Yankin Gabashin Najeriya

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Globe icon.svgYankin Gabashin Najeriya

Wuri
Ƴantacciyar ƙasaNajeriya
Labarin ƙasa
Yawan fili 76,145.65 km²
Bayanan tarihi
Ƙirƙira 1 Oktoba 1954
Rushewa 27 Mayu 1967
Ta biyo baya Jihar Gabas ta Tsakiya, Jihar rivers da South Eastern State (en) Fassara
Bayanan Tuntuɓa
Kasancewa a yanki na lokaci

Yankin Gabashin Najeriya ta kasance wani yanki na gudanarwa a Najeriya, wanda ta samo asali daga yankin Kudancin Najeriya da turawa suka mulka a shekarar 1954. Babban birninta na farko itace Calabar. Daga baya aka mayar da babban birnin kasar zuwa Enugu kuma babban birni na biyu itace Umuahia. An raba yankin a hukumance a shekarar 1967 zuwa sabbin jahohi uku, jihar gabas ta tsakiya, jihar Rivers da kuma jihar kudu maso gabas. Gabas ta tsakiya tana da babban birninta a Enugu, wanda yanzu ke a cikin jihar Enugu.[1]

Yankin ta hada manyan kabilun na uku da na hudu da na biyar a jerin kabilun Najeriya da suka hada da Igbo da Ijaw da Ibibio. Wannan yanki daga baya ta zamo Biafra, wacce ta yi tawaye daga 1967 zuwa 1970.[2]

Labarin Kasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yankin Gabashin Najeriya ta kasance a yankin Kudu maso Gabashin Najeriya.[3] Ta hada iyaka da kogin Neja daga Yamma kuma tana da iyakar gudanarwa da al'adu da yankin Arewacin Najeriya daga arewa. Iyakarta ta gabas tana tsakanin iyakar Najeriya da Kamaru sannan kuma da gabar ruwanta na kudu ta hade da gabar tekun Guinea. Jimillar fadin yankin ya kai kimanin 29,400 square miles (76,000 km2).[3] A cikin 1965, yankin yana da yawan jama'a miliyan goma sha biyu kuma wasu yankuna kamar Owerri da waɗanda Annangs ke zaune suna ɗaya daga cikin wuraren da ke da yawan jama'a a Yammacin Afirka.[4] Shi ma yankin Awka ya sha fama da zaizayar kasa.

Yankin na da ciyayi iri uku. Yankunan bakin teku daga kudan sun mamaye fadamar mangrove da magudanan ruwa. Daga arewacin fadaman akwai dazuzzuka na wurare masu zafi, duk da haka, a cikin wani lokaci, yawancin bishiyoyi masu ganye na dajin an share su don dasa itatuwan dabino.[3] Akwai guinea savannah daga arewa maso yammacin yankin. Manyan kogunan yankin sun hada da kogunan Neja Delta irin su Qua Iboe, Cross River, Kogin Orashi da kuma kogin Imo. Plateau Obudu da ke yankin arewa maso gabas, tsaunin Oban da tsaunin Ikom da ke kan iyakar gabacin Kamaru na daga cikin tsaunukan yankin.[5]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

 

Mulkin mallakan Turawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A shekarar 1849, John Beecroft, gwamnan Fernando Po ya zama wakilin Birtaniya na Bights a yankin Benin da Biafra.[6] An zaɓi Beecroft don ya kasance mai kula da daidaita kasuwancin a tashar jiragen ruwa na tsohuwa da Sabuwar Calabar da na Benin, Bonny, Bimbia da Kamaru tsakanin mazauna da kamfanonin kasuwanci na Birtaniya. Haɓakar kasuwancin da aka samu a cikin tashoshin jiragen ruwa ya haifar da tura wasu kamfanoni na Turai don gina wuraren kasuwanci a Onitsha. A cikin shekarar 1879, yawancin kamfanoni sun haɗu don kafa Kamfanin Hadin-gwiwa na Afirka kuma an ba su takardar izini don gudanar da kariya ta bakin teku a 1885. A cikin 1884, hedkwatar Birtaniya mai kula da Bights na Benin da Biafra ta koma Calabar daga Fernando Po zuwa Calabar kuma a cikin 1890, an kafa Oil Rivers Protectorate, wanda daga baya aka fi sani da Niger Coast Protectorate. An kafa yankin Kudancin Najeriya a shekarar 1932 kuma a shekara ta 1914 Turawan mulkin mallaka na Ingila suka kafa mafi yawan bangarorin gudanarwa a yankin Kudancin Najeriya. A cikin 1939, an raba lardin Kudu zuwa Lardin Yamma da Gabas.[4] A lokacin yakin, an ba wa larduna karin iko saboda karancin ma'aikata.[7]

Kamar yadda yazo a tarihi, mazauna Gabashin Nijeriya suna da nasu al'adun na daban da kuma tsarin dimukradiyya irin tasu. [3] Don kafa mulkin kai tsaye a cikin rarrabuwar kawuna, Burtaniya ta fara dabi'ar karfafa ikon shugabannin kauyukan gargajiya fiye da ayyukansu na gargajiya kafin mulkin mallaka. [8]

Tare da ’yan kasuwa na Biritaniya, Kiristoci mishan sun kafa sansanonin yada addiin kiristanci a yankin. A shekarar 1846 ne, Reverend Hope Masterton Waddell ya kafa reshe na Cocin Ofishin Jakadancin Scotland. Ajayi Crowther na CMS ya kafa reshen Nijar a Onitsha, ba da jimawa ba Cocin Katolika ya biyo baya. Waɗannan mishan sun sami wasu masu tuba a cikin mazauna ciki har da Rev James Boyle na Bonny, firist a St. James Cathedral. [3]

Al'adu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kafin yakin duniya na biyu, akwai manyan garuruwa biyar a Gabashin Najeriya, Fatakwal da Enugu da aka kirkira bayan yakin duniya na daya, Calabar, Uyo, Ikot Ekpene, Onitsha da Aba . Yawancin mutanen sun zauna a cikin ƙananan al'ummomi da garuruwa. Haɓaka kasuwancin ya taimaka wajen ƙaura da maza keyi zuwa birane don neman aiki da kasuwanci amma a lokacin Kirsimeti da sauran lokutan bukukuwa, sukan dawo gida. Mutanen sun kuma ginawa iyalansu gidaje a ƙauyukansu. [3]

Mulkin sarautun gargajiya a ƙauyuka da dama ya hada da babba a cikin 'yayan sarki ko kuma attajiri da ya biya ƙafa ga sauran masu rike da mukamai ke da ikon zartarwa. Daga cikin Efiks da Ibibio 's, akwai ƙungiyoyin asiri a boye da suke taka muhimmiyar rawa ta fuskar zamantakewa da tsari. Ƙungiyoyin asirin na kiyaye masu bin bashi kuma suna taka muhimmiyar rawa a bukukuwan gargajiya. [9] A yawancin yankuna a yankin, amfani da kotunan asali don daidaita bashi da sadaki sune muhimman cibiyoyin zamantakewa. [3]

Rawa da wasanni su ma sun kasance muhimman abubuwan zamantakewa a yankin Gabas. [10] Ana buga wasan kwallon kafa a tsakanin watannin Afrilu zuwa Nuwamba. Hukumar kula da wasannin kwallon kafa ta Najeriya reshen yankin da na kungiyoyin wasannin motsa jiki ne ke tsara wasannin. Emmanuel Ifeajuna, ya kasance wanda yayi nasarar lashe zinari a wasan Dogon tsalle wato High Jump na Empire a Vancouver a 1954.[11]

Alkaluma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yankin Gabas tana da tarin al'umma daban-daban. Kabila mafi girma a yankin su ne Igbo. [12] Al'ummar gargajiya na Igbo sun kasance masu bin tafarkin dimokuradiyya kuma masu mulkan kawunansu da mukamai, dukiya da shekaru sune farkon abubuwan da ke tabbatar da martaba a yankin. A lokacin mulkin mallaka, ‘yan Inyamurai sun bazu zuwa wasu yankuna na Birtaniya ta yammacin Afirka, inda suka fara aiki a matsayin ‘yan kasuwa da ’yan kwadago sannan suka kafa kananan sana’o’i a Legas da sauran garuruwa. [3] Ibibios da Efiks sun rayu a gundumomin Uyo, Opobo, Calabar, Enyong, Eket, Creek Town, Duke Town, Old Town da Ikot Ekpene . A zamanin mulkin mallaka da na mulkin mallaka, Efiks ne ke sarrafa mashigar kasuwanci har zuwa Kogin Cross zuwa Tashoshin Ruwa na Calabar. Sauran kabilun yankin Neja Delta sun hada da mutanen Opobo da Bonny da Degema da Okrika da Buguma da Brass da Abonnema da ke magana da Ijaw . [12] Ijaw suna da kyakkyawar al'adar sarauta. Sauran kungiyoyin da ke yankin sun hada da Annang na Ikot Ekpene, Yakurr, Bahumono, Oron, Ogoni da Ekoi . [3]

Tattalin Arziki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kasuwancin kwakwan-maja ya kasance abin da ya mamaye tattalin arzikin Gabashin Najeriya. Ko da yake ba ƴan asalin yankin ba ne, Ana samun da shinfidu na rufin gidaje a ƙauyuka, ruwan kwakwa don sha da kuma man-kadanya a matsayin tushen samun kuɗin waje. [3] Bayan yakin duniya na biyu, farashin kwakwan manja ya yi tashi kuma a shekarar 1954, noman kwakwan ya samar da kudin shiga na fam miliyan 54. Koyaya, farashin ya daidaita ta tsakiyar shekarun 1950. [3] Aiki a noma da noma ya kasance babban tushen samun kudin shiga ga yawancin mazauna da suka tsunduma cikin noman doya da kamun kifi. A cikin shekarun 1960, gwamnati ta inganta kasuwancin roba, cocoa da kwa-kwan manja don ƙara yawan amfanin gonakin kuɗi. Gwamnati ta kuma kafa matsugunan gonaki a Ohaji, Igbariam, Boki, Ulonna, Erei, Uzo-Uwani da Egbema don karfafa aikin noma. [13]

Har ila yau, cinikin kayayyaki ya kasance wani babban sashi na tattalin arzikin yankin. A shekarar 1954, shigo da kayayyaki zuwa yankin ya kai kusan fam miliyan 25 a shekara wanda wasu ƴan kamfanoni na Turai suka kawo cikin ƙasar amma dubban ‘yan kasuwa a yankin suka rarraba. [3] Ana ci gaba da cinikin kayan amfani da ake shigowa da su daga waje kamar busasshen kifi, kayan motsa jiki, masaku, tare da cinikin kayan abinci na gida. [10]

A masana'antu kuwa, ma'adinan coal na Enugu da Kamfanin Coal Corporation na Najeriya ke gudanarwa da kuma injin niƙa na Nigersteel wanda ke amfani da tarkacen ƙarfe don samar da sanduna masu laushi na ɗaya daga cikin ƙananan ma'adinan kwal da masana'antar karafa da ke aiki a yammacin Afirka a 1963. [3] NCNC ta jagoranci gwamnati, an kafa masana'antar siminti a Nkalagu, Nigerian Breweries sun zabi masana'anta a Aba, masana'antar taba sigari da gilashi a Fatakwal. Aikin hakar man fetur a yankin wanda Shell D'Archy ta fara a 1937 bai samar da adadin kasuwanci ba sai a shekarar 1957. Amma a 1965, man fetur ya kasance tushen samun kudin shiga. [4]

Kamfanoni na doka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Aikin gudanar da kasuwanci da kudaden shiga da ake samu a cinikin man-ja da man -kade, ya koma hannun hukumar hada-hadar kasuwanci ta Gabashin Najeriya da Hukumar Kudi ta Gabashin Najeriya. Hukumar Tallace-tallacen Gabashin Najeriya ta fara aiki ne a shekarar 1954 kuma an ba ta alhakin sarrafa tsabar kudi ko kayan amfanin gona na yankin. Hukumar ta ba da daraja don samar da dabino bisa ga abun ciki na fatty acid kyauta sannan ta sanya farashin masu samarwa ga kowane aji. [3] Hukumar ta gudanar da sayan dabino da kernels da za a fitar da su ta hanyar amfani da masu saye masu lasisi tare da yin jigilar kayan amfanin gona zuwa tashar jiragen ruwa don fitarwa. Yawancin ribar da ake samu daga siyar da kayan amfanin gona zuwa ketare ana kai su ne zuwa ga Hukumar Raya Gabashin Najeriya. Kamfanonin raya kasa sun tsunduma cikin samar da ingantattun kwayayen dabino don kasuwannin fitar da kayayyaki ta hanyar kafa masana’antun man fetur na farko da kuma bunkasa sauran kayayyakin amfanin gona da ake fitarwa da su kamar koko, goro, roba da kwakwa. [3] An kuma karfafa noman shinkafa a Abakaliki da Ogoja . [3]

Sufuri[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ci gaban al'umma yana daya daga cikin shirye-shiryen da NCNC ta jagoranci gwamnatin yankin Gabas a shekarun 1950 kuma kalmar ta shahara a tsakanin mazauna kauyuka da garuruwa. Wani yunƙuri na ma'aikatar ci gaban al'umma shi ne share filaye don samar da hanyoyi da tituna. A cikin 1955 kusan 8,000 miles (13,000 km) na tituna an share su amma kasa da kashi 10% sun lalace. [3] Yawancin matafiya suna amfani da manyan motoci masu ma'ana kamar 'Lokacin Allah ne mafifici' ko 'Ba gumi, Babu gumi' [3] don tafiya tsakanin birane. A yankunan kudancin yankin inda magudanan ruwa da gulbi suka mamaye ciyayi, ana amfani da jiragen ruwa da jiragen ruwa don sufuri.

Titin jirgin kasa na Najeriya a yankin ya ratsa ta Enugu, Umuahia, Aba da Fatakwal. An fara aikin gina titin jirgin kasa a shekarar 1913 kuma an kammala shi a shekarar 1919. An mika layin zuwa Kaduna a shekarar 1926. [14]

Tashar ruwa ta Fatakwal ita ce ta biyu a girma a Najeriya a shekarun 1950. A cikin 1954, ta share kusan dala miliyan 54 na shigowa da kaya da fitarwa, [3] yayin da gine-ginen jigilar kayayyaki a Calabar suka share kaya na dala miliyan 11.

Gwamnati da siyasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yankin kamar dai Najeriya a lokacin jamhuriya ta farko tana gudanar da tsarin gwamnati da ‘yan majalisa tare da firaministan da ke jagorantar bangaren zartaswa da ‘yan majalisar wakilai. Matsayin shugaban kasa ya kasance amma yana ƙarƙashin Firayim Minista. [4] Baya ga gwamnatin yankin, Gabashin Najeriya kuma yana da karamar hukuma wacce aka tsara da tsari irin na Turai. Akwai matakan shugabanci guda uku a c tsarin, gundumomi da lardin birnane, gundumomi da kananan hukumomi. [4]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Cibiyar gwamnatin Afirka ce ta mamaye yankin, Majalisar Yankin Gabas da ke da ikon yin muhawara amma ba a tsara dokokin kafa shi a cikin 1948. Tana da wakilai goma sha biyar na Afirka da kuma wasu jami'an Turai goma sha huɗu. A shekarar 1951, an ba wa taron yanki ƙarin ikon majalisa da na kuɗi bayan bin tsarin Kundin Tsarin Mulki na McPherson . Bugu da kari, an kara yawan mambobin majalisar zuwa wakilai tamanin na Afirka, da wakilai na musamman guda uku da jami'ai biyar. Duk da cewa jam’iyyar NCNC ce ta mamaye zaben 1951, kungiyar ba ta da karfi musamman domin hedikwatar jam’iyyar na Legas ne kuma shugabanta bai tsaya takara ba a yankin. Da yawa daga cikin ‘yan majalisar da aka zaba a baya sun kasance ‘yan takara masu cin gashin kansu kuma bayan zaben su ne kawai aka ayyana su a matsayin jam’iyyar NCNC domin samun goyon bayan siyasa. [3] Bayan rikicin da aka yi a 1953, jam’iyyar ta samu karbuwa kuma a wani sabon zabe da aka gudanar a 1953 da Azikiwe, shugaban NCNC ya tsaya takara, jam’iyyar ta samu gagarumar nasara. [15]

Tarihin wakilcin kananan hukumomi a yankin ya kasu zuwa matakai uku. Kashi na farko ya kasance ta hannun sarakunan da aka amince dasu waɗanda da yawa daga cikinsu gwamnatin mulkin mallaka ce ta ƙirƙire su. Amma bayan tarzomar Aba ta 1929, tsarin a hankali ya ba da dama ga gwamnatin 'yan asalin ƙasar karkashin jagorancin dattijai a cikin al'ummomi. Wannan tsarin bai yi karfi ba musamman a Arewacin Najeriya. [3] A cikin 1950s, an ƙaddamar da tsarin ƙananan hukumomi masu bin tsarin Ingilishi na gundumomi da gundumomi. [16]

Michael Okpara[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Gabashin Najeriya a 1960[17]
Suna Ofishin
Michael Iheonukara Okpara Premier
Ibanga Udo Akpabio Harkokin Cikin Gida
Samuel Efem Imoke Kudi
Patrick Nwokoye Okeke Noma
Basil Charles Okwu Bayani
John Ugwu Nwodo Ciniki
Gilbert Ekwenugo Okeke Ilimi
Michael Oguejiofo Ajegbo Babban Lauyan Gwamnati
Echeme Emole Tsarin Gari
Ezekiel Pappah Okoya Lafiya
Paul Omerenyia Ururuka Ayyuka
Pius Nwoga Karamar Hukuma

Ilimi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Makarantun ƙauyuka na daga cikin muhimmin al'amurran al'umma na yankin. Al'umma na gida da waje sun bayar da gudummawar kudi don tada gine-ginen makarantu. An nemi attajirai ko masu karban albashi da su ɗauki nauyin karatun ƙananansu. A shekarar 1956, akwai makarantun firamare kusan dubu shida da makarantun sakandare hamsin da hudu. [3] Yawancin makarantun sakandaren hukumomi ne na sa kai da kuma ayyukan Kirista suka gudanar da wasu makarantu kuma an sanya sunayen wasu makarantu bayan mambobin tawagar da suka hada da Makarantar Koyar da Hope Waddell, Dennis Memorial, Onitsha, Cornellia Connelly, Uyo da Crowther Memorial, Port Harcourt. Ilimi ya zama babban fifiko a ƙarshen 1950s da farkon 60s tare da gwamnatin yanki a wasu lokuta tana ba da kusan kashi ɗaya bisa uku na kasafin kuɗinta ga ilimi. [3] [18] ] [39] An yi amfani da rabin kuɗin a matsayin raguwa da aka ba hukumomin da ke kula da makarantu da tabbatar da shirin ilimin firamare na duniya. Cocin ya taimaka wajen ilimantar da jama'a, Cocin Scotland Mission (Later the Presbyterian Church of Nigeria), da Dr. EN Amaku, Mr. Ntieyong U. Akpan, Justice Egbert Udo Udoma inda dukkansu suka samu ilimi daga Manufar.

Gwamnatin yankin ce ta kafa Jami'ar Najeriya, Nsukka. Cibiya ta horar da aikin noma da bincike na nan a Umudike.[19]

garuruwa da birane[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Birane masu zuwa sun kasance a yankin Gabashin Najeriya: [10] [10]

 

Shugaban Majalisar Sarakunan[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Suna Lokaci
Chief Nyong Essien, CMG ? - ? [10]

Shugabannin Majalisar[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Suna Lokaci
Ernest Egbuna 1954 - ? [20]
Eze Daniel Okereke, CMG ? - ?[21]

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Groß & Wydra 2013.
  2. Mwakikagile 2001.
  3. 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 3.15 3.16 3.17 3.18 3.19 3.20 3.21 3.22 Information Service 1956.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Van Buer 1968.
  5. Information Service 1956, p. 6.
  6. Information Service 1956, p. 7.
  7. Coleman 1971.
  8. Afigbo 1972.
  9. Jones 2000.
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 Ministry of Information 1960.
  11. "Elliott Pap (26 July 2014). "Top 10 moments of the 1954 Empire Games". The Vancouver Sun. Retrieved 26 August 2016.
  12. 12.0 12.1 Igwe 1987.
  13. Ministry of Commerce 1966.
  14. Chuku 2015.
  15. Diamond 1988.
  16. Harris 1957.
  17. Eastern Nigeria (Nigeria); Ministry of Internal Affairs (1960). Profiles of the ministers of Eastern Nigeria. Enugu: Govt. Printer. OCLC 19965584.
  18. Okoth 2006.
  19. "Historical Background". Nrcri.gov.ng. Archived from the original on 28 August 2016. Retrieved 26 August 2016.
  20. Nwaubani 2001.
  21. "Ngor Okpala Realigns for 2015 – Calls For Socio – Economic Emancipation". Imo Trumpeta. 12 September 2012. Retrieved 11 September 2016.

Tushen Labari[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Information Service (1956). Eastern Region (Nigeria). Enugu: Enugu, Eastern Nigeria Information Service.
  • Van Buer, Franklin (1968). "2". THE STRUCTURE AND ADMINISTRATION OF THE EASTERN NIGERIAN TAX SYSTEM (Thesis). University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
  • Diamond, Larry Jay (1988). Class, Ethnicity, and Democracy in Nigeria: The Failure of the First Republic. Syracuse University Press. ISBN 0815624220.
  • Igwe, Samuel Okoronkwo (1987). Education in Eastern Nigeria, 1847–1975: Development and Management: Church, State and Community. Evans Brothers. ISBN 023750832X.
  • Jones, G.I. (2000). The Trading States of the Oil Rivers: A Study of Political Development in Eastern Nigeria. James Currey Publishers. ISBN 0852559186.
  • Groß, Uwe; Wydra, Kerstin, eds. (5 November 2013). Maternal-Child Health: Interdisciplinary Aspects Within the Perspective of Global Health. Universitätsverlag Göttingen. ISBN 978-3863950842.
  • Afigbo, Adiele, Eberechukwu (1972). The Warrant Chiefs: indirect rule in southeastern Nigeria, 1891–1929. Longman.
  • Ministry of Information, Eastern Region (Nigeria) (1960). Eastern Nigeria. Eastern Nigeria Ministry of Information.
  • Okoth, Assa (2006). African nationalism and the de-colonisation process : [1915–1995] (Rev ed.). Nairobi [u.a.]: East African Educational Publ. ISBN 9966253580.
  • Ministry of Commerce, Eastern Region (Nigeria) (1966). Investment opportunities in Eastern Nigeria. Govt. Printer.
  • Nwaubani, Ebere (2001). The United States and decolonization in West Africa, 1950 – 1960. Rochester, NY: Univ. of Rochester Press. ISBN 1580460763.
  • Harris, Philip James (1957). Local Government in Southern Nigeria: A Manual of Law and Precedure Under the Eastern Region Local Government Law, 1955, and the Western Region Local Government Law, 1952. University Press.
  • Coleman, James Smoot (1971). Nigeria. University of California Press.
  • Mwakikagile, Godfrey (2001). Ethnic politics in Kenya and Nigeria. Huntington, NY: Nova Science Publ. ISBN 1560729678.
  • Chuku, Gloria (2015). Igbo Women and Economic Transformation in Southeastern Nigeria, 1900–1960. Routledge. ISBN 978-1135469405.

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