mai kisankan ya biya diyyar zuriyar marigayin. Ba za a iya kashe mahaukaci ba saboda rashin ƙaddara niyya - sai dai kisan kai ko la'antar Sarki; game da zagin sarki, buguwa madaidaiciya kariya ce. Laifukan manyan mutane sun hada da kisan kai, yin lalata tsakanin mace ko na miji, da saduwa da mace mai haila , fyade da matar aure, da yin zina da duk wata matar sarki ko ta Sarki. Cin zarafi ko zagin wani sarki ko kotu ko Sarki suma suna da hukuncin kisa .[ana buƙatar hujja]

La'anar Sarki, kiran ƙasa da iko don cutar da Sarki, ana ɗaukarsa azaman ba za a iya faɗi ba kuma yana ɗaukar nauyin mutuwa . Wanda ya kirayi wani don aikata irin wannan aikin dole ne ya biya babban lada. Masu aikata nau'ikan sihiri (na sharri) na sihiri da maita suna karɓar mutuwa amma ba ta hanyar yanke jiki ba, don ba dole ne a zubar da jininsu ba. Ana karɓar kisa ta hanyar shakewa, ƙonewa, ko nutsar da su.[ana buƙatar hujja]

A ka’ida, iyalai ko layuka suna sasanta rikici tsakanin mutane. Duk da haka, irin wannan rigingimu za a iya kawo wa gwaji kafin a manyan ta furta da taboo rantsuwar wani sarki ko sarki. A ƙarshe, Kotun Sarki ita ce kotun yanke hukunci, don Sarki ne kawai zai iya ba da umarnin hukuncin kisa . A gaban Majalisar Dattawa da Kotun Sarki, masu shigar da kara sun yi magana sosai. Duk wanda ke wurin na iya yin tambayoyin wanda ake tuhuma ko mai tuhuma, kuma idan shari'ar ba ta kai ga yanke hukunci ba, ana kiran mashaidi na musamman don ba da ƙarin shaida . Idan shaidu guda ne kawai, rantsuwarsu ta tabbatar an faɗi gaskiya. Bugu da ƙari, cewa ya nuna fifiko ko ƙiyayya ga ko dai mai shigar da kara ba abin tunani ba ne. Sharuɗɗa ba tare da shaida ba, kamar sihiri ko zina ana daidaita su ta hanyar jarabawa, kamar shan gubar .[ana buƙatar hujja]

M veneration tabbatar da Ashanti halin kirki tsarin, da kuma samar da babba kafuwar ga gwamnati takunkumi. Haɗin haɗin tsakanin uwa da yaro ya haɗu da duk cibiyar sadarwar, wanda ya haɗa da magabata da maza maza. Tsarin shari'arta ya jaddada tunanin Ashanti na daidaito da halaye na gari, wanda ke fifita jituwa tsakanin mutane. Nyame ( Allah Maɗaukaki ) da kakanni ne suka yi dokokin, kuma dole ne mutum ya yi daidai da hakan.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Labarin kasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tsaunin Asante da kuma tabkin Bosumtwi halitta lake .

Masarautar Ashanti tana ɗaya daga cikin jerin masarautu a bakin teku gami da Dahomey, Benin, da Oyo . Masarautar Ashanti tana da duwatsu da rarar noma da yawa. Yankin Kudancin Masarautar Ashanti an lullubeshi da gandun daji mara kyau yayin da Guinea savanna ta rufe arewacin masarautar Ashanti. Guinea Savanna ta kunshi gajerun itatuwa marasa yankewa da kuma bishiyoyi masu hana wuta. Hakanan dazukan Riparian suna faruwa tare da Kogin Afram da koramu na yankin savanna. Soasa a Masarautar Ashanti galibi iri biyu ne, ochrosol na gandun daji a kudancin Masarautar Ashanti yayin da aka keɓe savanna ochrosols zuwa arewacin Masarautar Ashanti.

Mafi yawan dabbobi da dabbobi da dabbobin da aka ci karo da su a masarautar Ashanti sune kaza, tumaki, akuya, agwagwa, turkey, zomo, kifin kaza, kifi, da goro wanda ya zama tambarin ƙasar ta Ashanti, kazalika da kimanin nau'ikan flora iri biyu na bishiyoyi da bishiyoyi da sama da talatin da biyar na kayan adon da ke kawata masarautar Ashanti. Wadannan bishiyoyi / shrub-amfanin-dabba (kaza / kifi) an hade su sosai da kuma / ko kuma akan layi guda na gidajen Asante.

Tattalin arziki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Albarkatun kasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kadarorin zinare na Asantehene, Kofi Karikari

sasashen da ke cikin Masarautar Ashanti kuma suna da wada



taccen zinare, koko da goro, kuma Ashanti ba da daɗewa ba sun yi ciniki tare da Fotigal a sao Jorge da Mina da ke bakin teku, daga baya Elmina, da Songhai, da kuma tare da ƙasashen Hausa .

Noma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bikin doya na Ashanti Masarautar Ashanti, karni na 19 daga Thomas E. Bowdich .

Ashanti sun shirya filayen ta hanyar konawa kafin farkon lokacin damina kuma an noma su da fartanya ta ƙarfe. An bar filayen fallow har tsawon wasu shekaru, yawanci bayan shekaru biyu zuwa hudu na noman. Shuke-shuke horar da hada plantains, yams, manioc, masara, mai dadi dankali, gero, wake, da albasarta, gujiya, tumatir, da kuma da yawa daga 'ya'yan itãce . Manioc da masara sune sabbin dashen Duniya da aka gabatar yayin kasuwancin Turai na Atlantic . Da yawa daga cikin wadannan kayan lambu ana iya girban su sau biyu a shekara kuma rogo (manioc), bayan ci gaban shekaru biyu, yana samar da tushen sitaci. [17]

Ashanti ya canza giyar dabino, masara da gero cikin giya, abin sha da aka fi so; kuma anyi amfani da man daga dabino don yawan girke-girke da amfanin gida. [17]

Sadarwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Gangar Akan

Ashanti sun kirkiri Fontomfrom, wani tambarin magana na Asante, kuma suma sun kirkiri Gangar Akan . Sun buga sakonnin zuwa nisan sama 200 miles (320 km), kamar sauri kamar telegraph . Yaren Asante (Twi) da Akan, yaren mutanen Ashanti yana da sauti kuma ana samar da ƙarin ma'ana ta hanyar sauti. [17] Gwanin ya sake buga waɗannan sautunan, alamun rubutu, da lafazin jimla don kunnen da aka horar ya ji gaba ɗaya daga cikin jumlar kanta.

Ashanti ya ji kuma ya fahimci maganganun da waɗannan "duriyar magana" suka samar. Kalmomin daidaito sun yi kira ga tarurrukan sarakuna ko makamai, ana faɗakar da su game da haɗari, da watsa sanarwar mutuwar manyan mutane. An yi amfani da wasu ganga don karin magana da gabatarwar shagulgula.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Alkaluma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tarihin yawan mutane na Masarautar Ashanti na ɗaya daga cikin jinkirin ƙaddamarwa. A farkon karni na 19 Asantehene ya yi amfani da harajin shekara-shekara don kafa dakaru na dindindin dauke da bindigogi, wanda ya ba da damar kusanci sosai ga Masarautar Ashanti. Masarautar Ashanti na ɗaya daga cikin jihohin da ke tsakiyar Saharar Afirka. Osei Tutu da wadanda suka gaje shi sun kula da manufofin hadewar siyasa da al'adu kuma kungiyar kwadagon ta kai matsayin ta na 1750. Ya kasance ƙawance na manyan-biranen birni da yawa waɗanda suka yarda da ikon mai mulkin Kumasi da Masarautar Ashanti, da ake kira Asantehene. Masarautar Ashanti tana da yawan jama'a, yana ba da izinin ƙirƙirar manyan biranen birni . Ashanti ya mallaki murabba'in kilomita 250,000 yayin da yake mulki kusan mutane miliyan 3.

Gine-gine[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hoton gine-ginen Ashanti wanda Thomas Edward Bowdich ya zana, tare da alamun Adinkra akan bangon.
Hoton gidan Ashanti a Kumasi, kafin mulkin mallaka na Burtaniya.

Gine-ginen gargajiya na Ashanti sune kawai ragowar gine-ginen Ashanti. Gine-gine da zane sun ƙunshi tsarin katako wanda aka cika shi da yumɓu da ciyawa tare da kwaryar ganye. Wuraren da aka keɓe sune wuraren tsafi, amma akwai wasu gine-gine da yawa a baya tare da tsarin gine-gine iri ɗaya. Waɗannan gine-ginen sun kasance fadoji da wuraren bautar gumaka da kuma gidaje don mawadata. A Ashanti Empire kuma gina kabari wanda housed kaburbura da dama Ashanti shugabannin. Gabaɗaya, gidaje ko an tsara su don mazaunin ɗan adam ko kuma na gumaka, sun ƙunshi gine-gine masu faɗi huɗu na kusurwa huɗu da aka girke a farfajiyar da ke buɗe; an haɗa kusurwoyin ciki na gine-ginen da ke kusa da su ta hanyar bangon allo da aka fantsama, wanda bangarorinsa da kusurwoyinsa za a iya daidaita su don ba da damar kowane kuskure a cikin shimfidar farko. Yawanci, uku daga cikin gine-ginen a buɗe suke ga farfajiyar, yayin da na huɗu aka haɗa shi a wani ɓangare, ko dai ta ƙofa da tagogi, ko kuma ta aikin buɗe ido da ke buɗe ƙofa. Bowdich ya ambaci abubuwan da aka kafa a cikin gine-ginen Ashanti yayin ziyarar da ya kai Kumasi a 1817, kamar Fadar Ashanti wacce aka rusa a lokacin yaƙin Anglo-Ashanti. Ya kuma idan aka kwatanta da murabba'ai na fada wa mai proscenium na wani Italian wasan kwaikwayo.

Kayan more rayuwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Lantarki kamar hanya kai da kuma sadarwa a ko'ina cikin daular aka kiyaye via wani cibiyar sadarwa na da kyau-sa hanyoyi daga Ashanti babban yankin zuwa Nijar kogin da sauran cinikayya birane. [17] Baƙi na Ingilishi zuwa Kumasi a cikin ƙarni na 19, sun lura da rabe-raben babban birnin zuwa anguwanni 77 tare da manyan tituna 77; ɗayan yana da faɗi yadi 100. Gidaje da yawa musamman wadanda ke kusa da fadar dutse ta sarki wasu gine-gine ne hawa biyu wadanda aka sanya su da aikin famfo na cikin gida a cikin suran bandakuna wadanda suka cika da galan na tafasasshen ruwa. Nkwansrafo ko masu kula da hanya wadanda suka yi aiki a matsayin 'yan sanda na babbar hanya sun kasance a wurare daban-daban na hanyoyin Ashanti; duba motsin yan kasuwa da baƙi akan duk hanyoyi. Hakanan suna da alhakin leken asiri kuma an caje su da karɓar kuɗin fito daga yan kasuwa. [18] Masarautar Ashanti kuma ta gina gadoji a cikin sassan ruwa don jigilar kaya. Asantehene Kwaku Dua ya umarci injiniyoyinsa su gina ingantattun gadoji a saman rafuka a cikin biranen Ashanti. Thomas Freeman, wanda ya ziyarci daular a karni na 19, ya bayyana ginin da cewa ;

'Yan sanda da sojoji[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

'Yan sanda[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Akofena, Takobin bikin da Ashanti ke amfani da shi.

Asantehene ya gaji mukaminsa ne daga mahaifiyarsa ta sarauniya, kuma an ba shi taimako a Kumasi babban birnin kasar, ta hanyar ma’aikatan farar hula maza da suka kware a fagen kasuwanci, diflomasiyya, da soja, tare da wani shugaban da ake kira Gyaasehene . [17] Men daga kasar Larabawa, Sudan, da kuma Turai an aiki a cikin Ashanti daular aikin farar hula . dukkansu Asantehene ne ya nada su. A cikin manyan biranen Ashanti, policean sanda da yawa suna da alhakin kiyaye doka da oda. A Kumasi, ‘yan sanda sanye da kaki, wadanda dogon gashinsu ya bambanta, sun tabbatar da tsari ta hanyar tabbatar da cewa babu wani da ya shiga kuma ya bar garin ba tare da izinin gwamnati ba. A ankobia ko musamman 'yan sanda da aka yi amfani a matsayin daular da ke da dakaru na musamman da kuma masu kare lafiyarsa da Asantehene, kamar yadda kafofin daga m, kuma zuwa kashe tawaye. Domin mafi yawan karni na 19th kuma a cikin karni na 20th, da Ashanti sarki jihar zauna m. [19]

Soja[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Soja na Ashanti Marshal, c. 1819, na Thomas E. Bowdich .

Sojojin Ashanti sun yiwa daular aiki da kyau, suna tallafawa dogon lokacin fadada ta da kuma juriya ta gaba ga mulkin mallaka na Turai.</br> Amfani da makamai ya kasance da farko da bindigogi, amma wasu masana tarihi sun yarda cewa ƙungiya ta asali da jagoranci na iya taka muhimmiyar rawa a nasarar Ashanti. [20] Waɗannan, watakila, sun fi mahimmanci yayin la'akari da cewa Ashanti yana da sojoji da yawa daga waɗanda suka ci yaƙi ko haɗe da mutane, kuma sun fuskanci yawan tawaye da tawaye daga waɗannan mutanen a kan dogon tarihinta. Hankalin siyasa na “kwalliyar zinariya” ta alama da tasirin hargitsi na rundunar ƙasa, ya ba da haɗin kai da ake buƙata don ci gaba da mulkin. ƙarfin gaba ɗaya ya kai kimanin 80,000 zuwa 200,000 wanda ya sa sojojin Ashanti girma fiye da sanannen Zulu, kuma ya yi daidai da mafi girma a Afirka- rundunonin Habasha. [21] An bayyana rundunar Ashanti a matsayin tsayayyen tsari wanda sarki zai iya "kawo mutum 200,000 a cikin filin kuma a bayyane yake cewa jarumawan ba sa jin tsoron bindigogin Snider da bindigogi masu linzami 7" Duk da yake ainihin sojojin da aka tura cikin filin ba su da ƙarfi sosai. ƙarfi, dubun dubatan sojoji galibi ana samun su don biyan buƙatun masarautar. Motsa kai ya dogara ne da kananan jami'ai na yau da kullun, wadanda ke jagorantar da jagorantar rarar da rundunonin da aka kira daga gwamnonin lardin.

An tsara ƙungiya a kusa da mai tsaro na gaba, babban jiki, mai tsaron baya da abubuwa biyu na dama da hagu. Wannan ya ba da sassauci a cikin ƙasar kurmi sojojin Ashanti yawanci suna aiki a ciki. An san dawakai suna rayuwa a cikin Kumasi amma saboda ba za su iya rayuwa ba a yankin dajin tsuntsaye da ke cikin kudanci a kudu, babu mahaya. Manyan hafsoshin Ashanti sun hau dawakai tare da hauteur na hafsoshin Turai amma ba su hau zuwa yaƙi ba. Hanyar zuwa fagen fama yawanci ta hanyar haɗa ginshiƙai, kuma dabaru sun haɗa da kwanton-bauna da manyan ayyuka a fuka-fuki. Babu kamarsa tsakanin sojojin Afirka, Ashanti ta tura rukunin likitoci don tallafawa mayakansu. Wannan karfin ya fadada masarautar sosai kuma ci gaba har fiye da karni, kuma ta kayar da Birtaniyyawa a karo da yawa. [21]

An samar da tagulla na tagulla a wasu jihohi a cikin Gold Coast gami da Daular Ashanti a ƙarni na sha takwas da goma sha tara. Bayanai daban-daban sun nuna cewa maƙerin Asante ba kawai sun iya gyara bindigogi ba, amma ana sake yin ganga, makulli da hannun jari a wasu lokutan.

Yaƙe-yaƙe na Asante[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sojan masarautar Ashanti. c. 1824, na Joseph Dupuis .

Daga 1806 har zuwa 1896, Masarautar Ashanti tana cikin yanayin yaƙi na har abada wanda ya shafi faɗaɗawa ko kare yankunanta. Amfani da Ashanti akan sauran sojojin Afirka ya sanya shi mafi girman iko a yankin. Yunkurin da ya nuna a kan Burtaniya ya sa ya sami girmamawar manyan Turai.

Yaƙin Asante – Fante[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin 1806, Ashanti ya bi shugabannin tawaye biyu ta yankin Fante zuwa bakin teku. Kin Biritaniya da mika wuya ga ‘yan tawayen ya haifar da harin Ashanti. Wannan ya kasance mai lalacewa sosai har ingila ta ba da dan tawaye; dayan ya tsere. [22] A cikin rikice-rikice na 1807 tare da Fante ya haifar da Yakin Ashanti – Fante, wanda Ashanti suka yi nasara a ƙarƙashin Asantehene Osei Bonsu ("Bonsu, whale").

Yakin Ga – Fante[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A yakin 1811 Ga – Fante, kawancen Asante da Ga sun yi yaki da kawancen jihohin Fante, Akwapim da Akim. Injin din Asante ya sami nasarar fatattakar kawancen a yakin da aka tura makiyansu zuwa tsaunukan Akwapim. Ashanti duk da haka ya watsar da kamfen ɗin bin su bayan kame birinin Burtaniya da kafa kasancewar su da ikon su a bakin teku.

Yaƙin Ashanti – Akim – Akwapim[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin 1814 Ashanti sun ƙaddamar da mamayar Gold Coast, galibi don samun damar zuwa yan kasuwar Turai. A yakin Ashanti – Akim – Akwapim, masarautar ta fuskanci kawancen Akim-Akwapim. Bayan yaƙe-yaƙe da yawa, an kayar da kawancen Akim – Akwapim mai lamba kuma sun zama masu biyan haraji ga Ashantis. An kafa Masarautar Ashanti daga tsakiyar yankin zuwa bakin teku.

Yaƙe-yaƙe na Anglo-Ashanti[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Farkon Yaƙin Anglo-Ashanti[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sojojin Masarautar Ashanti sun yi aiki tare da sojojin Burtaniya a karkashin umarnin Col. Sutherland, Yuli 11, 1824.

Farkon yaƙe-yaƙe na Anglo-Ashanti ya faru a cikin 1823. A cikin waɗannan rikice-rikicen, Masarautar Ashanti ta fuskance ta, tare da nasarori daban-daban na nasara, kan Masarautar Burtaniya da ke zaune a bakin tekun. Tushen rikicin ya samo asali tun daga 1823 lokacin da Sir Charles MacCarthy, ya bijirewa duk wata hanyar da Ashanti ta bi don tattaunawa, ya jagoranci rundunar mamayewa. Ashanti ya kayar da wannan, ya kashe MacCarthy, ya ɗauki kansa don ganima ya wuce zuwa bakin tekun. Koyaya, cuta ta tilasta musu komawa. Ashanti sun sami nasara sosai a yakin da ya biyo baya wanda a cikin 1826 suka sake komawa bakin teku. Da farko sun yi gwagwarmaya sosai a fagen yaƙi da manyan sojojin ƙawancen Burtaniya, gami da Denkyirans. Koyaya, sabon rokoki na Biritaniya ya sa sojojin Ashanti suka janye. [23] A 1831, wata yarjejeniya ta haifar da shekaru 30 na zaman lafiya, tare da karɓar Pra River a matsayin iyaka.

Yaƙin Anglo-Ashanti na biyu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Masarautar Ashanti ta yi aiki tare da Burtaniya ta 42 na Highlanders ; Mai zane . [24]

Ban da 'yan kaɗan na hasken wuta na Ashanti a fadin Pra a cikin 1853 da 1854, zaman lafiya tsakanin Masarautar Ashanti da Masarautar Burtaniya ya kasance bai yanke ba har tsawon shekaru 30. Bayan haka, a cikin 1863, wata babbar tawagar Ashanti ta haye kogin tana bin wani ɗan gudun hijira, Kwesi Gyana. An yi fada, an yi asara a bangarorin biyu, amma bukatar da gwamnan ya yi na sojoji daga Ingila ta ki amincewa kuma rashin lafiya ta tilasta janye sojojinsa na Yammacin Indiya. Yaƙin ya ƙare a 1864 a matsayin tsaka mai wuya tare da ɓangarorin biyu sun rasa maza da yawa ga cuta fiye da kowane mahimmin abu.

Yaƙi na Uku Anglo-Ashanti[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin 1869 an kai wani iyalin Turawan mishan zuwa Kumasi. An karbe su da karimci kuma anyi amfani dasu azaman uzuri don yaƙi a cikin 1873. Hakanan, Birtaniyya ta mallaki ƙasar Ashanti da Dutch ta yi ikirarin. Ashanti sun mamaye sabon mulkin mallaka na Burtaniya. An aika Janar Wolseley da sanannen zobensa na Wolseley a kan Ashanti. Wannan yaƙin zamani ne, wanda aka cika shi da ɗaukar hoto (gami da sanannen ɗan rahoto Henry Morton Stanley ) kuma an buga ainihin umarnin soja da na likita ga sojojin. [25] Gwamnatin Burtaniya ta ƙi roƙo don tsoma baki ga masana'antun kera makamai na Burtaniya waɗanda ba su da takurawa wajen sayar wa ɓangarorin biyu. [26]

Duk ƙoƙarin Ashanti na tattaunawar an yi watsi da su. Wolseley ya jagoranci sojojin Biritaniya 2,500 da sojojin Yammacin Indiya da Afirka da yawa zuwa Kumasi. An mamaye babban birnin na ɗan lokaci. Burtaniya ta gamsu da girman gidan sarauta da kuma girman abubuwan da ke ciki, gami da "layin littattafai a cikin yare da yawa." [27] Ashanti sun yi watsi da babban birnin bayan yakin basasa. Turawan ingila sun kona shi. [28]

A cikin watan Janairun 1896, Turawan Burtaniya a dunkule sun mamaye Masarautar Ashanti zuwa Masarautar Burtaniya .

Birtaniyyawa da kawayensu sun sha mummunan rauni a yakin sun rasa sojoji da yawa da manyan hafsoshin soja. amma a ƙarshe ƙarfin wutar ya fi ƙarfin shawo kan Ashanti. Asantehene (sarkin Ashanti) ya sanya hannu kan yarjejeniyar Burtaniya a cikin Yulin 1874 don kawo karshen yakin.

Yaki Na Hudu Anglo-Ashanti[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin 1895, Ashanti ya ƙi tayin da ba na hukuma ba don zama masarautar Burtaniya.

Masarautar Ashanti tana son hana Sojojin Faransa da na Turawan mulkin mallaka fita daga yankin Masarautar Ashanti (da zinarta), Turawan Burtaniya sun kosa su ci Masarautar Ashanti sau daya tak. Duk da cewa suna tattaunawa da masarautar game da sanya shi a matsayin masarautar Burtaniya, Birtaniyya ta fara Yakin Anglo-Ashanti na Hudu a 1895 bisa dalilan rashin biyan tarar da aka yiwa sarkin Asante bayan yakin 1874. Birtaniyyawa sun yi nasara kuma an tilasta Masarautar Ashanti sanya hannu kan wata yarjejeniya.

Al'adu da zamantakewa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Iyali[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Iyalan Masarautar Ashanti da unguwannin birni, c. 1873 .

Tsayawa tsakanin iyalai galibi siyasa ce. Iyalan masarauta yawanci sune ke kan gaba a matsayi na sarauta, sannan dangin shuwagabannin manyan yankuna. A kowace masarauta, layin mace na musamman ke samar da shugaba. Wani kwamiti na maza da yawa da suka cancanci wannan mukami ya zaɓi shugaba. Iyalin Ashanti na yau da kullun sun kasance masu girma da haihuwa . Brotheran uwa ya kasance mai kula da 'ya'yanta. Uba a gefe guda yana da karancin nauyin shari'a ga 'ya'yansa ban da tabbatar da lafiyar su. Mata kuma suna da damar fara saki yayin da miji yana da wasu haƙƙoƙin doka akan matarsa kamar haƙƙin yanke hancinta saboda zina.

Tufafi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Fitattun mutane sun sa siliki. Talakawan Ashanti suna saye auduga yayin da bayi ke sanye da baƙin baƙi. Gargaji ya nuna matsayin mai sawa a cikin al'umma kuma launinta ya bayyana ma'anoni daban-daban. Farar fata ta kasance talakawa bayan sun ci nasara a shari'ar kotu. An sanya launuka masu duhu don jana'iza ko makoki. Dokoki sun wanzu don takura wasu ƙirar Kente ga masu martaba. An tsara wasu auduga ko siliki a jikin Kente don sarki kawai kuma ana iya sa shi da izininsa kawai.

Ilimi da yara[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yariman Kwasi Boakye da Kwame Poku, c. 1840 .

Ilimi a cikin Masarautar Ashanti an gudanar da shi ne ta hanyar Asante kuma masana da aka shigo da su kuma mutane Ashanti galibi za su halarci makarantu a Turai don babbar ilimin su .

Iyaye masu haƙuri sun saba da Ashanti. Ana ɗaukar yara a matsayin lokacin farin ciki kuma yara ba za su iya ɗaukar alhakin ayyukansu ba. Yaron ba shi da alhakin ayyukansu har sai lokacin balaga . Yaro ba shi da lahani kuma babu damuwa game da kula da ransu, ainihin asalin duk ayyukan jana'izar, don haka jana'izar da aka saba yi wa mamacin Ashanti ba ta da kyau ga yara.

Ashanti sungaisa da tagwaye lokacin da aka haife su a cikin gidan sarauta saboda ana ganin su wata alama ce ta zuwa mai zuwa. A ka’ida, ‘yan tagwaye sun shiga soja tare da tagwayen‘ yan matan da za su iya zama matan Sarki. Idan tagwaye maza ne da 'ya mace, babu wani aiki na musamman da ke jiran su. Matan da suka haifa sau uku ana girmama su sosai saboda ana ɗaukar uku a matsayin masu sa'a. Special rituals ensue na uku, shida, da kuma tara yaro. Yaro na biyar (mara sa'a biyar) na iya tsammanin masifa. Iyalai masu yara da yawa ana mutunta su sosai kuma ana ba'ar mata bakararre.

Haila da najasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ashanti sun gudanar da al'adun balaga ne kawai ga mata. Iyaye maza suna umartar 'ya'yansu ba tare da kiyaye jama'a ba. An girmama sirrin yara maza a masarautar Ashanti. Yayinda jinin haila ya gabato, yarinya takan je gidan mahaifiyarta. Lokacin da aka bayyana jinin haila, sai uwar ta yi bushara a ƙauyen ta doke fartanya ta baƙin ƙarfe da dutse. Tsoffin mata sun fito suna rera wakokin Bara (na haila).

Mata masu haila sun sha ƙuntatawa da yawa. Ashanti suna kallon su a matsayin marasa tsabta. Ba su dafa abinci ga maza ba, ba su kuma ci wani abinci da aka dafa wa namiji ba. Idan wani haila mace shiga kakanninmu stool (shrine) gidan, ta kama, kuma azãba ta iya haifar da mutuwa. Idan ba a zartar da wannan hukuncin ba, Ashanti sun yi imani, fatalwar magabata za su shaƙe shugaba . Mata masu haila suna rayuwa a cikin gidaje na musamman yayin lokutansu saboda an hana su ƙofar gidajen maza. Da suka yi rantsuwa ba rantsuwõyinku, kuma babu rantsuwõyinku aka rantsar domin ko da su. Ba su halarci kowane ɗayan bikin ba kuma ba su ziyarci wurare masu tsarki ba.

Kiwan lafiya da mutuwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ashanti mai wankin rai

Cuta da mutuwa sune manyan abubuwan da suka faru a masarautar . A talakawa herbalist divined da allahntaka hanyar da rashin lafiya kuma bi shi tare da na ganye magunguna .

Babban malamin gargajiyar Masarautar Ashanti yana yin bikin addinin Akan c. 1873, daga Jules Gros .

Mutane sun tsani kasancewa su kadai tsawon lokaci ba tare da wani ya samu damar yin wannan aikin ba kafin marassa lafiya su fadi. Iyalin sun yiwa mamacin sutura da mafi kyawun tufafi, kuma suka qawata su da fakiti na ƙurar zinare (kuɗi don bayan rayuwa), kayan ado, da abinci don tafiya "kan tudu". An binne gawan a cikin awanni 24. Har zuwa wannan lokacin jana'izar ta shiga rawa, kada ganguna, harbe-harbe da bindigogi, duk tare da marin dangi. Anyi wannan ne saboda Ashanti galibi sunyi imani cewa mutuwa ba wani abin bakin ciki bane, amma wani ɓangare ne na rayuwa. Kamar yadda Ashanti suka yi imani da bayan rayuwa, iyalai sun ji cewa za su haɗu da kakanninsu bayan sun mutu. Ibadun jana'izar don mutuwar sarki ya shafi ɗaukacin masarautar kuma lamari ne mai cikakken bayani.

Biki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Manya-manyan bukukuwa na Ashanti suna tuno da ruhohin shuwagabannin da suka tashi tare da miƙa musu abinci da abin sha, suna neman alfarmarsu don amfanin jama'a, wanda ake kira Adae . Kwana guda kafin Adae, gangunan Akan sun watsa shirye-shiryen bikin da ke gabatowa. Ma'ajin kujeru yana tara tumaki da giya wanda za'a miƙa. Babban firist yana hidimar Adae a cikin kujerun gidan da kakanni suka zo. Firist ɗin yana ba da kowane abinci da abin sha. Bikin na jama'a yana faruwa a waje, inda duk mutane suka shiga rawa. Minstrels yana rera kalmomin jumla na al'ada; gangunan magana suna ɗaukaka sarki da kakanni a cikin kalmomin gargajiya. Odwera, sauran manyan shagulgulan bikin, suna faruwa a watan Satumba kuma galibi suna ɗaukar sati ɗaya ko biyu. Lokaci ne na tsarkake zunubi daga al'umma ƙazantar, da kuma tsarkake wuraren ibada na kakanni da alloli. Bayan sadaukarwa da liyafa na kaza kaza- wanda rayayyu da matattu ke rabawa-sabuwar shekara za a fara wacce duk suke da tsabta, masu ƙarfi, da lafiya.

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Tsarin soja na Afirka (1800-1900)
  • Tsarin soja na Afirka bayan 1900
  • Tsarin soja na Afirka zuwa 1800
  • Akyempimhene
  • Yaƙe-yaƙe Anglo-Ashanti
  • Ashantis
  • Tarihin Ghana
  • Jerin sarakunan Asante

Bayani[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

 

  1. Edgerton, Robert B. Fall of the Asante Empire: The Hundred Year War for Africa's Gold Coast. Free Press, 1995.
  2. ^ a b Ashanti Order in Council 1901
  3. ^ a b c d e f g
  4. ^ a b c Collins and Burns (2007), p. 140.
  5. ^ a b c d
  6. ^
  7. ^
  8. ^
  9. ^
  10. ^ a b c Collins and Burns (2007), p. 139.
  11. ^
  12. ^ MacLean, Iain. Rational Choice and British Politics: An Analysis of Rhetoric and Manipulation from Peel to Blair, 2001. Page 76.
    1. Kings And Queens Of AsanteArchived 2012-10-30 at the Wayback Machine
    2. ^
    3. ^ Ashanti.com.au Archived 2012-04-13 at the Wayback Machine
    4. ^
    5. ^ Alan Lloyd, The Drums of Kumasi, London: Panther, 1964, pp. 21-24.
    6. ^ Kevin Shillington, History of Africa, New York: St. Martin's, 1995 (1989), p. 194.
    7. ^ a b History of the Ashanti Empire.Archived 2012-04-13 at the Wayback Machine
    8. ^ Giblert, Erik Africa in World History: From Prehistory to the 2004
    9. Kings And Queens Of AsanteArchived 2012-10-30 at the Wayback Machine
    10. ^
    11. ^ Ashanti.com.au Archived 2012-04-13 at the Wayback Machine
    12. ^
    13. ^ Alan Lloyd, The Drums of Kumasi, London: Panther, 1964, pp. 21-24.
    14. ^ Kevin Shillington, History of Africa, New York: St. Martin's, 1995 (1989), p. 194.
    15. ^ a b History of the Ashanti Empire.Archived 2012-04-13 at the Wayback Machine
    16. ^ Giblert, Erik Africa in World History: From Prehistory to the Present 2004

Bibliography[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Basil, Davidson African Civilization Revisited, Africa World Press: 1991 ISBN 9780865431232
  • Kevin Shillington, 1995 (1989), History of Africa, New York: St. Martin's Press.

Hanyoyin haɗin waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Collins and Burns (2007), p. 140.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Collins and Burns (2007), p. 139.
  3. MacLean, Iain. Rational Choice and British Politics: An Analysis of Rhetoric and Manipulation from Peel to Blair, 2001. Page 76.
  4. Alan Lloyd, The Drums of Kumasi, London: Panther, 1964, pp. 21-24.
  5. Kevin Shillington, History of Africa, New York: St. Martin's, 1995 (1989), p. 194.
  6. Giblert, Erik Africa in World History: From Prehistory to the Present 2004
  7. Shillington, loc. cit.
  8. Lloyd, pp. 28-38
  9. Rodriguez, Junius P. The Historical Encyclopedia of World Slavery, Volume 1, 1997. p. 53.
  10. Johann Gottlieb Christaller, Ashanti Proverbs: (the primitive ethics of a savage people), 1916, pp. 119-20.
  11. Ashanti Order in Council 1901
  12. Shillington, p. 195.
  13. Ivor Wilks (1989), p. 201.
  14. Arhin, Kwame, "The Political and Military Roles of Akan Women", in Christine Oppong (ed.), Female and Male in West Africa, London: Allen and Unwin, 1983.
  15. Edgerton, Robert B. Fall of the Asante Empire: The Hundred Year War for Africa's Gold Coast. Free Press, 1995.
  16. Pescheux, page 449
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4 Davidson (1991), p. 240.
  18. Ivor Wilks (1989), p. 48–55
  19. Davidson (1991), p. 242.
  20. Bruce Vandervort, Wars of Imperial Conquest in Africa: 1830-1914, Indiana University Press: 1998, pp. 16-37.
  21. 21.0 21.1 Vandervort (1998).
  22. Lloyd, pp. 24-27.
  23. Lloyd, pp. 39-53.
  24. Anglo-Ashanti wars
  25. Lloyd, pp. 88–102.
  26. Lloyd, p. 96.
  27. Lloyd, pp. 172-74.
  28. Lloyd, p. 175.