Filin Jirgin Sama na Imperial

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Group half.svgFilin Jirgin Sama na Imperial
Imperial Airways Fly There Poster (19290401540).jpg
Bayanai
Iri kamfani da kamfanin jirgin sama
Masana'anta aviation (en) Fassara da air transport (en) Fassara
Ƙasa Birtaniya
Used by
Mulki
Hedkwata Croydon (en) Fassara
Tarihi
Ƙirƙira 31 ga Maris, 1924
Founded in Landan
Mabiyi Instone Air Line (en) Fassara, British Marine Air Navigation Co Ltd (en) Fassara, Daimler Airway (en) Fassara da Handley Page Transport (en) Fassara
Followed by (en) Fassara British Overseas Airways Corporation (en) Fassara da British Airways Ltd. (en) Fassara
Dissolved 24 Nuwamba, 1939

Kamfanin jiragen sama na Imperial Airways shi ne kamfanin jirgin sama dake da dogon zango na Birtaniyya,wanda ke aiki daga 1924 zuwa 1939 kuma yana gudanar da hidimomin hanyoyin Masarautar Burtaniya zuwa Afirka ta Kudu,Indiya da Gabas ta Gabas, gami da Australi Malaya da Hong Kong.Fasinjoji galibi 'yan kasuwa ne ko masu gudanar da mulkin mallaka, yawancin jirage suna ɗaukar fasinjoji 20 ko ƙasa da haka.Haɗari sun kasance m:a cikin shekaru shida na farko, mutane 32 sun mutu a cikin abubuwa bakwai.Kamfanin jirgin sama na Imperial Airways bai taba samun matakan kirkirar kere-kere na kere-kere ba,kuma an hade shi zuwa Kamfanin Jirgin Sama na Burtaniya na kasashen waje (BOAC) a cikin 1939.BOAC kuma ya hade da British European Airways (BEA) a shekarar 1974 don samar da British Airways.

Asali[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kafa Jirgin sama na Imperial Airways ya faru ne don dabbaqa ƙasashen ƙetare ta hanyar yin balaguro zuwa da dawowa daga yankuna cikin sauri, kuma wannan jirgin zai kuma hanzarta gwamnatin mulkin mallaka da kasuwancin da har zuwa lokacin ya dogara da jiragen ruwa. Kaddamar da kamfanin jirgin ya biyo bayan fashewar hanyar jirgin da aka gudanar a cikin Daular Birtaniyya bayan yakin duniya na farko, da kuma bayan wasu gwaje-gwajen gwaji (kuma galibi masu hatsari) masu nisan zango zuwa iyakokin Daular. [1]

Samarwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Shafin Handley W.8b wanda aka gada daga Shafin Shafin Handley lokacin da aka kirkiro Imperial Airways

An kirkiri filin jirgin Imperial Airways ne a bayan gasa mai tsananin gaske daga kamfanonin jiragen sama na Faransa da na Jamus waɗanda ke bunkasa da tallafin gwamnati da yawa da bin shawarwarin Kwamitin Caca na gwamnati (wanda aka fi sani da Kwamitin Tallafin CAT) ƙarƙashin Sir Herbert Hambling . [2] Kwamitin, wanda aka kafa a ranar 2 ga Janairun 1923, ya gabatar da rahoto a ranar 15 ga Fabrairu 1923 yana mai ba da shawarar cewa hudu daga cikin manyan kamfanonin jiragen sama na yanzu, da Instone Air Line Company, mallakar babban mai jigilar kaya Samuel Instone, Noel Pemberton Billing na British Marine Air Navigation (bangare na kamfanin Supermarine mai tashi da jirgin ruwa), da Daimler Airway, karkashin kulawar George Edward Woods, da Handley Page Transport Co Ltd., ya kamata a hade su. [3] An yi fatan cewa wannan zai haifar da kamfani wanda zai iya yin takara da gasar Faransa da ta Jamus kuma zai iya zama mai ƙarfi don haɓaka ayyukan jiragen sama na Burtaniya tare da rage tallafin da gwamnati ke bayarwa don ayyukan riɓi biyu. Tare da wannan duba, an bada tallafin £ 1m sama da shekaru goma don karfafa haɗakar. An kulla yarjejeniya tsakanin Shugaban Hukumar Kula da Jirgin Sama da British, Foreign and Colonial Corporation a ranar 3 ga Disambar 1923 ga kamfanin, a karkashin taken 'Imperial Air Transport Company' don mallakar ayyukan sufurin jiragen sama na yanzu a Burtaniya. Yarjejeniyar ta ayyana tallafin gwamnati ga sabon kamfanin: £ 137,000 a cikin shekarar farko ta ragu zuwa £ 32,000 a shekara ta goma gami da mafi karancin nisan tafiyar da za a cimma da kuma hukunci idan ba a sadu da su ba. [4]

An kafa Kamfanin Imperial Airways a ranar 31 ga Maris 1924 tare da kayan aiki daga kowane abin da ke ba da gudummawa: British Marine Air Navigation Company Ltd, Daimler Airway, Handley Page Transport Ltd da Instone Air Line Ltd. An nada Sir Eric Geddes shugaban hukumar tare da darekta guda daga kowane kamfanin suka hade. Gwamnati ta nada daraktoci biyu, Caca (wanda kuma shi ne Shugaban Cibiyar Bankunan ) da Manjo John Hills, tsohon Sakataren Kudi na Baitul malin.

Hada-Hadan filayen sun kasance ne a Filin jirgin saman Croydon da ke kudancin London. Nan da nan kamfanin IAL ya dakatar da aikin magabata zuwa arewacin London, kamfanin jirgin yana mai da hankali ne kan bautar ƙasa da ƙasa maimakon na cikin gida. Bayan haka jirgin IAL kawai da ke aiki 'Arewacin Watford' yawo ne na haya.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Matsalolin masana'antu tare da matukan jirgin sunyi sanadiyyar jinkirta fara ayyukan har zuwa 26 ga Afrilu 1924, lokacin da aka buɗe hanyar London zuwa Paris kowace rana tare da de Havilland DH.34 . [5] Bayan haka aikin faɗaɗa hanyoyi tsakanin Ingila da Nahiyar ya fara, tare da Southampton – Guernsey a ranar 1 ga Mayu 1924, London-Brussels – Cologne a ranar 3 ga Mayu, London – Amsterdam a 2 Yuni 1924, da hidimar bazara daga London – Paris – Basel –Zürich a ranar 17 ga Yuni 1924. Sabon jirgin sama na farko da Imperial Airways ya umarta, shine Handley Page W8f City na Washington, wanda aka gabatar a ranar 3 Nuwamba 1924. A cikin shekarar farko ta aiki kamfanin ya dauki fasinjoji 11,395 da haruffa 212,380. A watan Afrilu 1925, fim din Thearshen Duniya ya zama fim na farko da aka fara duba fasinjoji a kan jirgin jirgin sama da aka shirya lokacin da aka nuna shi a kan hanyar London zuwa Paris.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Hada Hadan Empire[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Afrilu 1935 taswira da ke nuna Imperial Airways '



</br> Hanyoyin jirgin sama tsakanin Ingila, Indiya, Australia da Afirka ta Kudu

Tabbatar da Hanya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tsakanin 16 Nuwamba 1925 da 13 Maris 1926, Alan Cobham ya yi jirgin binciken jirgin Imperial Airways daga Burtaniya zuwa Cape Town ya dawo cikin Armstrong Siddeley Jaguar –powered de Havilland DH.50J floatplane G-EBFO . Hanyar waje ita ce London - Paris - Marseille - Pisa - Taranto - Athens - Sollum - Alkahira - Luxor - Aswan - Wadi Halfa - Atbara - Khartoum - Malakal - Mongalla - Jinja - Kisumu - Tabora - Abercorn - Ndola - Broken Hill - Livingstone - Bulawayo - Pretoria - Johannesburg - Kimberley - Blomfontein - Cape Town . Bayan dawowars Cobham ya sami lambar yabo ta Air Force Cross saboda ayyukansa na jirgin sama.[ana buƙatar hujja]

A ranar 30 ga Yuni 1926, Cobham ya tashi daga Kogin Medway a Rochester a G-EBFO don yin binciken hanyar jirgin sama na Imperial Airways don sabis zuwa Melbourne, yana zuwa 15 ga Agusta 1926. Ya bar Melbourne a ranar 29 ga Agusta 1926, kuma, bayan ya kammala 28,000 nautical miles (32,000 mi; 52,000 km) a cikin awanni 320 na yawo sama da kwanaki 78, ya sauka a Thames a Westminster a ranar 1 ga Oktoba 1926. Sakataren Harkokin Jirgin Sama, Sir Samuel Hoare ya sadu da Cobham, kuma daga baya HM King George V ya yi masa kyakkyawa.[ana buƙatar hujja]

A ranar 27 ga Disamba 1926, Imperial Airways de Havilland DH.66 Hercules G-EBMX City na Delhi sun bar Croydon don binciken jirgin zuwa Indiya. Jirgin ya isa Karachi a ranar 6 ga Janairun 1927 da Delhi a kan 8 Janairu 1927. Lady Irwin, matar Viceroy ne ya sanyawa jirgin suna a ranar 10 ga Janairun 1927. Jirgin dawowa ya tashi a ranar 1 ga Fabrairu 1927 kuma ya isa Heliopolis, Alkahira a ranar 7 ga Fabrairu 1927. Lokacin tashi daga Croydon zuwa Delhi ya kasance awanni 62 na mintina 27 da Delhi zuwa Heliopolis awanni 32 da mintuna 50. [6].

Hanyar Gabas[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Wani talla na 1936


Sabis na yau da kullun akan hanyar Alkahira zuwa Basra ya fara ne a ranar 12 ga Janairun 1927 ta amfani da jirgin DH.66, ya maye gurbin jirgin saman RAF na baya. [6] Bayan tattaunawa na tsawon shekaru 2 tare da hukumomin Farisa game da haƙƙin sararin samaniya, sabis ɗin London zuwa Karachi ya fara a ranar 30 ga Maris 1929, yana ɗaukar kwanaki 7 kuma ya ƙunshi jirgi daga Landan zuwa Basle, jirgin ƙasa zuwa Genoa da Short S.8 Calcutta jirgin ruwan da ke tashi zuwa Alexandria, jirgin kasa zuwa Alkahira sannan a ƙarshe jirgin DH.66 zuwa Karachi. An faɗaɗa hanyar zuwa Delhi a ranar 29 Disamba 1929. Hanya tsakanin Turai da Bahar Rum ya canza sau da yawa a cikin fewan shekaru masu zuwa amma kusan koyaushe yana da titin jirgin ƙasa.

A watan Afrilu 1931 an yi gwajin jirgi mai tashi a iska daga Landan- Australia; an canza wasikar a Dutch East Indies, kuma ya ɗauki kwanaki 26 gaba ɗaya don isa Sydney . Don jirgin fasinja da ya tashi daga Landan a ranar 1 ga Oktoba 1932, hanyar ta Gabas ta sauya daga Farisa zuwa bangaren Larabawa na Tekun Fasha, kuma an gabatar da jiragen saman Handley Page HP 42 a kan Alkahira zuwa bangaren Karachi. Yunkurin ya ga an kafa tashar jirgin sama da hutawa, Mahatta Fort, a cikin cialasar Trucial ta Sharjah yanzu wani ɓangare na Hadaddiyar Daular Larabawa.[ana buƙatar hujja]

A ranar 29 ga watan Mayu 1933 bincike da akayi tsakanin Ingila zuwa Australiya ya tashi, wanda ke karkashin Imperial Airways Armstrong Whitworth Atalanta G-ABTL Astraea . Manjo HG Brackley, Imperial Airways 'Air Superintendent, shi ke kula da jirgin. Astraea ta tashi zuwa Croydon - Paris - Lyon - Rome - Brindisi - Athens - Alexandria - Alkahira inda ta bi hanyar da ta dace zuwa Karachi sannan ta zarce zuwa Jodhpur - Delhi - Calcutta - Akyab - Rangoon - Bangkok - Prachuab - Alor Setar - Singapore - Palembang - Batavia - Sourabaya - Bima - Koepang - Bathurst Island - Darwin - Ruwan Newcastle - Camooweal - Cloncurry - Longreach - Roma - Toowoomba ya isa Eagle Farm, Brisbane a ranar 23 ga Yuni. An ziyarci Sydney a ranar 26 Yuni, Canberra a ranar 28 Yuni da Melbourne a 29 Yuni.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Sannan an fadada gabacin filin jirgin. Birnin Landan farko zuwa sabis na Calcutta ya tashi a ranar 1 ga Yuli 1933, London na farko zuwa Rangoon a ranar 23 ga Satumba 1933, London da Singapore na farko zuwa sabis a ranar 9 ga Disamba 1933, da kuma London da Brisbane na farko a ranar 8 Disamba 1934, tare da Qantas ke da alhakin bangaren Singapore zuwa Brisbane. (Farawa ta 1934 don ta wasiƙa ne; jiragen fasinjoji zuwa Brisbane sun fara watan Afrilu mai zuwa. ) Fasinjojin Landan na farko zuwa Hong Kong sun tashi daga Landan ranar 14 ga Maris 1936 biyo bayan kafa reshe daga Penang zuwa Hong Kong.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Hanyar Afirka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

de Havilland Hercules City na Alkahira

A ranar 28 ga watan Fabrairu 1931 aka fara hidimar mako-mako tsakanin London da Mwanza a tafkin Victoria a Tanganyika a matsayin wani ɓangare na hanyar da aka tsara zuwa Cape Town . A ranar 9 ga Disamba 1931 aka shimfida sabis na Imperial Airways na Afirka ta Tsakiya ta gwaji zuwa Cape Town don ɗaukar wasikun Kirsimeti. Jirgin da aka yi amfani da shi a sashin da ya gabata, DH66 G-AARY City of Karachi ya isa Cape Town a ranar 21 Disamba 1931. A ranar 20 ga Janairun 1932 aka buɗe hanyar hanyar aika wasiƙa zuwa London zuwa Cape Town. A ranar 27 ga Afrilu an buɗe wannan hanya ga fasinjoji kuma ya ɗauki kwanaki 10. A farkon 1933 Atalantas ya maye gurbin DH.66s akan hanyar Kisumu zuwa Cape Town na hanyar London zuwa Cape Town. [7] A ranar 9 ga Fabrairu 1936 kamfanin sufurin jiragen sama na Imperial Airways ya buɗe hanyar zuwa Afirka tsakanin Khartoum da Kano a Najeriya. An faɗaɗa wannan hanyar zuwa Lagos a ranar 15 ga Oktoba 1936.

Jirage masu tashi daga ruwa Short[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Short Empire yawo jirgin Kalubale .

A cikiin shekarata 1937 tare da gabatar da Jirgin Ruwa na Short Empire wanda aka gina a Short Brothers, Imperial Airways zai iya ba da sabis ta hanyar aiki daga Southampton zuwa Daular. Tafiya zuwa Cape din ya bi ta Marseille,Rome, Brindisi,Athens, Alexandria, Khartoum, Port Bell, Kisumu kuma daga nan ta hanyar sana'ar ƙasa zuwa Nairobi,Mbeya kuma daga ƙarshe Cape Town . Hakanan an yi jigilar jiragen sama a tsallaken Tekun Atlantika zuwa New Zealand . A tsakiyar 1937 Imperial ya kammala hidimarsa ta dubu ga Daular. Farawa a cikin 1938 jiragen ruwa masu tasowa kuma sun tashi tsakanin Birtaniyya da Ostiraliya ta Indiya da Gabas ta Tsakiya.

A watan Maris, shekara ta 1939 Shorts uku a mako guda sun bar Southampton zuwa Australia, suna isa Sydney bayan kwana goma na tashi da jirage tara na dare. Sauran uku sun bar Afirka ta Kudu, suna ɗaukar kwanaki shida na tashi zuwa Durban.

Fasinjoji[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Jirgin na Imperial karami ne, mafi yawancin wuraren zama ba su wuce wajen fasinjoji ashirin ba; kimanin fasinjoji dubu 50 suka yi amfani da Imperial Airways a cikin shekarun 1930. Yawancin fasinjoji a kan hanyoyin ƙasashe ko kan sabis tsakanin da masarautun Biritaniya maza ne ke gudanar da mulkin mallaka, kasuwanci ko bincike. Da farko dai attajirai ne kawai zasu iya biyan kudin jirgi, amma jerin fasinjoji ya yawaita a hankali. Kwarewar tafiye-tafiye masu alaƙa da tashi da ƙasa da ƙasa, kuma an ba da rahotonsu da farin ciki a cikin jaridu, mujallu da littattafai. [8] Akwai dama don yawon buɗe ido daga sama da tasha. [9]

Ƙungiyoyi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kamfanin jirgin sama na Imperial Airways ya girka ma'aikatan jirgin saman jirgin maza da mata, da ma'aikatan jirgi da ma'aikatan ƙasa tare da tsawon hanyoyin sa. Injiniyoyin injiniyoyi da sifetoci - da ma'aikatan ƙasa kan juyawa ko tafiya - sun yi tafiya a kan jirgin ba tare da samar da kuɗin shiga ba. Da yawa daga cikin ma'aikatan jirgin sama sun rasa rayukansu a cikin hadari. A ƙarshen 1930s lambobin ƙungiya sun kusan 3,000. Ana sa ran dukkan ma’aikatan za su kasance jakadun Burtaniya da daular Biritaniya. [8]

Wasikar Jirgin Sama[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Murfin jirgi wanda aka ɗauka a duniya akan jirgin PAA Boeing 314 Clippers da Imperial Airways Short S23 jiragen jirgi masu tashi 24 Yuni - 28 July 1939

A cikin shekara ta 1934 Gwamnati ta fara tattaunawa da Imperial Airways don kafa sabis ( Tsarin Jirgin Sama na Jirgin Sama ) don ɗaukar wasiƙa ta iska a kan hanyoyin da kamfanin jirgin ke amfani da su. Kai tsaye wadannan tattaunawar sun kai ga sallamar a cikin 1936 na Sir Christopher Bullock, Babban Sakatare na Dindindin a Ma’aikatar Jiragen Sama, wanda Kwamitin Bincike ya gano ya yi amfani da matsayinsa wajen neman mukami a kwamitin kamfanin yayin tattaunawar. suna cikin jirgin. Gwamnati, ciki har da Firayim Minista, ta yi nadamar shawarar sallamar sa, daga baya ta gano cewa, a zahiri, ba a zargin rashawa kuma ta nemi a dawo da Bullock wanda ya ki.

Shirin Wasikar Jirgin Sama ya fara ne a watan Yulin 1937, ana aikawa ko'ina don 1  d./oz. A tsakiyar 1938 an aika tan ɗari na wasiƙa zuwa Indiya da irin wannan adadin zuwa Afirka. A cikin wannan shekarar, an fara ginin a kan Terminal Empire a Victoria, London, wanda A. Lakeman ya tsara kuma tare da mutum-mutumi na Eric Broadbent, Speed Wings Over the World yana ɗaukar tashar da ke saman babbar ƙofar. Daga tashar jirgin akwai haɗin jirgin ƙasa zuwa jiragen ruwan Imperial a Southampton da masu horarwa zuwa tashar jirgin saman ta a filin jirgin saman Croydon . Tashar tayi aiki kwanan nan kamar 1980.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Don taimakawa da inganta amfani da sabis ɗin Jirgin Sama, a cikin Yuni da Yuli 1939, Imperial Airways sun halarci tare da Pan American Airways wajen samar da sabis na musamman "a duk duniya"; Imperial ya ɗauki wasiƙar tun daga Foynes, Ireland, zuwa Hongkong, daga gabashin gabas zuwa New York zuwa hanyar New York. Pan American ya ba da sabis daga New York zuwa Foynes (tashi 24 ga Yuni, ta jirgin farko na FAM 18 na Arewa) da Hongkong zuwa San Francisco (ta hanyar FAM 14), kuma Kamfanin Jirgin Sama na United ya ɗauka a ƙafa na ƙarshe daga San Francisco zuwa New York, zuwa ranar 28 Yuli.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Kyaftin HWC Alger ne matukin jirgin for karon iska mail jirgin dauke mail daga Ingila zuwa Australia a karon farko a kan Short Empire flyingboat Castor ga na mallaka Airways 'dauloli Air hanyoyi, a 1937.

A watan Nuwamba she kara ta 2016, shekaru 80 daga baya, jirgin Crete2Cape Vintage Air Rally ya tashi wannan tsohuwar hanyar tare da jiragen saman girbi goma sha biyar - bikin ƙwarewar ƙwarewar waɗannan ƙwararrun jiragen.

Yakin Duniya na Biyu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kafin barkewar yaki a ranar 1 ga Satumbar 1939, gwamnatin Birtaniyya ta riga ta aiwatar da Dokar Kewaya Na iska ((kuntatawa a Lokacin Yaƙin) Dokar 1939. Hakan ya ba da umarnin karbe ikon sojoji filayen jiragen saman fararen hula da yawa a Burtaniya, dakatar da duk wasu jirage masu zaman kansu ba tare da izinin kowane jirgin ba, da sauran matakan gaggawa. Wani sashen doka ne na ma'aikatar iska mai taken National Communications Communications (NAC). Zuwa 1 ga Satumba 1939, an tura jiragen da gwamnatocin Imperial Airways da British Airways Ltd zuwa filin jirgin saman Bristol (Whitchurch), don yin aiki tare da NAC. A ranar 1 ga Afrilu 1940, Imperial Airways Ltd da British Airways Ltd an hade su a hukumance zuwa wani sabon kamfani, British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC), wanda tuni an kirkireshi a ranar 24 ga Nuwamba Nuwamba 1939 tare da shirye-shiryen hada-hadar kuɗi. [10]

Hadari da abubuwan da suka faru[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mummunar Haɗari[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Cikin shekarata 1920[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • 24 ga Disamba 1924: de Havilland DH.34 G-EBBX City of Delhi ta yi hadari kuma gobara ta tashi jim kadan da tashinsa daga Filin jirgin saman Croydon, inda matukin jirgin da dukkan fasinjojin bakwai suka mutu. [5]
  • 13 ga Yuli 1928: Vickers Vulcan G-EBLB sun yi hadari a Purley yayin jirgin gwajin, inda mutane hudu daga cikin shida da ke cikin jirgin suka mutu. [11] Sakamakon hatsarin, Imperial Airways ya dakatar da tashiwar ma'aikata (wanda ake kira hawan farin ciki) yayin jigilar gwaji.
  • 17 Yuni 1929: Handley Page W.10 G-EBMT City na Ottawa ditched a cikin harshen Turanci Channel wadannan ingine gazawar alhãli kuwa a kan wani jirgin daga Croydon zuwa Paris tare da asarar bakwai rayuwarsu. [12]
  • 6 ga watan Satumba 1929: de Havilland Hercules G-EBMZ Birnin Kudus ya yi hadari ya kone a kan saukarsu a Jask, Iran a cikin duhu saboda matukin jirgin ya yi rashin fahimta da tsayar da jirgin, ya kashe uku daga biyar a cikin jirgin.
  • 26 Oktoba 1929: Short Calcutta G-AADN City na Rome da ƙarfi ya sauka daga La Spezia, Italiya a cikin yanayi mara kyau; kwale-kwalen da ke tashi sama ya nutse cikin dare yayin kokarin jawo shi zuwa gabar teku, ya kashe bakwai din da ke cikinsa. [13]

A tsakanin shekarun 1930[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • 30 ga Oktoba 1930: Shafin Handley W.8g G-EBIX Birnin Washington ya buge da doguwar ƙasa a cikin hazo a Boulogne, Paris, Faransa, inda ya kashe uku daga shida a cikin jirgin. [12]
  • 28 Maris 1933: Armstrong Whitworth Argosy G-AACI City na Liverpool ya yi hadari a Diksmuide,Belgium bayan wata gobara a cikin jirgin. Wannan ana zargin shine farkon lamarin ɓarna a cikin iska. Duk mutanen goma sha biyar da ke cikin jirgin sun mutu.[14]
  • 30 ga Disamba 1933: Avro Ten G-ABLU Apollo ya yi karo da mashin rediyo a Ruysselede, Belgium kuma ya fadi . Duk mutanen goma da ke cikin jirgin sun mutu. [15]
  • 31 Disamba 1935: Short Calcutta G-AASJ City na Khartoum ya fado daga Alexandria, Misira lokacin da dukkanin injina huɗu suka kasa zuwa, mai yiwuwa saboda yunwar mai; goma sha biyu daga 13 da ke cikin jirgin sun nitse a lokacin da jirgin da ke shawagi ya nutse. [13]
  • 22 ga Agusta 1936: Short Kent G-ABFA Scipio ya nitse a Mirabello Bay, Crete bayan saukar jirgi mai nauyi, ya kashe biyu daga 11 da ke cikin jirgin. [13]
  • 24 Maris 1937: Short Empire G-ADVA Capricornus ya yi hadari a tsaunukan Beaujolois kusa da Ouroux, Faransa sakamakon kuskuren kewayawa, ya kashe biyar.
  • 1 ga Oktoba 1937: Short Empire G-ADVC Courtier ya yi hadari a kan sauka a Phaleron Bay, Girka saboda rashin gani sosai, ya kashe biyu daga 15 a cikin jirgin.
  • 5 ga Disamba 1937: Short Empire G-ADUZ Cygnus ya yi hadari a kan tashinsa daga Brindisi, Italiya saboda ba daidai ba saitin filin, ya kashe biyu.
  • 27 ga Yuli 1938: Armstrong Whitworth Atalanta G-ABTG Amalthea ya tashi zuwa wani tsauni kusa da Kisumu, Kenya jim kaɗan bayan tashinsa, inda ya kashe duka mutanen da ke cikin jirgin.
  • 27 ga Nuwamba 1938: Short Empire G-AETW Calpurnia ta yi hadari a Tafkin Habbaniyah, Iraki a cikin mummunan yanayi bayan matukin jirgin ya sauko don ci gaba da ganin ido da kasa bayan rikicewar sararin samaniya, ya kashe dukkan ma'aikatan jirgin hudu.
  • 21 Janairu 1939: Short Empire G-ADUU Cavalier ditched a cikin Atlantic 285 tashi daga New York saboda icing na carburettor da asarar ƙarfin injiniya;uku sun nitse yayin da masu tsira goma suka dauke ta tankin Esso Baytown . Bayan haka kuma Imperial Airways da Pan-American trans-ocicic boats masu jirgi suna da saman saman fuka-fukan da aka zana manyan alamun ganuwa mai ruwan lemu.
  • 1 ga Mayu 1939: Short Empire G-ADVD Challenger ya yi hadari a cikin lagon Lumbo yayin da yake kokarin sauka a Filin jirgin saman Lumbo, ya kashe biyu daga shida a cikin jirgin.

1940[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • 1 ga watan Maris 1940: Jirgin 197, wanda ke aiki da Handley Page HP42 G-AAGX Hannibal, ya bace a kan Tekun Oman dauke da mutane takwas; ba a sami tarkacen jirgin ruwa, kaya ko mazaunan ciki ba. Dalilin faduwar jirgin har yanzu ba a san shi ba, amma yunwa na man fetur, yajin tsuntsaye da ke lalata farfadiya kuma ya haifar da injin ko reshe ya rabu, fashewar jirgin sama ko rashin aikin injiniya da yawa an tsara. Watanni biyu bayan hadarin, an cire HP42 daga ayyukan fasinjoji. An kuma ba da shawarar cewa duk jiragen kasuwanci da ake amfani da su a dogon jirage a kan ruwa su kasance da kayan aiki na sirri da na rayuwa; wannan daga baya zai zama ingantacce a duk masana'antar kamfanin jirgin sama.

Hadarin da bai muni ba[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • 21 ga Oktoba 1926: Shafin Handley W.10 G-EBMS Garin Melbourne wanda aka liƙa a Tashar Ingilishi 18 nautical miles (33 km) daga gabar tekun ingila bayan injin ya fadi. Dukkanin mutane 12 da ke cikin jirgin FV Invicta ne ya ceto su. [12]
  • 19 ga Afrilu 1931: de Havilland DH.66 Hercules tare da rajista G-EBMW, sun lalace ba za a iya gyara su ba a saukowar tilas bayan yunwar mai a Surabaya.Jirgin ya yi aiki ne a jirgin jirgi na gwaji daga Indiya zuwa Melbourne tare da tsayawa a hanyar Semarang, Soerabaja da Kupang .
  • 8 ga watan Agusta 1931: Handley Page HP42 G-AAGX Hannibal yana gudanar da jigilar fasinjan fasinjoji daga Croydon zuwa Paris lokacin da injin ya faskara kuma tarkace suka tilasta wa injin na biyu rufe.Saukewar tilastawa zuwa Five Oak Green,Kent ya haifar da mummunar lalacewa. Babu raunin da ya faru. Hannibal ya warwatse kuma ya yi jigilar kaya zuwa Croydon don a sake gina shi.
  • 9 ga Nuwamba 1935: Short Kent G-ABFB Sylvanus ya kama da wuta kuma ya kone yayin shan mai a tashar jirgin ruwa ta Brindisi; ma'aikatan man sun sami damar tsallakewa daga jirgin da ke kone suka tsira. [nb 1]
  • 29 Satumba 1936:Armstrong Whitworth Atalanta G-ABTK ya ƙone a cikin wutar hangar a Delhi, Indiya.
  • 31 ga Mayu 1937:Shafin Handley Shafin HP45 (tsohon HP42) G-AAXE Hengist ya lalace a cikin wutar hangar a Karachi, Indiya. [16]
  • 3 Disamba 1938: de Havilland Express G-ADCN ya ƙone a Bangkok.
  • 12 ga watan Maris 1939: Short S.23 Empire Flying Boat Mk 1 G-ADUY,ya lalace fiye da gyara a Tandjong, Batavia,Netherlands East Indies.Buga wani abu mai nutsuwa yayin hawa motar haya bayan sauka. Jirgin jirgin sama ya lalace amma ya lalace baya gyarawa ta nutsewa da mishandling yayin rashi.Jirgin sama ya warwatse ya shigo dashi England amma bai dawo aiki ba.
  • 7 ga Nuwamba 1939: Shafin Handley Shafin HP42 G-AXXD Horatius an rubuta shi biyo bayan saukar sa da aka yi da karfi a filin wasan golf a Tiverton, Devon.
  • 19 Maris 1940: Shafin Handley Shafin HP45 G-AAXC Heracles da HP42 G-AAUD Hanno an rubuta su bayan an busa su cikin guguwar iska yayin da suka tsaya a Filin jirgin saman Whitchurch.

Jirgin sama[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Jirgin sama na Imperial Airways yana aiki nau'ikan jirgin sama da yawa daga samuwar sa a ranar 1 ga Afrilu 1924 har zuwa 1 ga Afrilu 1940 lokacin da duk jiragen da ke aiki ke canzawa zuwa BOAC .

Aircraft Type Number Period Names Notes
Armstrong Whitworth Argosy Mk.I landplane

City class
3 1926–34 Birmingham (crashed 1931), City of Wellington (later City of Arundel) (1934), Glasgow (retired 1934)
Armstrong Whitworth Argosy Mk.II 4 1929–35 City of Edinburgh (wrecked 1926), City of Liverpool (wrecked 1933), City of Manchester (sold 1935) and City of Coventry (scrapped 1935) [14]
Armstrong Whitworth Atalanta landplane

Atalanta class
8 1932–41 Atalanta (sold), Andromeda (withdrawn 1939), Arethusa (renamed Atalanta), Artemis, Astraea, Athena (burnt 1936), Aurora (sold) and Amalthea (wrecked 1938). For Nairobi-Cape Town leg on South Africa route & Karachi-Singapore leg on Australia route.
Armstrong Whitworth Ensign landplane

Ensign class
12 1938–46 Empire type (27 passengers) Ensign, Egeria, Elsinore, Euterpe, Explorer, Euryalus, Echo, Endymion and Western Type (40 passengers) Eddystone, Ettrick, Empyrean and Elysian Everest & Enterprise delivered to BOAC. Intended to deliver 1st-class mail to the Empire by air.[17]
Avro 618 Ten landplane 2 1930–38 Achilles (crashed 1938) Apollo (collided with radio mast 1933) licence-built Fokker F.VII 3/m[15]
Avro 652 2 1936–38 Avalon and Avatar (later Ava) to RAF in 1938. Prototypes for Anson bomber/trainer[15]
Boulton &amp; Paul P.71A landplane

Bodiciea class
2 1934–36 Bodiciea (lost 1935) and Britomart (lost 1936) Experimental mailplanes[18]
Bristol Type 75 Ten-seater landplane 2 1924–26 G-EAWY, G-EBEV (retired 1925) ex-Instone Air Line used as freighters
de Havilland DH.34 7 1924–26 ex-Instone Air Line G-EBBR (wrecked 1924), G-EBBT (scrapped 1930), G-EBBV (scrapped 1926), G-EBBW (scrapped 1926) and ex-Daimler Airway G-EBBX (wrecked 1924), G-EBBY (scrapped 1926), G-EBCX (wrecked 1924) [5]
de Havilland DH.50 3 1924–33 G-EBFO (damaged 1924 and sold), G-EBFP (scrapped 1933), G-EBKZ (crashed 1928) G-EBFO used for surveys, later fitted with twin floats and sold in Australia
de Havilland DH.54 Highclere 1 1924–27 G-EBKI freighter, destroyed in hangar collapse
de Havilland Giant Moth 1 1930-30 G-AAEV (wrecked 1930) crashed in Northern Rhodesia 2 weeks after hand over.
de Havilland Hercules 9 1926–35 City of Cairo (wrecked 1931), City of Delhi (to SAAF 1934), City of Baghdad (withdrawn 1933), City of Jerusalem, City of Tehran, City of Basra (to SAAF 1934), City of Karachi (withdrawn 1935), City of Jodhpur (sold) and City of Cape Town (sold)
de Havilland DH.86 landplane

Diana class
12 1934–41 Daedalus (burned 1938), Danae, Dardanus, Delia (wrecked 1941), Delphinus, Demeter, Denebola, Dido, Dione, Dorado, Draco (wrecked 1935), and Dryad (sold 1938) All surviving aircraft impressed in 1941
de Havilland Albatross landplane

Frobisher class
7 1938–43 Faraday (impressed 1940), Franklin (impressed 1940), Frobisher (destroyed 1940), Falcon (scrapped 1943), Fortuna (crashed 1943), Fingal (crashed 1940) and Fiona (scrapped 1943). 1 used as long range mail carrier[19]
Desoutter IB landplane 1 1933–35 G-ABMW Air-taxi No 6
Handley Page O/10 1 1924-24 G-EATH ex-Handley Page Transport but never used
Handley Page W8b 3 1924–32 Princess Mary (wrecked 1928), Prince George (retired 1929) and Prince Henry (retired 1932)[12] ex-Handley Page Transport[12]
Handley Page W8f Hamilton 1 1924–30 City of Washington (wrecked 1930)[12] Converted to twin engines and redesignated as W8g in 1929
Handley Page W9a Hampstead 1 1926–29 City of New York (sold 1929)[12]
Handley Page W10 4 1926–33 City of Melbourne (sold 1933), City of Pretoria (sold 1933), City of London (crashed 1926) and City of Ottawa (crashed 1929).[12]
Handley Page H.P.42E landplane

Hannibal class
4 1931–40 Hannibal (wrecked 1940), Horsa (impressed 1940), Hanno (wrecked 1940), Hadrian (impressed 1940) (24 passengers) used on long "Empire" routes[16]
Handley Page H.P.42W/H.P.45 landplane

Heracles class
4 1931–40 Heracles (wrecked 1940), Horatius (wrecked 1939), Hengist (wrecked 1937) and Helena (impressed 1940) (38 passengers) on short "Western" routes, Hengist and Helena converted to H.P.42E.[16]
Short S.8 Calcutta flying boat 5 1928–35 City of Alexandria (wrecked 1936), City of Athens (later City of Stonehaven) (scrapped), City of Rome (wrecked 1929), City of Khartoum (wrecked 1935) and City of Salonica (later City of Swanage) (scrapped)[13]
Short S.17 Kent flying boat

Scipio class
3 1931–38 Scipio (wrecked 1936), Sylvanus (burned 1935) and Satyrus (scrapped 1938)[13]
Short L.17 Scylla landplane 2 1934–40 Scylla (wrecked 1940) and Syrinx (scrapped 1940) Landplane version of Kent, replacement for lost H.P.42s.[20]
Short Mayo Composite flying boat 2 1938–40 Mercury (scrapped 1941) and Maia (destroyed in German raid, 1942). Long range piggyback Composite aircraft derived from Short Empire.
Short S.23 Empire flying boat

C class
31 1936–47 Canopus, Caledonia, Centaurus, Cavalier, Cambria, Castor, Cassiopea, Capella, Cygnus, Capricornus, Corsair, Courtier, Challenger, Centurion, Coriolanus, Calpurnia, Ceres, Clio, Circe, Calypso, Camilla, Corinna, Cordelia, Cameronian, Corinthian, Coogee, Corio, and Coorong. Carpentaria, Coolangatta, Cooee delivered but not used, and transferred to Qantas provided mail and passenger service to Bermuda, South Africa and Australia.[21][22]
Short S.26 flying boat

G class
3 1939–40 Golden Hind, Golden Fleece and Golden Horn Built for trans-atlantic service, impressed by RAF before entering revenue service. 2 returned to BOAC service and used until 1947.
Short S.30 Empire flying boat

C class
9 1938–47 Champion, Cabot, Caribou, Connemara, Clyde, Clare, Cathay, Ao-tea-roa (to TEAL as Aotearoa), Captain Cook (to TEAL as Awarua). long range variant of S.23[21][22]
Supermarine Sea Eagle flying boat 2 1924–29 Sarnia/G-EBGR (retired 1929) and G-EBGS (wrecked 1927) ex-British Marine Air Navigation
Supermarine Southampton 1 1929–30 G-AASH RAF S1235 on loan for 3 months to replace crashed Calcutta on Genoa-Alexandria airmail run.[23]
Supermarine Swan 1 1925–27 G-EBJY (scrapped 1927) RAF prototype loaned for cross-Channel service
Vickers Vanguard landplane 1 1926–29 G-EBCP (wrecked 1929) on loan from Air Ministry for evaluation
Vickers Vellox 1 1934–36 G-ABKY (wrecked 1936) cargo/experimental flights. Crashed at Croyden in August killing pilots and two wireless operators.[24]
Vickers Vimy Commercial 1 1924–25 City of London (wrecked 1925) ex-Instone Air Line[25]
Vickers Vulcan 3 1924–28 G-EBLB/City of Brussels (wrecked 1928), G-EBFC (withdrawn 1924 unused), G-EBEK (loaned from Air Ministry for 1925 Empire Exhibition Display.) [11]
Westland IV and Wessex 3 1931–37 G-AAGW, G-ABEG (wrecked 1936), G-ACHI 2 leased to other operators. IV (G-AAGW) upgraded to Wessex.[26]

 

Bibliyo[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Baldwin, N.C. 1950.Imperial Airways (and Subsidiary Companies): A History and Priced Check List of the Empire Air Mails. Sutton Coldfield, England: Francis J. Field.
  • Bluffield, Robert (2009). Imperial Airways – The Birth of the British Airline Industry 1914–1940. Hersham, Surrey, England: Ian Allan Publishing. ISBN 978-1-906537-07-4.
  • Budd,Lucy "Global Networks Before Globalisation: Imperial Airways and the Development of Long-Haul Air Routes" Globalization and World Cities (GaWC) Research Bulletin 253,5 December 2007.
  • Cluett, Douglas; Nash, Joanna; Learmonth Bob. 1980.Croydon Airport 1928–1939,The Great Days. London Borough of Sutton 08033994793.ABA
  • Davies, R.E.G 2005. British Airways: An Airline and Its Aircraft, Volume 1: 1919–1939—The Imperial Years. McLean, VA: Paladwr Press. 08033994793.ABAISBN 1-888962-24-0
  • Doyle, Neville. 2002. The Triple Alliance: The Predecessors of the first British Airways. Air-Britain. 08033994793.ABAISBN 0-85130-286-6
  • Higham, Robin. 1960. Britain's Imperial Air Routes, 1918 to 1939: The Story of Britain's Overseas Airlines. London: G.T. Foulis; Hamden, CT: Shoe String.
  • Jackson, A.J. 1959 and 1974. British Civil Aircraft since 1919 2 vols (1st ed.); 3 vols (2nd ed.) London: Putnam.
  • Moss, Peter W. 1962. Impressments Log (Vol I-IV). Air-Britain.
  • Moss, Peter W. October 1974. British Airways. Aeroplane Monthly.
  • Ord-Hume, Arthur W. J. G. (2010). Imperial Airways, From Early Days to BOAC. Catrine, Ayrshire: Stenlake Publishing. p. 10. ISBN 9781840335149.
  • Pirie, G.H. 2004. Passenger traffic in the 1930s on British imperial air routes: refinement and revision. Journal of Transport History, 25: 66–84.
  • Pirie, G.H. 2009. Air Empire: British Imperial Civil Aviation 1919–39. Manchester: Manchester University Press. 08033994793.ABAISBN 978-0-7190-4111-2.
  • Pirie, G.H. 2009. Incidental tourism: British imperial air travel in the 1930s. Journal of Tourism History, 1: 49–66.
  • Pirie, G.H. 2012.Cultures and Caricatures of British Imperial Aviation: Passengers, Pilots, Publicity. Manchester: Manchester University Press. 08033994793.ABAISBN 978-0-7190-8682-3.
  • Pudney, J. 1959. The Seven Skies - A Study of BOAC and its forerunners since 1919. London: Putnam.
  • Salt, Major A.E.W. 1930.Imperial Air Routes. London: John Murray.
  • Sanford, Kendall C. 2003. Air Crash Mail of Imperial Airways and Predecessor Airlines. Bristol: Stuart Rossiter Trust Fund. 08033994793.ABAISBN 0-9530004-6-X
  • Stroud, John 1962.Annals of British and Commonwealth Air Transport 1919–1960. London: Putnam.
  • Stroud, John. 2005. The Imperial Airways Fleet. Stroud, England: Tempus Publishing. 08033994793.ABAISBN 0-7524-2997-3
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Hanyoyin haɗin waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Pirie, 2009
  2. Ord-Hume, 2010, pp.7–9
  3. Ord-Hume, 2010, p.10
  4. Terms of Agreement Published Flight, 1924.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Stroud, June 1984, pp. 315–19
  6. 6.0 6.1 Stroud, Nov 1986, pp. 609–14
  7. Stroud, June 1986, pp.321–326
  8. 8.0 8.1 Pirie, 2012
  9. Pirie, G.H. Incidental tourism: British imperial air travel in the 1930s. Journal of Tourism History, 1 (2009) 49–66.
  10. Moss (1962)
  11. 11.0 11.1 Stroud, Nov 1987, pp.609–612
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 12.7 Stroud, Oct 1983, pp.535–539
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 Stroud, Feb 1987, pp.97–103
  14. 14.0 14.1 Stroud, May 1985, pp.265–269
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 Stroud,Feb 1991, pp.115–120 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Avro" defined multiple times with different content
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 Stroud, Aug 1985, pp.433–437
  17. Stroud, June 1988, pp.433–437
  18. Stroud, Aug 1986, pp.433–436
  19. Jackson, 1973, 433–437
  20. Stroud, Oct 1984, pp.549–553
  21. 21.0 21.1 Stroud, Dec 1989, pp.763–769
  22. 22.0 22.1 Stroud, Jan 1990, pp.51–61
  23. Jackson, 1974, p.443
  24. "Commercial Aviation" Flight 13 August 1936 p181
  25. Stroud, Feb 1984, pp.101–105
  26. Stroud, Dec 1985, pp.657–661